This is page 187 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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GAGLBJARTR -- GALLI. 187

word is not used in Icel. except in the saying above; the goshawk is called gagl-fár, n. and gagl-hati, a, m. goose-destroyer.

gagl-bjartr, adj. bright as a goose, an epithet of a lady, Akv. 39; the wild goose is here made to serve for a swan!

gagl-viðr, m. an GREEK, Vsp. 34; explained by the commentators, a forest where there are wild geese, but perhaps better as the name of a plant, the sweet gale or bog-myrtle.

GAGN, n. [a Scandin. word, neither found in Saxon nor Germ.; only Ulf. has the root verb gageigan = GREEK; Swed. gagn; Dan. gavn; Engl. gain is prob. borrowed from the Scandin.]: 1. sing, gain, advantage, use, avail; hluti þá er ek veit at honum má gagn at verða, things that can be of use to him, Nj. 258; er oss varð at mestu gagni, Ísl. ii. 175; er eigi mun vera gagn í, that will be of no use, Fms. iii. 175; það er að litlu gagni, of little avail, etc., passim. 2. gain, victory; sigr ok gagn, Orkn. 38; hafa gagn, to gain the day, Rb. 398, Hom. 131, Fms. vii. 261; fá gagn, id., Fas. i. 294, freq. in poetry; gagni feginn, triumphant, Fm. 25; gagni lítt feginn, i.e. worsted, Hbl. 29. 3. produce, revenue, chiefly of land; jarðir at byggja ok vinna ok allra gagna af at neyta, Eg. 352; hence the law phrase, to sell an estate 'með öllum gögnum ok gæðum.' 4. goods, such as luggage, utensils, or the like; síðan fór hann norðr á Strandir með gagn sitt, Sturl. i. 10; ker ok svá annat gagn sitt, Grág. ii. 339; bæta garð aptr ok öll gögn ok spellvirki, Gþl. 421; þeir héldu öllum farmi ok öllu gagni (luggage), því er á skipinu var, Bs. i. 326. β. in mod. usage almost always in pl. gögn = household implements, esp. tubs, pots, etc.; bú-gögn, heimilis-gögn, household jars; far-g., farar-g., q.v. 5. in pl. a law term, proofs, evidence produced in court; at eigi dveli það gögn fyrir mönnum, Grág. i. 25; nefna vátta at öllum gögnum þeim er fram vóru komin, Nj. 87; eptir gögnum ok vitnum skal hvert mál dæma, a law phrase, upon evidence and witnesses shall every case be tried, Gþl. 475; öll gögn þau er þeir skulu hafa at dómi, Grág. ii. 270; þeir menn allir er í dómi sitja eðr í gögnum eru fastir, i. 105, 488, and passim; gagna-gögn, vide below. COMPDS: gagna-höld, n. pl. a holding back of proofs, evidence, Grág. ii. 273. gagn-auðgan, f. wealth, Fms. ii. 215. gagn-auðigr, adj. wealthy, well stored, Stj. 361, Ld. 38, Bs. i. 643. gagn-ligr, adj. useful. gagn-samligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), profitable, Bs. i. 690, 770. gagn-samr, adj. useful, profitable, Sturl. i. 74, Hrafn. 23, Landn. 83, Ísl. ii. 62, Stj. 92. gagn-semd and -semi, f. usefulness, profitableness, Hrafn. 24. gagns-lauss, adj. useless. gagns-lítill, adj. of little use. gagns-mikill, adj. of great use. gagns-munir, m. pl. useful things, Fbr. 22; veita e-m g., to help one, Hkr. ii. 251: mod. gain, profit, eigin g., Pass. 28. 6.

GAGN-, an adverbial prefix:

