This is page 199 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)
This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.
Click here to go to the main page about Cleasby/Vigfusson. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.
This page was generated on 23 May 2020. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.
The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.
eigi, B. heeded not, iv. no; geyma til, id.; geymit þé"r til vel (mark'
well) ef þér verðit við nokkura nybreytni varir, i. 71. P. with dat., g.
sauðum, to watch sheep, Stj. 177; þú skalt g. mínum skilmála, 115, and
geymirþeimsíðan, 81, 99. "Y- abso'-' Fms. i. 126; hanngeymdi eigi hvat
tré' þat var, Grett. 151 A, Stj. 365, 486. 8. with acc., hvart hann vildi
heldr g. (watch) bæinn eðr ganga at jarli, Grett. 85 A; g. heilræðit,
Fms. xi. 433, both of them late MSS.; bað hann þá hlífa sér ok g. skot-
vápn oil, Fb. ii. 43; but gætum vápna várra, Ó. H. I. e.; cp. Stj. 231,
where dat. in text, but acc. in v. 1.; þó treystisk hann eigi at g. þá, Sd.
l6o (paper MS.), Bev. 16. The acc. seems not to occur in very old MSS.,
but in mod. usage it is very freq., although the gen. is not quite obsolete::
Icel. still say, geyma Guðs boðorð, to keep God's commandments, N. T.,
Pass., Vidal. passim :-- to keep a thing for another, eg skal g. bukina fyrir
þig á meðan, geymdu það fyrir mig: reflex, to be observed, of law, H. E. i.
509, N. G. L. i. II. part, geymdr, observed, retained, Rb. 202.
geymari, a, m. a keeper, Fms. iii. 158, Stj. 9.
geymd, f., only in pl., gefa geymdir at e-u ( -- gefa gaum at e-u), Lv. 44,
Hom. 160, Sks. 564 B; hafit g. á hvar þessi hinn vándi inaðr er, Stj. (MS.)
geymiliga, adv. beedfully, Grett. 150, Stj. 150.
geyminn, adj. heedful, Bs. i. 48, Fms. v. 240.
geymsla, u, f. guardianship, watch, Stj. 8, 177, Fms. vii. 25, Sd. 160,
Grett. 112 (vigilance); fjar-g., f beep-keeping. COMPDS: geymslu-
engill, m. a guardian angel, Stj. 8. geymslu-lauss, adj. unguarded,
Fas. ii. 138, Karl. 161. geymslu-leysi, n. carelessness. geymslu-
maðr, m. a keeper, Stj. 42.
geypna, að, [gaupn], to encompass, Geisli 16, Us. 29, Lb. 25.
GEYSA, t, [from gjosa, q. v., and different to geisa] :-- to rush
furiously, gush, =- Lat. grassari, of fire, the sea, etc.; hann Isetr g. eld ok
jam, Fms. xi. 42 :-- usually dep., geysask votii at þeim með forsfalli, O. 'H.
164; þá geysisk hafit á londin, Edda 41; gcystisk at því allr lands-mugr,
O. H. 34; múgrinn flotans geystisk inn á síórskipin, Fms. viii. 227: pai't-
geystr, gushing, rushing forth, Nj. 247, Fms. vii. 326, Fb. i. 253:
metaph. enraged, Fms. vii. 230, viii. 202, Hkr. ii. 356: big, enormous,
Fms. vii. 99 :-- neut. geyst, as adv. furiously, violently, i. 165, Finnb. 35~-
geysi-, a prefix, exceedingly, greatly; geysi-ujafnt, Edda 11; geysi-
glaðr, exceeding glad, Stj. 478; geysi-morg, very many, Edda 14; þat er
þeim geysi-haglig geit, what a wonderful goat, 24; geysi-illa, very badly,
Fms. ii. 295; g. kalli, piercing cold, viii. 306; g. feginn, uncommonly
glad, Barl. 85; g. mjök, very much, Fb. i. 210; g. inikill, very muckle,
481; g. fagr, wonderfully fair, Olf. 3. 41, and many others :-- with nouns,
geysi-fúl, a big fool, Flov.
geysiliga, adv. enormously, Fas. i. 64.
geysiligr, adj. enormous, Fas. ii. 243, Mar. 166, 423.
geysingr, in. impetuosity, Finnb. 354, Fas. i. 157, Ísl. 11. 347, F"15- xi. Si.
Geysir, in. the name of a famous hot spring in Iceland. Foreign
writers often use geysir as an appellative; but the only Icel. words for hot
springs are hver (a cauldron, hot ivell) and laug (a hot ba/h). The pre-
sent Geysir is never mentioned in old writers, and it seems from a record
in the led. Annals that the great hot wells in the neighbourhood of llauka-
dale were due to the volcanic eruptions of 1294, when old hot springs
disappeared and those now existing came up, -- hjá Haukadal kóniu upp
hverir stórir en sumir hurfu þeir er áðr höfðu verit; unfortunately the
end of Arua S. (the bishop), the sole historical work of that time, is lost.
