This is page 175 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)
This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.
Click here to go to the main page about Cleasby/Vigfusson. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.
This page was generated on 25 Jan 2020. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.
The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.
winter, Ann. 1348; frost ok snjóar, frost and snow; hörku-f., a sharp frost. frosta-tól, n. 'frosty tools' i.e. frail tools or implements that crack as if frost-bitten.
frosta = frysta, to freeze, Fær. 56.
FROSTA, n. the name of a county in Norway where a parliament, Frosta-þing, was held; hence Frostaþings-lög, n. pl. the laws of the county Frosta, N. G. L. Frostaþings-bók, f. the code of this law, N. G. L. i. 126, Fms. passim.
frost-bólga, u, f. 'frost-swelling,' of hands swoln by frost.
frost-brestir, m. pl. 'frost-cracks' in ice, such as are heard during a strong frost.
frosti, a, m. the name of a horse, freq. in Icel.
frost-mikill, adj. very frosty, Sks. 227 B.
frost-rósir, f. pl. 'frost-roses,' frost work.
frost-vetr, m. a frosty winter, Ann. 1047.
frost-viðri, n. frosty weather, Fms. ii. 195, Sturl. iii. 198 C.
FROTTA, tt, [akin to frata], to sputter; með frottandi vörum, with sputtering lips, Sks. 228 B.
FRÓ, f. relief, esp. from pain, Hkr. i. 6, Mar., 656 A. 25, Sks. 107 B, Bs. i. 181. 299; hug-fró, geð-fró, mind's comfort: allit. phrase, friðr og fró, peace and relief, Bb. 3. 3.
fróa, að, to relieve, with acc., þá er þér vilit fróa manninn, Þorst. St. 55: mod. with dat., chiefly used impers., e-m fróar, one feels relief.
fróan, f., and frói, a, m. relief, = fró, Bs. i. 312, Fas. iii. 388.
fróð-leikr, m. knowledge, 625. 50, Landn. 89, Grág. i. 3, Skálda 160, Sks. 626; til fróðleiks ok skemtunar, for information and pleasure, Edda (pref.): with a notion of sorcery, Þorf. Karl. 374, Fs. 131. COMPDS: fróðleiks-ást, f. love of knowledge, Skálda. fróðleiks-bækr, f. pl. books of information, Rb. 342. fróðleiks-epli, f. the apple of knowledge, Sks. 503. fróðleiks-tré, n. the tree of knowledge, 625. 3.
fróð-liga, adv. cleverly, Fms. iii. 163; eigi er nú f. spurt, Edda 8.
fróð-ligr, adj. clever, Sks. 553: mod. curious.
FRÓÐR, adj. [Ulf. frôþs = GREEK, GREEK, GREEK, GREEK; Hel. frôd; A. S. frôd] :-- knowing, learned, well-instructed; fróðr, er margkunnigr er, Fms. xi. 413; hón var fróð at mörgu, Nj. 194; þat er sögn fróðra manna, Ísl. ii. 206; verða fróðari um e-t, Sks. 37; at Finnum tveim er hér eru fróðastir (greatest wizards), Fms. i. 8; fás er fróðum vant, little is lacking to the knowing, cp. the Engl. 'knowledge is power,' Hm. 107: of books, containing much information, instructive, bækr beztar ok fróðastar, Bs. i. 429. β. in some passages in Hm. fróðr seems to mean clever, Hm. 7, 27, 30, 6l, 107; þá nam ek at frævask ok fróðr vera, 142; fróðir menn, knowing men, Ýt. 6; fróð regin, the wise powers, Vþm. 26; enn fróði jötunn, 30, 33, 35 :-- in some few poët. compds (in which it seems to be used almost = prúðr, brave, valiant, as böð-f., eljun-f.) the true meaning is skilled in war (cp. the Gr. GREEK); sann-f., truly informed; óljúgfróð, Íb. 4; ú-fróðr, ignorant, = Goth. unfróþs, which Ulf. uses to translate GREEK, GREEK; sögu-fróðr, skilled in old lore. As fróðr chiefly refers to historical knowledge, 'hinn Fróði' was an appellation given to the old Icel. chroniclers -- Ari Fróði, Brandr Fróði, Sæmundr Fróði, Kolskeggr Fróði, who lived between 1050 and 1150 A.D. But the historians of the next age were seldom called by this name: Odd Munk (of the end of the 12th century) is only once called so, (Ing. S. fine); Snorri (of the 13th) twice, viz. Ann. 1241 in a single MS., and Sturl. iii. 98, but in a part of the Saga probably not written by Sturla himself; Sturla (who died in 1284) is never called by that name; and the only real exception is Styrmir 'Fróði' (who died in 1245), though he least deserved the name. Of foreign writers the Icel. gave the name Fróði to Bede (Landn. pref.), whom they held in great honour.