A. [Cp. the adv. gegn], gain- (in gainsay), counter, esp. in law terms :-- hence gagna-gögn, n. pl. counter-proofs, Grág. i. 106. gagn-augu, n. pl. 'counter-eyes,' temples. gagn-dyrt, n. adj. with doors opposite one another, Fas. ii. 181. gagn-gjald, n., prop. a 'countergild,' antidote, a Norse law term, which seems identical with mundr or tilgjöf, opp. to heiman-fylgja, dowry, which in case of the husband's death or divorce was to be the wife's property; gjöf and gagngjald are distinguished, N. G. L. i. 29; þá skal hon þarnast gagngjalds ok gjafar, 51. gagn-görð, f. transgression, 15. 1 (MS.) gagn-hollr, adj. kind to one another, Hm. 31. gagn-kvöð, f. a counter-summons, Grág. ii. 102. gagn-mælendr, part. pl. gain-sayers, opponents, Mart. 114. gagn-mæli, n. gain-saying, contradiction, Fms. x. 403, Stj. 331. gagn-nefna, u, f. a mutual nomination, of arbitrators, Grág. i. 495. gagn-staða, u, f. 'gain-staying,' resistance, Fms. x. 387, Hom. (St.) 43. gagnstöðu-flokkr, m. the opposite party, Fms. viii. 323: gagnstöðu-maðr, m. an opponent, adversary, 623. 12, 655 xvi. B. 3: gagn-staðleikr (-leiki), m. the contradictory, reverse, Stj. 263. gagn-staðligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), contrary, opposed to, Fms. i. 263, viii. 326, x. 233, Stj. 29, 73, Ó. H. 195, Sks. 576. gagn-staðr, adj. id., Stj. 163, Fms. viii. 323. gagn-stæðligr and gagn-stæðiligr, adj. = gagnstaðligr, Fms. ix. 528, Sks. 111, 130, 337, Stj. 335, Fs. 172. gagn-sök, f. a counter-action, counter-charge, a law term, -- the defendant brought forth counter-charges, to be set off against those of the prosecutor, vide Nj. passim, Grág. i. 294, K. Þ. K. 160, Fs. 74, 125, Grett. 151, Valla L. 204, Rd. 300. gagn-tak, n. a 'holder against,' the strap to which the girth is attached, Fms. vii. 170, Sturl. iii. 114, Glúm. 393, Hkr. iii. 283, Karl. 458, Flor. 78; also called mót-tak. gagn-vert and gagn-vart, n. adj., used as prep. and adv., over against, with dat., Eg. 206, Fms. vi. 32, vii. 253. xi. 34, Nj. 34, Sd. 163; sitja g. e-m, Fs. 148; g. sólunni, 1812. 133; g. dyrum, Gullþ. 26, Fbr. 37, 64, passim :-- as adv., Landn. 62, Fms. ii. 27, xi. 125.

B. [Cp. gegnum and the adj. gegn], through, right through, straight; and so thorough, thoroughly, very (in which sense gay or gey is still used in Scot. and North. E., Jamieson Suppl. s.v.) :-- hence gagn-drepa, adj. wet through. gagn-færiligr and gagn-færr, adj. through-going, used as transl. of the Lat. penetrans, Stj. 89, 656 A. i. 34, 655 xxxii. 19. gagn-gört, n. adj. straight, Fb. iii. 296, Gísl. 38. gagn-hræddr, adj. 'gay' (i.e. very) frightened, Fms. iv. 147, 625. 18. gagn-kunnigr, adj. knowing thoroughly. gagn-leiði, n. the 'ganest' (i.e. shortest) way, Al. 92. gagn-orðr, adj. 'gane-worded,' speaking shortly, to the point, Nj. 38; (opp. to marg-orðr or lang-orðr.) gagn-skeytiligr, adj. to be shot through, Sks. 398 B. gagn-skorinn, part. scored through, i.e. cut through by fjords, rivers, etc., Fas. iii. 511: also thoroughly scored, i.e. carved all over, Vígl. 48 new Ed. gagn-stígr, m. a 'gane' way, short cut, Al. 109, Sks. 2, Fms. vii. 82 (in a verse). gagn-sæll, adj. through-seeing, penetrating, Sks. 208, (rare.) gagn-sær, adj. transparent, Rb. 354; gagnsætt gler, Hom. 128. gagn-vátr, adj. wet through. gagn-vegr, m. [Swed. genväg] = gagnstígr, Hm. 33. gagn-þurr, adj. dry all through, quite dry.

gagna, að, to help, be of use to one, Bs. i. 799; ok lætr sér vel gagna, 655 xxxii: reflex. to avail, be of use, Bs. ii. 141, 143, Vígl. 30, Dipl. i. 6, Jm. 20.

gagn-dagr, gagn-fasta, vide gangdagr, gangfasta.

GAGR, adj. bowed back; this obsolete word is still used in Norway, e.g. gag ljaa, of a scythe; gagt menneska, a conceited man; cp. gaga, to throw the head back: in compds as gag-háls, q.v. People in Icel. say, hnakka-kertr, one who throws the neck back, but keikr of bending the backbone back; e.g. standa keikr, where the Norse say standa gag. The explanation in Lex. Poët, is guess-work, as the word is not in use in Icel., vide remarks on the word by Bugge in Oldn. Tidsskrift.

gag-vígr, adj. an GREEK; g. bardagi, wanton strife, Fb. (Sverr. S.) ii. 553.

gal, n. crowing; hana-gal, cock-crowing.

