This is page 139 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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FALDA -- FALLA. 139

iv. 20. to fold or close the book; A. S. fealdan; Engl. to fold; Germ. falten; Dan. folde; Swed. fålla; Fr. fauder; cp. Lat. plicare] :-- to fold, with acc.: I. gener. to fold; ek skal f. hana saman, I shall fold her up, Str. 9; tók hón þá skyrtuna ok faldaði saman, id.; sem hón hafði saman faldat, id.; f. fald eptir, to unfold a fold, id.; at engi mundi þann fald aptr f., id.; ef hón gæti aptr faldat skyrtu þína, 13. β. to hem; falda dúk, klút, etc., to hem a towel, kerchief, or the like; cp. faldaðr, ófaldaðr. II. esp. to hood or cover the head, chiefly used of ladies wearing the fald, q.v.: α. with acc. of the person, dat. of the dress; ek mun falda þik með höfuðdúki, Nj. 201; at hón hefði nú faldit sik við motrinum, Ld. 210; Brandr var faldinn, B. was hooded as a lady, Fs. 109; Hildr Eyvindar-dóttir félt honum, H. hooded him, 194 (Ed. fylgði wrongly); at hón hefði nú faldit (Ed. wrongly faldat) sik við motrinum, that she had hooded herself with the motr, Ld. 210; mundi Guðrún ekki þurfa at falda sik motri til þess, at sama betr en allar konur aðrar, id.; hennar höfut er faldit þremr skautum, her head is hooded in three sheets (hence skauta-faldr), Mar. 48 (Fr.) β. with dat. of the person; þá segir Hrefna, at hón vill falda sér við motrinn (better motrinum), Ld. 192; ef maðr feldr sér til vélar við konu, eðr ferr hann í kvennklæði, if a man hoods his head wilily mocking a woman, Grág. i. 338 (liable to the lesser outlawry); f. þér við höfuðdúki, Nj. l.c., v.l.; aldri hefi ek frétt at konur féldi höfuðdúkum, Orkn. (in a verse); ek félt hjálmi, I covered my head in a helmet, Sighvat. γ. the phrases, falda sítt, to hood the head so that the eyes and face cannot be seen; far á meðal kvenna, ok falt þér sítt, at ekki verðir þú kend, Post. 656 B. 11; brúðirnar falda sítt, svá at úgerla má sjá þeirra yfirlit, Fms. xi. 106; enn fyrsta aptan hafa brúðirnar síð-faldit, Jv. 29 (Ed. 1824); sú (kona) hafði sítt faldit, Fms. vii. 161, cp. Gen. xxxviii. 14; falda hátt, to wear a tall fald, cp. Eb. 136 (in a verse); falda blá, or svörtu, to hood the head in black, to mourn, Ísl. ii. 351 (in a verse): the metaph. phrase, f. rauðu, to hood the head in red, to die a bloody death, Landn. l.c. 2. part. faldinn, used as adj. hooded, mod. faldaðr, hooded, bordered, hemmed, etc., in compds, eld-faldinn, hooded with flames, poët. epithet of the foaming waves, Lex. Poët.; hjálmi faldinn, hooded with a helmet (poët.), Hkv. 1. 47; járn-faldinn, iron-hooded, helmed, Eb. 208 (in a verse): hag-faldin, hooded with hedges, poët. epithet of the goddess Earth, Fms. vi. 140 (in a verse); hvít-faldin, white-hooded, of glaciers or foaming waves, Snót 12, 16.

falda, u, f. = faldr, Korm. 240 (in a verse).

fald-laus, f. adj. hoodless, having her fald pulled off, Sd. 181.