The word geysir = a gusher must be old, as the iuilexive - i r is hardly used
but in obsolete words (læknir a leach, hellir a cave, etc., are exceptional');
it was probably borrowed from some older hot spring. A pretty legend,
referring to the 'moving' of springs when defiled with innocent blood, is
recorded in Ísl. þjóðs. ii. 112, 113; this tale could not have sprung up
unless a change in the place of the hot springs had been observed.
geytlan, f. gluttony, Rum. 306, (an air. A. e*y.)
-GI (or -ki after i or s), a particle suffixed to nouns and adverbs.
A. In a positive sense [Lat. -que] , ever, Lat. -que, -cimqite: 1. with
the pronoun hverr (quis) through all cases, answering to the Lat. qnis-quc:
out of the Laws we can nearly make a full paradigm :-- noin. hverr-gi or
hver-gi, Lat. qids-que, qui-cunque, Grág. Kb. i. 14, 31, 45, 85, 171 (twice),
183, 195, 221, ii. 7, 23, 82, ioi: nom. and acc. neut. hvat-ki (quod-quc).
i. 34, 155, 162, 183, 244, ii. 77, 140, 154, Jómsv. 15, Ib. 3; also hvurt-
ki, id., Grág. Kb. i. 61 (twice): gen. hvers-kis (cujits-que), 238: dat.
hverjun-gi (ctti-que), 31, 156: acc. inasc. hvern-gi (quem-que), 147, 155,
221, 22=;, 245, ii. 47, 66: abl. hve-gi or hvi-gi, however, \. 147, 195, ii.
64, ioi, 128, 151, joinsv. 14 :-- plur. acc. neut. hver-gi (quae-que): dual
dat. sing, hvarnn-gi megin, on both sides (of a river), Grug. Kb. ii. 93:
-- even in historical prose, því at hit næsta surnar gat hvergi ber á íslaiuii,
the following:. ummer every nian gathered berries in Iceland (to make some
kind ot wine), Bs. 1. 135, (or are we to read hvar-gi, everywhere ?). 2.
with adverbs; hvert-ki (quociin-que modo), Grág. ii. 50; nivr-gi. when-
ever (ubi-cunyue), i. 191; hvar-gi, wherever, 25, 166, 240, ii. 128, 212.
B. In a negative sense, with a few pronouns, adjectives, adverbs,
and rarely in old poems with substantives: 1. witli nouns, in the pr.
name Lopt-ki, an air. Aey., Ls. 19: with appellatives, þürf-gi, no need, an
arr. \ey., Hkv. Hjörv. 39; freq. in mann-gi, no man, cp. Lat. nêmo, íb. (which is even used in mod. writers and poets; væt-ki, naught; vettu-gi
(dat.) and vettcr-gis (gen.), Vsp.: with adjectives, ein-gi (q. v.), none, a
common word; otherwise rare, sjálf-gi, 'self-not, ' i. e. not oneself, Ls. 29, an
air. \fy.: with a dat. case of langr, þá löngu-gi, then not for a long time,
Konr. (MS.): with pronouns, in the dual, hvarr-gi, neither, Lat. neuter,
Grág. Kb. i. 46, ii. 93, 151; gen. hvárs-kis (netitrius), freq.; dat. hvarun-
gi (jieulri), i. 215; hvarum-gi, ii. 63: neut. hvaru-gi, 216; hitt-ki, ne
illud quidem. Urn. 21, 23; þat-ki, Hbl. 6; þat-ki at ek fá (not even that
I get) mala minu falslausan, Mork. 83. 2. with adverbs, only in
poetry or laws or very old prose; sva-gi. not so, Grág. Kb. ii. 99, Mork.
83; þá-gi, then not; þey-gi, though not, qs. þó-gi; æva-gi, never: again,
hver-gi (q. v.), nowhere; ei-gi (q. v.), not; aldri-gi (q. v.), never; hvar-ki
(q. v.), neither, are common words in prose and in speech. The negative -gi can never be suffixed to verbs (vide '-at, ' p. 2); therefore býð-gi, non
jubeo (in Islands-vaka 61, a poem of the last century. Fél. i. 236), is a
spurious imitation of the old idiom; neither can -at be put to nouns;
ráð-at hann kuiini, Jónas 105, ought therefore to be ráð hann kunni-t,
issue be knew not.
C. In an indefinite sense; in a few instances -gi seems to be used
almost like Latin quidem with a preceding negative: eigi miklo-gi miuiia,
ne multo quidem minus, Ileiðar. S., Ísl. ii. 360; eigi storu-gi meiri, ne multo
quidem majora, 386; engi miklo-gi görr... . nemo multo quidem plus ...,
Grág. i. 209; cp. also the adverbs iillun-gis or oldun-gis, quite, altogether
(allr, -gi); einun-gis, only, solely (einn, -gi). both formed from dat. sing.:
the obsolete vil-gi (qs. vel-gi) is ambiguous, being used both in a nt-g.
sense -- -not well, and posit. =-well, bene quidem, cp. Bs. i. 393, note; Hrn.