GALA, pres. gelr, Hm. 28, 150, Vsp. 35; pret. gól, pl. gólu; pret. subj. gœli, Haustl. 20; in mod. usage, pres. galar, áðr en haninn galar, Matth. xxvi. 34, 74, 75, Mark xiv. 30, cp. Pass. 12. 7; but fyrr en haninn gelr, Luke xxii. 61; in pret. the old form is preserved, ok jafnsnart gól haninn, Matth. xxvi. 74; þá gól nú haninn fyrst, Pass. 11. 5; gól haninn annað sinn, 11. 8, Luke xxii. 60; og strax gól haninn, John xviii. 27; but elsewhere in mod. usage weak, galaði: [not recorded in Goth., as Ulf. renders GREEK l.c. by hrukjan; A. S. galan; Old Engl. and Scot. to gale = to cry; Dan. gale; Swed. gala] :-- to crow; hún heyrir hana gala, Stj. 208; gól um Ásum Gullinkambi, Vsp. 35; en annarr gelr, sótrauðr hani, id.: of a crow, Hm. 84. II. metaph. to chant, sing, used trans.; gala sér úgott, Hm. 28, Ls. 31; afl gól hann Ásum, Hm. 161; þann kann ek galdr at gala, I can chant that song, with the notion of spell, Hm. 153; svá ek gel, 150; hón (the sibyll) gól galdra sína yfir Þór, Edda 58: ironic., gólu þeir eptir á staðnum, O. H. L. 17; gala at um e-t, to beg blandly, Fms. xi. 113; Herodias gól at um líflát Johannes, 625. 96 :-- with acc. to gladden, cheer, Sl. 26.

galarr, m. an enchanter, the name of a dwarf, Vsp.

gald, n. hard snow, = gaddr, q.v.

galdr or galðr, m., gen. galdrs, pl. galdrar, [from gala; A. S. gealdor = cantus, sonitus] :-- prop. a song, hence in names of old poems, Heimdalar-galdr, Edda 17; but almost always with the notion of a charm or spell, vide gala II above; hón kvað þar yfir galdra, Grett. 151, Hkr. i. 8; kveða helgaldra, Fbr. 24; gala galdra, Edda 58, Hm. 153; með rúnum ok ljóðum þeim er galdrar heita, Hkr. i. 11; galdr ok kvæði, Stj. 492: hence II. witchcraft, sorcery, esp. in pl.; galdrar ok fjölkyngi, Fb. i. 214, K. Þ. K. 76, Grett. 155; galdrar ok gjörningar, Anal. 244; galdrar ok forneskja, Gísl. 41, Grett. 155; með göldrum, 180 (in a verse); sjá við göldrum, Hom. 86, Ísl. ii. 77: a fiend (= Icel. sending), reka þann galdr út til Íslands at Þorleifi ynni at fullu, Fb. i. 213, (rare.) COMPDS: galdra-bók, f. a book of magic, 655 xiii, Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 514. galdra-fluga, u, f. a 'witch-fly,' a kind of fly, tipula nigra subhirta, Eggert Itin. 604; cp. flugu-maðr. galdra-fullr, adj. full of sorcery, Fas. i. 108. galdra-hríð, f. a magic storm, hurricane raised by spells, Fas. i. 108. galdra-kind, f. a foul witch, Fas. i. 97: galdra-kinn, f. a 'spell-cheek,' a nickname, Eb. galdra-kona, u, f. a witch, sorceress, Ísl. ii. 73, Stj. 491, v.l. galdra-ligr, adj. magical, Stj. 91. galdra-list, f. magic art, Stj. 100, Fas. iii. 237. galdra-læti, n. pl. magical mummeries, Fas. ii. 373. galdra-maðr, m. a wizard, Fms. xi. 435, Fas. i. 5, Barl. 102, 149. galdra-meistari, a, m. a magician, Stj. 437. galdra-raumr, m. a great sorcerer, Fas. ii. 375. galdra-samligr, adj. magical, Stj. 91. galdra-smiðr, m. a 'spellsmith,' sorcerer, magician, Hkr. i. 10. galdra-snapr, m. a wizard-impostor, galdra-stafir, m. pl. magical characters. galdra-sögur, f. pl. tales of witches. galdra-vél, f. a magical device, Post. 80.

GALEIÐ, f. [a for. word; galea, galio, galeida, Du Gauge], a galiot, Fms. vi. 134, 168, vii. 78, 179, Ísl. ii. 394.

gal-gopi, a, m. a coxcomb.

galinn, prop. a part. from gala, enchanted, but used in the sense of mad, Fms. i. 44, vii. 187: frantic, Gísl. 138: voluptuous, sensual, Stj. 55; þú er galin í girnd sem svín, Úlf. 3. 57.

GALL, n. [A. S. gealla; Engl. gall; Germ. galle; Dan. galde; Gr. GREEK] :-- gall, bile, Pr. 472-474, Fbr. 137: metaph. an acid drink, Anecd. 10; edik galli blandað, GREEK, Matth. xxvii. 34.

gall-harðr, adj. hard as cinders, qs. gjall-harðr, Bs. ii. 65, freq.

GALLI, a, m. [cp. Swed. gall = barren], a fault, flaw, drawback, Hm. 134, freq. in mod. usage (ár-galli, q.v.); hence galla-lauss, adj. faultless,