FALDR, m. [A. S. feald; Engl. fold; Germ. falte; O. H. G. fald; Dan. fold; Ital. falda, and faldetta (in Malta); Fr. fauvetta and faudage] :-- a fold, of a garment, Str. 9, 13, l. 19, 21, where it is even spelt foldr; in Icel. hardly ever used in this sense. β. the hem of a garment; hún gékk á bak til ok snart fald hans klæða, Luke viii. 44; og fald sinna klæða stækka þeir, Matth. xxiii. 5; og báðu hann, að þeir mætti snerta að eins fald hans fata, Mark vi. 56; kyrtill hlaðbúinn í fald niðr, a kirtle laced down to the hems, Fms. iv. 337; allt í fald niðr, Mag. (Fr.) 63; klæða-faldr, Pass. 36. 9. II. a white linen hood, the stately national head-gear worn by ladies in Icel., of which drawings are given by Eggert Itin. pp. 24, 27, Sir Joseph Banks in Hooker's Travels, the account of the French expedition of the year 1836 sq., and in almost all books of travels in Iceland. In old Sagas or poems the fald is chiefly recorded in Ld. ch. 33 (the dreams of Guðrún Osvifs datter), cp. Sd. ch. 25; in the Orkn. S. ch. 58 the two sisters Frakök and Helga, daughters of the Gaelic Moddan, wore a fald (þá hnyktu þar af sér faldinum, ok reyttu sik), 182. In the Rm. (a poem probably composed in the Western Isles. Orkneys) all the three women, Edda, Amma, and Móðir, wore the fald; the words in Þkv. 16, 19 -- ok haglega um höfuð typpum, and let us cleverly put a topping on his head, of Thor in bridal disguise -- seem to refer to the fald. Bishop Bjarni, a native of the Orkneys (died A.D. 1222), gives the name of 'fald' to the helmet; Kormak, in the 10th century, speaks of the 'old falda.' In Normandy and Brittany a kind of 'fald' is still in use; it may be that it came to Icel. through Great Britain, and is of Breton origin; a French fald (Franseiskr, i.e. Britain?) is mentioned, D. N. iv. 359. In Icel. the fald was, up to the end of the last century, worn by every lady, -- áðr sérhver fald bar frú | falleg þótti venja sú, a ditty. The ladies tried to outdo each other in wearing a tall fald; keisti faldr, the fald rose high, Rm. 26; falda hátt, Eb. (the verse); hence the sarcastic name stiku-faldr, a 'yard-long fald;' stífan teygja stiku-fald, Þagnarmál 53, a poem of 1728; 1 Tim. ii. 9 is in the Icel. version rendered, eigi með földum (GREEK) eðr gulli eðr perlum, -- since with ancient women, and in Icel. up to a late time, braiding of the hair was almost unknown. In mod. poetry, Iceland with her glaciers is represented as a woman with her fald on; minn hefir faldr fengið fjúka-ryk og kám, Eggert: the sails are called faldar mastra, hoods of the masts, faldar mastra blöktu stilt, Úlf. 3. 14; hestar hlés hvíta skóku falda trés, id., 10; faldr skýja, the folds of the clouds, poët., Núm. 1. 11; faldr af degi, of the daybreak, 4. 86; vide krók-faldr, sveigr, a crooked fald. falda-feykir, m. a magical dance in which the falds flew off the ladies' heads, Fas. iii; cp. Percy's Fryar and Boy, also the Wonderful Flute in Popular Tales.

Fal-hófnir, m. barrel-hoof, hollow-hoof, a mythol. horse, Edda.

FALL, n., pl. föll, [common to all Teut. idioms except Goth.], a fall: -- defined in law, þat er fall ef maðr styðr niðr kné eðr hendi, Grág. ii. 8, Ísl. ii. 246, Al. 76, Sd. 143: the proverb, fall er farar heill, a fall bodes a lucky journey, Fms. vi. 414 (of king Harold at Stamford-bridge), viii. 85, 403, Sverr. S.; sá er annarr orðs-kviðr at fall er farar heill, ok festir þú nú fætr í landi, Fb. i. 231, cp. Caesar's 'teneo te, Africa;' falls er ván að fornu tré, Stj. 539; stirð eru gamalla manna föll; flas er falli næst, flurry is nigh falling: föll berask á e-n, one begins to reel, stagger. Fas. iii. 429; koma e-m til falls, to cause one to fall, Edda 34; reiddi hann til falls, he reeled, Eb. 220. 2. a fall, death in battle, Lat. caedes, Fms. i. 11, 43, 89, Nj. 280, Eg. 37, 106, Ó. H. 219, passim; the proverb, í flótta er fall vest, Fms. viii. 117; val-fall, Lat. strages; mann-fall, loss of men in battle. β. the 'fall,' a plague in cattle or beasts, murrain, 655. 2, Bs. i. 97, 245, 456. γ. the carcase of a slaughtered animal; baulu-fall, sauðar-fall, nauts-fall, hrúts-fall, Stj. 483. 3. medic. in compds, brot-fall, the falling sickness, epilepsy; blóð-fall, klæða-föll, bloody flux; lima-fall, paresis. β. childbirth, in the phrase, vera komin að falli, to be in an advanced state, (komin að burði is used of sheep, cows.) 4. the fall or rush of water; vatns-fall, a waterfall, large river; sjávar-föll, tides; að-fall, flood-tide; út-fall, ebb-tide; boða-fall, a breaker, cp. Bs. ii. 51. 5. in gramm. a case, Lat. casus, Skálda 180, 206: quantity, 159, 160, Edda 126: a metric. fault, a defective verse, dropping of syllables, Fb. iii. 426. II. metaph. downfall, ruin, decay; fall engla, the fall of the angels, Rb. 80; til falls ok upprisu margra í Ísrael, Luke ii. 34; hafa sér e-t til falls, to run risk of ruin, Hrafn. 30; gózin eru at falli komin, the estates are dilapidated, Mar.; á-fall, a shock; frá-fall, death; ó-fall, mishap; jarð-fall, an earth-slip. 2. eccl. a sin, transgression, Bs. i. 686, Mar. 77 (Fr.) 3. a law term, breach, failure, non-fulfilment, in eið-fall, vegar-fall, Gþl. 416; messu-fall, orð-fall, veizlu-fall. 4. mod. a case, occasion.

