This is page 176 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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176 FKýJA -- FRÆNDATJÓN.

challenge, question; frýja e-m hugar, to question one's courage, Nj. 60, Ísl. ii. 102; meir frýr þú mér grimmleiks en aðrir menn, Eg. 255; þessi klæði frýja ykkr föður-hefnda, those clothes challenge you to revenge your father, Ld. 260; er hvárigum sóknar at f., neither needed to be spurred on, Fms. xi. 131; konungr kvað öngan þess mundu f. honum, the king said that no one would challenge, question him as to that, v. 337; hvárki frý ek mér skygnleiks eðr áræðis (the words of a bravo), Nj. 258; engan heyri ek efndanna f., Fms. vii. 121; enginn frýr þér vits, en meir ertu grunaðr um gæzku, no one questions thy wit (head), but thy godliness (heart) is more questioned, Sturl. i. 135; frýr nú skutrinn (better skutnum) skriðar, a pun, now the stern hangs, the stern-rowers pull feebly, Grett. 113 new Ed. II. frýja á e-t, a law phrase, to complain of, protest; cp. áfrýja, ef annarr hvárr frýr á hlut sinn, Gþl. 23; frýja á mál, N. G. L. i. 26; buðu þeir biskupi þann kost fyrir þat sem á var frýð, Bs. i. 754: to egg on, ekki skaltú hér enn þurfa mjök á at f., Nj. 58; þyrfti þat þeim at bæta sem brotið var á, en eigi hinum, er á frýðu (who provoked), Sturl. iii. 162.

frýja, u, f. a defiance, challenge, question, taunt, Fs. 8, Bs. i. 734, Ld. 236; verja sik frýju, to clear oneself of all question, i.e. do a thing blamelessly, Sturl. iii. 68; ek varða mik kvenna frýju, I cleared myself from the taunts of woman, Eb. (in a verse): frýju-laust, n. adj. blamelessly; berjask f., to fight hard, Glúm. 381; þeir sækja bardagann f., Fms. xi. 136; hann kvað Einar mundu elt hafa f., Sturl. i. 68: frýju-orð, n. taunting words, Fms. vii. 272, xi. 374, Nj. 108.

frýjan, f. = frýja, Fms. v. 55.

FRÝNN or frýniligr, adj.; this word is never used but as compounded with the prefix ú- (except Fas. ii. 351 in a bad and late Saga), viz. ú-frýnn or ú-frýniligr = frowning. The sense as well as the etymology of frýnn is somewhat dubious; there is the Germ. fron or frohn or fran; but that word seems purely German and is by Grimm supposed to be qs. fro min = my lord (vide Hel.); neither does Icel. frýnn or Germ. frohn correspond properly as to the root vowel (cp. e.g. Germ. lohn = Icel. laun): on the other hand there is the Engl. frown, which in form answers to the simple frýnn, but in sense to the compd ú-frýnn; as no similar word is found in A. S. (nor in Germ. nor in Hel.), frown is most likely a Scandin. word; and we suppose that the Icel. prefix syllable ú- is not in this instance = un-, that is to say, negative, but = of-, that is to say, intensive ( = too, very, greatly); the original forms of-frýnn, of-frýniligr were contr. and assimilated into ófrýnn, ófrýniligr, meaning very frowning, and these compds then superseded the primitive simple word: this is confirmed by the freq. spelling in MSS. with 'of-' e.g. ofrynn, Ó. H. 144; all-ofrynn, Eg. Cod. Wolph.; heldr ofrynn, Ó. H. 167; but yet more freq. with 'ú-' e.g. Orkn. 440, Boll. 358, Fær. 50, Fms. i. 40, Fb. i. 73; the ekki frýnn, Fas. l.c., is again a variation of úfrýnn: the statement by Björn that frýnn is = bland, affable, is a mere guess by inference from the compd.

frýs, n. the snorting of a horse.

FRÝSA, t, (hon frýsti ferliga, Sams. 9), mod. að, to snort, whinny, of a horse, Greg. 49, Karl. 3, 4, Fas. i. 60 (where better fnýsa, q.v.); akin are fryssa, að, and frussa, to sport.

frýsing, f. = frýs, Fas. iii. 441.