FRÓMR, adj., akin to framr, prob. borrowed from Germ. fromm, Low Germ. from; it seems to have come to Icel. with the Hanseatic trade at the end of the 15th century, and is found in the Rímur of that time, e.g. Skáld-Helga R. 3. 22; from Luther's Bible and the Reformation it became more freq. in the sense of righteous, pious, with the notion of guileless, frómr og meinlaus, and often occurs in the N. T. and hymns, e.g. Pass. 22. 2, 24. 9: it has however not been truly naturalized, except in the sense of honest, i.e. not thievish, and ófrómr, dishonest, thievish, (a euphemism); umtals-f., not slandering, speaking fair of other people. COMPDS: fróm-leiki, a, m. guilelessness, Pass. 16. 8. fróm-lyndi, f. id.
FRÓN, n. a poët. word = land, country, Lex. Poët, passim; scarcely akin to the Germ. frohn = demesne; in mod. poets and in patriotic songs frón is the pet name for Icel. itself, Núm. 1. 10, 8. 9, 12. 4. Snót 16; Icel. students in Copenhagen about 1763 were the first who used the word in this sense.
FRUM- [cp. Lat. primus; Goth. frums = GREEK, fruma = GREEK; A. S. frum-] :-- the first, but only in COMPDS: frum-bréf, n. an original deed. frum-burðr, m. the first-born, Ver. 5, Stj. 42, 161, 304, 306, Exod. passim. frum-býlingr, m. one who has newly set up in life. frum-ferill, m. the first traveller (visitor) to a place, Nj. 89. frum-fórn, f. first-fruit, Stj. passim, H. E. i. 468. frum-getinn, part. first-begotten, Stj. 65, 160, passim. frum-getnaðr, m. = frumburðr, 656 A. i. 24, Stj. 161. frum-getningr, m. id., Stj. 304. frum-gjöf, f. the first gift, 677. 4. frum-gögn, n. pl. the primal, principal proofs, a law term, Nj. 234, Grág. i. 56. frum-hending, f. the foremost rhyming syllable in a verse, a metrical term, Edda (Ht.) 121. frum-hlaup, n. a personal assault, a law term, Grág., Nj. passim. frumhlaups-maðr, m. an assailant, Grág. ii. 13. frum-höfundr, m. the original author or writer. frum-kveði, a, m., frum-kveðill, mod. frum-kvöðull, m. an originator, Edda 18, Ed. Arna-Magn. i. 104. frum-kviðr, m. the first verdict, Grág. i. 34. frum-kvæði, n. the original poem. frum-lína, u, f., mathem. a base-line, Björn Gunnl. frum-mál, n. in the original tongue, opp. to translation, bók rituð á frummáli. frum-rit, n. the original writing, of MSS., (mod.) frum-ritaðr (and of poems frum-kveðinn, frum-ortr), part. originally written (composed) in this or that language. frum-smiðr, m. the first workman, Edda (in a verse). frum-smíð, f. the first attempt of a beginner in any art, in the saying, flest frumsmíð stendr til bóta, Edda 126. frum-sök, f. the original cause, a law term, Nj. 235, Grág. i. 48 passim. frum-tign, f. the first, highest dignity, Bs. i. 37, Magn. 512. frum-tón, m. a musical term, the tonic, Icel. Choral-book (pref.) frum-tunga, u, f. original tongue. frum-varp, n. a parliamentary term, a bill under debate, (mod.) frum-vaxti and frum-vaxta (frum-vaxinn, Nj. 147, v.l.), adj. 'first-grown,' in one's prime, Nj. 112, Fs. 31, Fms. i. 157, xi. 3, Ísl. ii. 203; dóttir f., Eg. 247, Grett. 97. frum-váttr, m. the first, original witness, Grág. i. 46, Gþl. 477: eccl. the proto-martyr, Hom. 42, 109, Stj. 51. frum-verr, m. the first husband, Hallfred, who calls Odin the fr. of Frigg, Fs. 94, Skv. 3. 59. frum-vöxtr, m. the first growth, first-fruits, Stj. 305: cp. brum.
