This is page 115 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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EDIK -- EFLA. 115

Í. I, 5i Ir- 3' Dímis R. 2. 4, Konraðs R. 7. 5; -- all these in vellum and

the greater part of them belonging to the I5th century. Poets of the

j6th century (before 1612), Rollants R. 9. 6, 12. 1, Pontus R. (by Magnus

Gamli, died 1591), Valdimars R., Ester R. 2. 2, 6. 3, Sy'raks R. i. 2, 6. 2,

Tobias R. I. 2; from the first half of the í yth century, Grett. R., Flores R.

6. 3, 9- 2t Kroka Refs R. I. 7, Lykla Pétrs R. 4. 2, 12. 1, Apollonius R.

1. 5, FloventsR. 6. 3, Sjö MeistaraR. i. 7, 2. 1, 3. 8; -- all in MS. In these

and many other references, the poets speak of the art, skill, rules, or, if

they are in that mood, the obscure puerilities and empty phr a ses of the

Edda, the artificial phraseology as taught and expounded by Snorri; and

wherever the name occurs (previous to the year 1643) it only refers to

Snorri's book, and such is still the use of the word in Icel.; hence compd

words such as Eddu-lauss, adj. void of Eddie art; Eddu-borinn, part.

poetry full of Eddie phrases; Eddu-kenningar, f. pl. Eddie circumlo-

cutions, Kötlu Draumr 85, e. g. when the head is called the ' sword of

Heimdal, ' the sword the 'fire or torch of Odin/ etc.; Eddu-kendr =

Edduborinn; Eddu-bagr, adj. a bungler in the Eddie art, etc. The Icel.

bishop Brynjolf Sveinsson in the year 1643 discovered the old mythological

poems, and, led by a fanciful and erroneous suggestion, he gave to that

book the name of Sæmundar Edda, the Edda ofSœmund; hence originate

the modern terms the Old or Poetical and New or Prose Edda; in foreign

writers Eddie has been ever since used in the sense of plain and artless

poetry, such as is contained in these poems, opposed to the artificial,

which they call Scaldic (Skald being Icel. for a poet); but this has no

foundation in old writers or tradition. Further explanation of this subject

may be seen in Ersch and Grubar's Encyclopedia, s. v. Graagaas.

EDIK, n. [from Lat. acidum or acetum; A. S. eced; Germ, essig;

Dan. í dik] :-- vinegar (qs. acidum vini); the word is modern in Icel.,

being borrowed from Danish, and probably first used in Matth. xxvii.

34, 48; edik galli blandað, Pass. 33. i, 2.

EÐLA (eyola, O. H. L. 27), u, f. [old Swed. ydhl a], a viper, Hkr. i. 103.

eðla-, in compds [from Germ, edel-, Dan. Æ del-], noble, Pass. 48. 6, (rare

and mod)

EÐLI, n., akin to and derived from óðal, q. v.; old MSS. also always

use the form øðli (eyðli, D. I. I. e.), Fms. x. 301, Hom. 47, n8, Greg. 48,

O. H. L. 86, Eluc. 16, Hkr. i. 225, Hbl. 9, Bs. i. 335, 342; eðli is more

modern, but öðli is still preserved: 1. nature; mannligt e., human

nature or character, 623. 19, Eb. no, Fms. x. 301; náttúrligt e., human

condition, Mag. (Fr.); vera í e. sinu, to be in one's own nature or frame

of mind, Fs. 59; eptir e., natural, ordinary, Fms. iii. 118; inoti e., against

nature, extraordinary; með likindum ok e., Edda 69; undruðusk er jörðin

ok dýrin ok fuglarnir höfðu sarnan e. í sumum hlutum, 144. (prefc); eðli

and náttúra (natura) are used synonymously, id.; engla öðli, the nature

of angels, Eluc. 16; arnar öðli, the eagle's nature, Hom. 47; allt mann-

kyns öðli, Greg. 48; öðrlez (= öðlis) skepna, O. H. L. 86. 2. birth,

origin, extraction, in the alliterative phrases, ætt ok öðli, Fms. i. 149;

hann var Valskr (H^ el s h) at ætt ok eðli, vii. 56; Danskr at öðli, Danish

by origin, Hom. 118; nafn ok öðli, n ame and family, Hbl. 9: the phrase,

at alda-öðli, for ever and ever, D. I. i. 266: in mod. usage, frá alda öðli,

from the birth of time, from the beginning, only used of ' past time;'

the Dan. ' fra Arildstid' is probably a corruption of the same phrase. 3.

embryo, Lat. / et ws, Mar. 156. COMPDS: eðlis-fræði, f. physic, (mod.)

eðlÍ8-b. ættir, m. pl. constitution, Bb. 2. 14. eðlis-skapan, n. and

eðlis-skepna, u, f. o ne's nature, Fms. v. 216, Hom. 123.

eðli-borinn, part, noble-born, well-born, Hkr. ii. 135.

eðli-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), natural, proper.

eðlingr, m. = öðlingr, poët. an ' etheling. '

eðl-vina, adj., probably corrupt, a s a viper (?), Hdl. 45.