FALLA, pret. féll, 2nd pers. féllt, mod. féllst, pl. féllu; pres. fell, pl. föllum; part. fallinn; reflex. féllsk, fallisk, etc., with the neg. suffix fellr-at, féll-at, féllsk-at, Am. 6, vide Lex. Poët. [Common to all Teut. languages except Goth. (Ulf. renders GREEK by drjûsan); A. S. feallan; Engl. fall; Germ. fallen; Dan. falde; Swed. falla.]

A. to fall; as in Engl. so in Icel. falla is the general word, used in the broadest sense; in the N. T. it is therefore used much in the same passages as in the Engl. V., e.g. Matth. v. 14, vii. 25, 27, x. 29, xii. 11, xiii. 4, xxi. 44, Luke xiv. 5, John xii. 24, Rom. xi. 11, xiv. 4, 1 Cor. x. 12, 1 Tim. vi. 9, Rev. viii. 10: blómstrið fellr, James i. 11: again, the verbs hrynja and hrapa denote ruin or sudden fall, detta a light fall, hrasa stumbling; thus in the N. T. hrynja is used, Luke xxiii. 30, Rev. vi. 16; hrapa, Luke x. 18, xi. 17, xiii. 4, Matth. xxiv. 29; hrasa, Luke x. 30; detta, xvi. 21: the proverb, eigi fellr tré við hit fyrsta högg, a tree falls not by the first stroke, Nj. 163, 224; hann féll fall mikit, Bs. i. 343; hón féll geigvænliga, id.; falla af baki, to fall from horseback, 344; f. áfram, to fall forwards, Nj. 165; f. á bak aptr, to fall on the back, 9; f. um háls e-m, to fall on one's neck, Luke xv. 20; f. til jarðar, to fall to the ground, fall prostrate, Fms. vii. 13, Pass. 5. 4: to fall on one's face, Stj. 422. Ruth ii. 10; f. fram, to fall down, Matth. iv. 9; f. dauðr ofan, to fall down dead, Fær. 31; ok jafnsnart féll á hann dimma og myrkr, Acts xiii. 11; hlutr fellr, the lot fell (vide hlut-fall), i. 26. 2. to fall dead, fall in battle, Lat. cadere, Nj. 31, Eg. 7, 495, Dropl. 25, 36, Hm. 159, Fms. i. 8, 11, 24, 38, 95, 173, 177, 178, ii. 318, 324, 329, iii. 5, iv. 14, v. 55, 59, 78, 85, vi. 406-421, vii-xi, passim. 3. of cattle, to die of plague or famine, Ann. 1341. 4. medic., falla í brot, to fall in a fit, Bs. i. 335; f. í óvit, to swoon, Nj. 210: the phrase, f. frá, to fall, die (frá-fall, death), Grág. i. 139, 401, Fms. iv. 230, vii. 275; f. í svefn, to fall asleep, Acts xx. 9. II. to flow, run, of water, stream, tide, etc.: of the tide, særinn féll út frá landi, ebbed, Clem. 47; féll þar sær fyrir hellismunnann, the sea rose higher than the cave's mouth, Orkn. 428; síðan féll sjór at, the tide rose, Ld. 58; ok þá er út féll sjórinn, Þorf. Karl. 420; sjórinn féll svá skjótt á land, at skipin vóru öll á floti, Fms. iv. 65: also used of snow, rain, dew, Vsp. 19; snjó-fall, a fall of snow: of the ashes of a volcano, cp. ösku-fall, s.v. aska: of a breaker, to dash, menn undruðusk er boði féll í logni, þar sem engi maðr vissi ván til at fyrri hefði fallit, Orkn. 164: of a river, nema þar falli á sú er eigi gengr fé yfir, Grág. ii. 256; vötn þau er ór jöklum höfðu fallit, Eg. 133; á féll (flowed) við skála Ásólfs, Landn. 50, A. A. 285; þeir sá þá ós (fors, Hb.) mikinn falla í sjóinn, Landn. 29, v.l., cp. Fms. i. 236; Markar-fljót féll í millum höfuð-ísa, Nj. 142; á fellr austan, Vsp. 42; falla forsar, 58; læk er féll meðal landa þeirra, Landn. 145: of sea water, sjár kolblár fellr at þeim, the ship took in water, Ld. 118, Mar. 98; svá at inn féll um söxin, that the tea rushed in at the stern, Sturl. iii. 66. 2. to stream, of hair; hárit silki-bleikt er féll (streamed) á herðar honum aptr, Fms. vii. 155. β. of clothes, drapery, Edda (Ht. 2) 121. III. to fall, of the wind; féll veðrit ok görði logn, the wind fell, Eg. 372; þá féll byrrinn, Eb. 8; ok fellr veðrit er þeir koma út at eyjum, Ld. 116; hón kvaðsk mundu ráða at veðrit félli eigi,