frums- (= frum-) exists in a few COMPDS: frumsar-brauð, n. bread of the first-fruits, Stj. 615. 2 Kings iv. 42: frums- or frumsa- is in Icel. and in Norse popular tales esp. used of animals that are first-born through two or more generations; such animals are thought to have a wonder-power, cp. Ivar Aasen; hence frumsa-kálfr, m. a 'frumsa' calf; the word still represents the Gothic form frums, vide above. frumsa-frum (or frumsa-brum), n., botan. pollen, Björn. In Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 530. v.l., frumsa, n., is said to mean a lump on the forehead of new-born foals, Gr. GREEK, which was used as a love-spell, cp. Virg. Aeneid. iv. 515, 516.
frunti, a, m. [prob. from the Fr. effronté, cp. Scot. frunty], a rude, obtrusive boor; frunta-ligr, adj.; frunta-skapr, m.
FRÚ, f., an older nom. sing. frauva, u, f., occurs Fms. x. 421, (Ágrip); frouva, Stj. 47; frou, id.; frú is prop. a later contracted form from freyja; therefore the gen. in old writers is always frú (qs. frúvu); and the word is in the sing. indecl., thus, frú-innar, Fms. ix. 292; hann fékk frú Ceciliu, x. 3; móðir frú Ingigerðar, Landn. 240; frú Kristínar, Fms. ix. 8; slíkrar frou (sic) sem ek em, Str. 40, 47: in mod. usage gen. frúar, if used by itself or put after one's name, but indecl. if put before it in addressing any one, thus, Frú Kristínar, but Kristínar frúar; the gen. frúar occurs Fas. iii. 586, in a MS. of the 15th century; pl. frúr, but older form fruvur or frovur, e.g. frovor, Edda (Arna-Magn.) i. 96 (Kb.); but Ob. frúr, Hkr. i. 16: [freyja was origin. fem. of freyr, and prop. meant Lat. domina; Germ. frau; Dan. frue; no Goth. fraujô is found] :-- a lady; in Icel. at present only used of the wives of men of rank or title, e.g. biskups-frú, amtmanns-frú; wives of priests are not called so: again, húsfreyja is more homely, Germ. hausfrau, Engl. housewife, always of a married woman, vide e.g. the Þjóðólfr (Icel. newspaper): in the 14th century in Icel. frú was used of abbesses and wives of knights, but was little used before the 13th century: af hennar (the goddess Freyja) nafni skyldi kalla allar konur tignar (noble woman), svá sem nú heita fruvor, Hkr. l.c.; af hennar nafni er þat tignar-nafn er ríkis-konur (women of rank) eru kallaðar fruvor, Edda l.c.; Kolr hafði talat margt við frú eina ríka (of a foreign lady in Wales), Nj. 280: again, good housewives, such as Bergthora in Njála, are called hús-freyjur, but never frúr; thus, kemsk þó at seinna fari, húsfreyja, Nj. 69; gakk þú út, húsfreyja, þvíat ek vil þik fyrir öngan mun inni brenna, 200; búandi ok húsfreyja, Grág. i. 157; góð húsfreyja, Nj. 51; gild húsfreyja, Glúm. 349, Bs. i. 535 :-- the Virgin Mary is in legends called vár frú, our Lady; cp. jungfrú (pronounced jómfrú).
FRYGÐ, f., and fryktr, m., Stj. 26, 56, 77, [an unclass. word formed from Lat. fructus], blossoming; fegrð ok f., Stj. 14, 142; frygð ok feiti, 154; frygð ok ávöxtr, 15. frygðar-fullr and -samligr, adj. fruitful, Stj. 27. II. in the Rímur of the 15th century frygð is used of love, Lat. amores, Skáld-H. 5. 38, passim; and frygðugr, adj. amorous, Skáld-H. It is a bad word and quite out of use, and seems to have no connection with Germ. freude, which is a good Teut. word; the mod. frukt, n. humble compliments, and frukta, að, to make such compliments, in a bad sense, are perhaps akin, but they are slang words.
frysta, t, [frost], to freeze, Sturl. iii. 20, Fms. viii. 431, v.l.
frý-girni, f. [frýja], a provoking, taunting temper, Hom. 86.
frý-gjarn, adj. provoking, censorious, Ísl. Heiðarv. S. in the extracts of Jon Olafsson, (not frígjarn.)
FRÝJA, pres. frýr, pret. frýði, pres. with the neg. suf. frýr-at, Lex. Poët., to defy, challenge, question, taunt, with dat. of the person; hón fryði honum með mörgum orðum, Fas. i. 142: with gen. of the thing, to