FRÆ, n. (not frœ, as even Eyvind Skaldaspillir rhymes frævi and ævi), sometimes in old MSS. spelt freo or frjó (q.v.), but less rightly; old dat. frævi, mod. fræi; [Ulf. fraiv = GREEK; Swed. and Dan. frö; not found in Germ., Saxon, or Engl.; it is therefore a Gothic-Scandinavian word] :-- seed, 677. 11, Rb. 78, 655 xxx. 2; chiefly used of vegetables, sæði of animal seed; varpa síðan fræi í fold fyrirmyndan um sjálfs míns hold, Bb. 3. 54; very freq. in mod. usage. COMPDS: fræ-korn, n. a grain of seed, 673 A. 2, Gþl. 351, Fms. i. 92. fræ-mælir, m. a measure of seed, N.G. L. i. 39, Gþl. 343. fræ-vænligr, adj. promising fruit, Sks. 630, v.l.

fræða, dd, [Ulf. fraþvjan = GREEK], to instruct, teach, Str. 1, 68: reflex. to learn, be instructed, H. E. i. 473.

FRÆÐI, f. and n. [fróðr; qs. Ulf. fraþi, n. = GREEK, GREEK, GREEK, GREEK, and froþei, f. = GREEK, GREEK, GREEK]: I. fem. knowledge, learning, lore; sannindi fræðinnar, Fms. iv. 4, Magn. 430; margháttuð f., Rb. (pref.); mann-fræði, personal history, genealogy, Bs. i. 91, Bárð. 24 new Ed., Fms. viii. 102; landnáma-sögur ok forn fræði, old lore, Ísl. ii. 189; forna fræði, Fb. i. 397; hann lærði Ara prest, og marga fræði sagði hann honum, þá er Ari ritaði síðan; Ari nam ok marga fræði at Þuríði. Ó. H. (pref.): in mod. usage as compd in many words, as, guð-fræði, theology; mál-f., philology; eðlis-f., or náttúru-f., physiology, etc.; -- hence are formed, guð-fræðingr, a theologian; mál-fræðingr, a philologer; náttúru-fræðingr, a naturalist, etc.; -- these words are now common, but are of late growth, even in the Nucl. Latin, of 1738 they are unknown, vide the Latin headings antiquarius, theologicus, etc. II. neut., esp. in pl. records; hin spaklegu fræði er Ari Þorgilsson hefir á bækr sett, Skálda 161 (Thorodd); hvatki er missagt es í fræðum þessum, Íb. 3; í sumum fræðum, in some old records, Edda 7: Fræði (pl.) with the earliest Christians was the lore to be learnt by neophytes, as the Lat. Credo and Pater Noster, cp. the curious story in Hallfr. S. Fs. 93; since the Reformation the same name was given to Luther's short Catechism (to be learnt by heart next after the Lord's Prayer), læra Fræðin; það stendr í Fræðunum; Fræða-kver, n. Luther's Catechism, (kver, = quire, means in Icel. a little book.) 2. with the notion of witchcraft; þau kváðu þar fræði sín, en þat vóru galdrar, Ld. 142: of a poem, hafa kátir menn sett f. þat er, Grett. 119 new Ed. COMPDS: fræði-bækr, f. pl. books of knowledge, learned work, Skálda 159. fræði-maðr (fræða-maðr, Edda pref.), m. a learned man, scholar, Skálda 159; f. á kvæði, Fms. vi. 391: an historian, eptir sögn Ara prests ok annarra fræðimanna, iv. 5 (v.l.), xi. 64, Ó. H. pref. 3, Sturl. i. 9, Ísl. ii. 189. fræði-nám, n. learning, studying, Bs. i. 240. fræði-næmi, n. id., Bs. i. 241.

FRÆGÐ, f. [fragu, vide fregna], good report, fame, renown; til frægðar skal konung hafa, a saying, Fms. vii. 73, -- cp. fylki skal til frægðar hafa, Mkv. 6, Fms. i. 99, v. 300; með frægð ok fagnaði, 655 xiii. B. 4. COMPDS: frægðar-ferð (-för), f. an exploit, Sturl. i. 4, Eg. 279. frægðar-fullr, adj. famous, Magn. 432. frægðar-lauss, adj. (-leysi, n.), inglorious, H. E. i. 516. frægðar-maðr, m. a famous man, Fms. ii. 271, Grett. 196 new Ed. frægðar-mark, n. a badge of glory, Fas. i. 257. frægðar-samliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), Stj. frægðar-skot, n. a famous shot, Fas. ii. 338, Fms. ii. 271. frægðar-verk, n. a feat, Fms. i. 146, Hkr. iii. 96.

frægi-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), famous, Fas. iii. 424, Stj. 69, 78, 141.

frægja, ð, to make famous, Fms. xi. 436, Stj. 66, Skálda 208; við-f., to extol far and wide; ú-frægja, to deprecate.

frægr, adj., frægri, frægstr, or mod. frægari, frægastr, famous; frægr konungr, Fms. i. 114; frægri en aðrir menn, Fas. iii. 278; frægstr allra landnáms-manna, Landn. 316, v.l.; var sú för hin frægjasta, Fms. vii. 66; varð þetta frægt víða um lönd, i. 164; þat mun vera frægt, v. 344; víð-frægr, widely famous; ú-frægr, inglorious.

fræjandi, part. bearing seed, Sks. 630 B, 632 B.