66, malun-gi, is doubtful; -- prob. þyrftig-at múlun-gi mat should be read, -at being taken not as a prep, but as a negative verbal suffix, and -gi as a
positive suffix; Icel. now say, hann á ekki málungi matar, he does not
know where to look for his next meal.
igsf The negative -gi is peculiar to Scandin., and no traces of it are
found in any Saxon nor German idioms; whereas, as a positive suffix, it
is common to all Teutonic tongues, and remains in the Engl. many and
any; ' many' being qs. man-y -- man-ever, ' homo-cunque, ' Goth, tnanags,
and 'any' qs. ane-y = every-one; so also is the cf;' in Icel. margr and
hvárigr, which are remnants -- the former of the positive, the latter of
the negative -gi.
gift, gifta, u, f. gift, vide gipt, gipta.
GIKKR, m., pl. ir, [Dan. gjcek -- -jester] , a pert, rude person. COMPDS:
gikks-hattr, m. pert manner. gikks-ligr, adj. pert, rude; the say-
ing, hver sem glettist við gikkinn fær af honum hnykkinn, who meddles
with a ' gik' will get a kick.
GIL, n., gen. pl. gilja, dat. giljum, [Ghyll or Gill in North. E. and Scot.,
local names] :-- a deep narrow glen with a stream at bottom, like the Gr.
^apáSpa; brooks and tributary streams flowing through clefts in the fell
side to the main river at the bottom of a vale are in Icel. called gil; very
freq. in local names, Isfírðinga-gil, Branda-gil, Hauka-gil, Hrafna-gil,
Hellra-gil, Gilj-á, þver-gil, vide Landn.; (a chasm without water or with
stagnant water is not gil, but gja; also gljiifr, a deep chasm forming
the bi. il of a river), Valla L. 223, Hrafn. 7, Eg. 766, Ld. 218, Krók. 64,
Fms. vii. 149, passim. COMPDS: Gils-bakki, a, in., prop. Gill-bank,
a local name, Landn., whence Gils-bekkingar, in. pl. the name of a
family, Landn. gils-botn, m. n gill bottom, Sturl. i. 82, 84. gils-
gjá, f. a chasm with a gill (rare), Grett. III. gils-bröm, f. the
edge of a gill, Ld. 2r8, Dropl. 23, Grett. in.
gilda, t, to be worth so and so. only in mod. usage, esp. in metaph. and
impers. phrases, mig gildir cinu, / d') not mind: láttu þig einu g., never
mind: hvað sem gildir, n t any price; hirt aldrei hvaö sem gildir, at
hætta á, ósatt null, Pass. 13. 2.
GILDI, n. [gjalda; UÍf. gild -- tribute, Luke xx. 22, Mark xii. 14;
A. S. gilt!; Hei. geld; Frank, chalta; Germ, geld -- money; it remains in
Old Fngl. weregild :-- payment, tribute; this sense is very rare, as gjald
(q. v.) is the common word; chiefly used in compels, as nef-giltli, head-tax;
baug-gildi, q. v.; skatt-gildi, a tax; skuld:i-giidi, / ay 7/itvi t of debts, Gr;ig. i.
302. 2. recompense; in the saying, æ sér til gildis gjof (mod. a: sor gjiit
til gjalda), Hom. 146. 3. value; al-gildi, full-g. Vhalf-g., whole, full,
half value; ið-gilði or i-gildi, equivalence; hon er karlmanus-igikli. J3.
worth, value, esteem; the phrase, vera í !niklu, litlu, engu gildi, to be in great,
small, no repute; án Drottins ráða er aðstoð maims í cngu ininsta gildi,
Pass. i). 2: lYeq. in mod. usage, but rare in old writers, þegar ér komiy. t
i giUii við hiifdingja eðr kierleika, Finnb. 266. II. a banquet,
feast, [cp. Dan. gilde; so called from the fee paid?], Eg. 20 sqq., Edda
45' 57' ^'- '• 3^3' ^Þ'- J 7^' ^rcíl- 'u "'^ poems; the poetical mead is
called Gauta g., Konnak; or gildi Grjótaldar, the cheer of the Giants;
gefa lilfum gildi, to feast the wolves. Lex. Poët.; to this seems to belong
the passage in Vsp. 27, hvárt skyldi Æsir al'rað gjalda eðr skyldi goðin
oil gikli eiga, where the eiga gildi means to hold a feast, with the notion
of making a league or peaceful agreement, as opp. to gjalda afrað (q. v.),
to pay tribute as a badge of submission. III. in a technical sense,
a guild, throughout England and Scandinavia during the Middle Ages;
the first guilds in Norway were instituted by king Olave (1066-1093),