EÐR or eða, which is the more freq. form in mod. use, conj., [Goth.

auþþa; A. S. o'S'o' e; Engl. o r; Germ. O der] :-- o r; joining two nouns,

verbs, or adjectives, hold eðr blóð, heitr eða kaldr, illr eða góðr, etc., esp.

after the pronouns annaðhvárt, hvárt, either; héraðsektir e. utanferðir,

Nj. 189; slíkr vetr eða verri, tsl. ii. 138; kaupmenn e. formenn, Fms. i.

II; í Blálandi eðr Arabia, Bb. 468; kirkjum eðr klaustrum, H. E. i.

419; í skógum eðr í öðrum fylsnum, Fms. iv. 384; skjóta e. kasta,

e. höggva e. leggja, Sks. 430; fyrr e. síðar, sooner or later, Hkr. ii.

368. P. in comparison of two unlike things, the two things are con-

nected with the disjunctive eða instead of the copulative ok, where the

Engl. may use a n d, e. g. the proverb, sitt er hvað, gæfa eðr gürfuleiki,

there's a difference between luck and wit; er úglíkt at ha fa með sér góða

drengi ok hrausta eðr einhleypinga, Ísl. ii. 325; vilikr er þessi eða hinn

fyrri, he is unlike and the first one, Mar. (Fr.); mun nokkut allikt,

garpskapr Bersa eðr stuldir borarins, i. e. ca none compare the valour

ofB. and the thievishness ofThorarinf Komi. 142. -y- aftcr a com-

parative, or even, sooner; ek em eigi verri riddari en Salomon konungr,

eðr nokkuru betri, 7 a m no worse a knight than king S., nay, rather some-

what better, bíðr. 161; eigi síðr, ... eðr nokkrum mun heldr, not les s,

but rather a little more. Bad. 97: otherwise, el s e, = ella, lykt skal land-

skyld vera fyrir sumarmál, eðr..., N. G. L. ii. 106 (rare): ellipt. = enn,

than, meta hvárt þau sé meiri, eðr hennar föng só, Js. 61. 8. denoting a query, exclamation, abrupt sentence, or the like, as Engl. or, what,

but; ek heiti Auðgisl, eðr ertú Hallfreðr, my n a me i s A.,or art thou

Hallfred? Fms. ii. So; ek heiti onundr, ... eða hvert ætli þit at fara,

but whither do you think of going? 81; nú vil ek gera at skapi þínu, eðr

hvar skulum vit á leita ? Nj. 3; sagði, at þeir mundi vera menn stórlátir,

eðr hvat þeir mundi fyrir ætlask, Eg. 17; eðr með hverjum fórstu norðan ?

Finnb. 256; vituð ér enn, eðr hvat? Vsp. 22, 31, 38, 39.

eðr, adv. still, yet, older form instead of ' enn, ' only in poetry; eðr of

sér, o ne s till ha s to see, i. e. the next thing is ..., Haustl. 14; stóð eðr í

hausi, stood, i. e. remains, still in his head, 19.

EF, A. neut. subst., older form if, Bad. 114, 124, Hkv. e., Vellekla

I. e., Hkv. Hjorv. 33 :-- doubt, used in plur., hver sé if, what doubt can

there bet Vellekla: it still remains in the phrase, mér er til efs, 7 doubt;

en þar sem ef er á, wherever it is doubtful, K. Á. 28; hvervetna þar sem

ef er á nokkuru máli, 204; ekki er til efs, at þeir menn ríða at grindhliði,

it cannot be doubted, that..., Lv. 19; sæmilig til efs, dubiously good,

rather had, Vm. 55; utan ef, -without doubt, Fms. vii. 37, Stj. 421; fyrir

utan allt ef, H. E. i. 519, Bad. I. e.

B. conj. [Goth, ibai; A. S. and Scot, gif; Engl. if; O. H. G. ipu;

Germ. o&; lost in Swed. and Dan.] :-- if, in case; en ef þit eigit erfingja,

Nj. 3; ef eigi (unless) væri jafnhugaðr sem ek em, 264; ef þií átt þrjár

orrostur við Magnus konung, Fms. vi. 178; ef hann er varmr, if he is

warm, 655 xxx. I: very freq. as a law term -- in c a s e that, Grág., N. G. L.;

en ef þeir gjalda eigi, þá, i. 127; en 'ef (MS. en) þeir vilja eigi festa,

id. P. in poetry often with subj. (as in Engl.); inn þú bjóð, cf Eirikr sc,

if it be Eric, bid him come in, Em. I: nálgastu mik, ef þú megir, if thou

may'st, Gm. 53; vega þií gakk, ef þú rtiðr sér, if thou be wroth, Ls. 15;

ef Gunnars missi, Akv. ii; ef hann at yðr lygi, Am. 31; ef sér geta

maetti, Hm. 4; heilindi sitt ef maðr hafa nái (better than nair), 67: ellipt.

passages where 'if is omitted, but the subj. retained, v. Lex. Poët.; skór

er skapaðr ilia eðr skapt sé rangt ( -- ef skapt sé rangt), Hm. 127; but

indie, sometimes occurs, ef hann freginn erat, 30; ef þitt æði dugir (indie.)

ok þú Vafþrúðnir vitir (subj.), Vþm. 20: in prose the subj. is rare, and

only in peculiar cases, e. g. nú munu vér á þá hættu leggja, ef (if, i. e.

granted, supposed that) ek ráða ok binda ek við hann vináttu, Fms. iv.