FRÆKN (i.e. frœkn) and frækinn, adj., compar. fræknari, superl. fræknastr, valiant, stout, esp. of bodily exercise, Fms. i. 161, 258, vi. 150 (v.l.), 315, Háv. 55, Bær. 15, Nj. 15, Hkr. i. 301, Gm. 17.

frækn-leikr (less correct fræk-leikr), m. feat, valour, Fms. ii. 48, vii. 165, Bær. 19, Fær. 132, Valla L. 214, Grett. 171 new Ed.

frækn-liga (less correct fræk-liga, fræki-liga), adv. valiantly, Fms. viii. 289 (v.l.), ix. 509, Ísl. ii. 267, Hkv. Hjörv. 12, Nj. 116.

frækn-ligr (less correct fræk-ligr, fræki-ligr), adj. valiant, bold looking, 655 xxix. 2, Rd. 244, Sturl. iii. 245, Fas. i. 72, iii. 153, Fms. i. 25, ii. 106, passim.

frænd-afli, a, m. strength in kinsmen, Orkn. 230, v.l.

frænd-bálkr, m. a 'balk or fence of friends,' a body of kinsmen, great family, Orkn. 470, Eb. 20, Fms. i. 288.

frænd-bætr, f. pl. fines, weregild for a kinsman, N. G. L. i. 75.

frænd-erfð, f. family inheritance, N. G. L. i. 49.

frænd-garðr, m. = frændbálkr, poët. a stronghold of kinsmen.

frænd-göfugr, adi. having distinguished kinsmen, Sturl. i. 30.

frænd-hagi, a, m. a native place, = átthagi, q.v., Fms. vii. 136, 270.

frænd-hollr, adj. faithful to one's kinsmen, pious. Fms. vi. 35.

FRÆNDI, an irreg. part. of the obsolete frjá, pl. frændr. gen. frænda, dat. frændum, [Ulf. renders GREEK by frijonds; A. S. freond; Engl. friend; Hel. friund; O. H. G. friunt; Germ. freund; all of them meaning friend = Lat. amicus; whereas in the Scandin. languages, Icel. as well as mod. Swed. and Dan., it is only used in a metaph. sense; Dan. frænde; Swed. frände] :-- a kinsman; not a single instance is on record of the word having ever been used in another sense, unless an exception be allowed in the allit. phrase, sem frændr en eigi sem fjándr, in the old Griðamál, Grág. (Kb.) i. 170 :-- the same usage prevails in the oldest poems, e.g. Hm., -- deyr fé, deyja frændr, 75; sumr er af senum sæll sumr af frændum, 68; and Dags frændr, the kinsmen (great grandsons) of Dag, Ýt. 10. This change in the sense of the word is very curious and characteristic of the Scandinavians, with whom the bonds of kinship and brotherhood were strong, and each family formed a kind of confederacy or fellowship equally bound in rights and in duties; cp. such phrases as, frænd-bálkr, frænd-garðr: frændr often denotes kinsmen in a narrower sense = brethren; yet sons and frændr are distinguished in Hm. 68; but generally frændr is a collective word, Nj. 4; of a brother, Fs. 57; frændi, my son, Nj. 143, cp. Fms. vii. 22, 315, the laws and Sagas passim; ná-frændi, a near kinsman. COMPDS: frænda-afli, a, m. = frændafli, Valla L. 213. frænda-bálkr, m. = frændbálkr, Ld. 102, Fms. xi. 338, Orkn. 272. frænda-gengi, n. = frændlið, Fms. x. 406. frænda-gipta, n, f. the luck or good genius of a family, Fs. 15. frænda-lát, n. the loss, death of f., Nj. 222, Sks. 726. frænda-lið, n. = frændlið, Rb. 370. frænda-ráð, n. consent of one's kinsmen, Gþl. 271, cp. Nj. 38. frænda-róg, n. strife among kinsmen, deadly strife, Fms. v. 347; cp. the saying, fé veldr frænda rógi, Mkv. frænda-skömm, f. a shame to (or within) one's family; kallaði slíka menn helzt mega heita f., Sturl. i. 13; því at Kristnin var þá kölluð f., Bs. i. 11, -- in the last interesting passage it seems to mean such a disgrace that one was thereby expelled out of the family, cp. Fms. i. 285. frænda-styrkr, m. strength (backing) of kinsmen, Hkr. ii. 397, Eg. 474. frænda-tjón, n. loss in f., N. G. L. i. 121.