82; ok b~ta um þat, ef konunginum hafi yfirgefizt, xi. 283; þat var háttr

Erlings, ef úvinir hans kæmi fyrir hann, vii. 319; en skotið á þá, ef þeir faeri

nær meginlandi, viii. 419; ef ek lifi ok mega'k ráða, Edda 34. II.

if, whether, Germ, o b, with indie, or subj.; sjá nú, ef Jakob leysir hann

af þessum böndum, 655 xxx. 3; þá spyrr Frigg, ef sú kona vissi, then

Frigg asks, if the woman knew, Edda 37; hann kom opt á mál við

konung, ef hann mundi vilja bæta bórólf, Eg. 106; Egill spurði, ef hann

vildi upp or gröfinni, 234; at Bölverki þeir spurðu, ef hann væri með

böndum kominn, Hm. 109; hitt vil ek fyrst vita, ef þú fróðr sér, Vþm.

6; vittu ef þú hjálpir, see if tboit canst help, Og. 5 :-- this sense is now

obsolete, and 'hvárt' (hvort) is used

efa, að, in old writers usually spelt with i, ifa; efa occurs in Nj. 207,

Hkr. ii. 326, Sks. 153, Stj. 256, Fms. ii. 42, iii. 115, vi. 184, Al. 43,

Grett. no A, Bs. ii. 169, etc.; in mod. usage always with e :-- to doubt,

with acc.; engi ifar þat, Fms. x. 319: the phrase, efa sik, to hesitate,

Grett. 1. c.; skulu þér eigi e. yðr (doubt), at ..., Nj. 307: used as neut.

to feel a doubt, ifi þér nokkut, at, Fms. v. 38, Hkr. I. e., 623. 33; ifa

(efa) um e-t, to doubt about a thing, Hkr. i. 223, Grág. ii. 47, Fms. ii.

283, v. 37, vi. 184. 2. reflex., efask (ifask) í e-u, to doubt or he s i-

tate in a thing; í því má engi maðr ifask, at ..., Sks. 272 B; ekki

efumk ek í því, 153, Stj. 1. c.; Freysteinn efaðisk í, hvárt ..., F. was in

doubt, whether..., Fms. iii. 115; þér efisk í um þeirra almátt, ü. 42: efask

um e-t, to doubt about a thing, x. 392; hvárt ifisk er um ok hræðisk,

Niðrst. 2. p. absol. to doubt, hesitate, Sir. 22; statt upp ok ifask alls

ekki, Hom. 119. y. with gen., efask e-s, to change one's mind in a

matter, Grág. i. 312, 313.

efan, ifan, f. (almost always with i; efan, H. E. 1. c.), doubt, hesitation,

Barl. 149, H. E. i. 396, Bær. 14, Hom. 23. COMPD: efanar-lauss,

adj. undoubted, Stj., 655 xxvii. 2: neut. as adv. undoubtedly, Fms. ix. 347,

El. 2, Str. 35, K. Á. 202.

efan-laust, n. adj. undoubtedly, Hom. 15 (spelt ifan-).

efan-leikr, m. doubtfulness, Skálda 188.

efan-ligr (ifan-ligr), adj. doubtful, Skálda 188, Ld. 58, Fms. x. 317,

369 (in the last two passages spelt with i).

efi, a, m., in old writers almost always ifi :-- doubt, Greg. 37i Fms. iii.

8, x. 392, Hkr. i. 223; vera ifa, to be in doubt, Mar. 17; enn er eptir

ifi í hug minum, 623. 26; an ifa (efa), without doubt, Fms. x. 336,

Skálda 210: suspicion, Fms. x. 260. COMPDS: efa-lauss (ifa-

lauss), adj. undoubted, clear, Nj. 87: neut. as adv. undoubtedly, Grág.

ii. 189. efa-lausligr, adj. id., Bs. i. 263. efa-samr, ifað-samr,

efað-samligr, adj. doubtful, Al. 5, Stj. 172. efa-samliga, adv.

doubtfully, Bs. ii. 153. efa-semð and efa-semi, f. doubt, Bs. i. 272.

efa-sök, f. a doubtful case, Grág. i. 73.

EFJA, u, f. [Swed. äfja] , mud, ooze, Fms. vi. 164, Hrafn. 26.

EFLA, d, [afl and afli], to strengthen: I. act., a. to make

strong, build; efla veggi, to build walls. 655 xxv. i; létu þeir efla at