This is page 202 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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202 GJALLA -- GLAÐLIGR.

GJALLA, pret. gall, pl. gullu; pres. gell, pl. gjalla; pret. subj. gylli; sup. gollit; mod. infin. gella; [A. S. giellan; Engl. yell; Dan. gjalde; Swed. gälla] :-- to yell :-- of birds of prey, to scream, shriek, hrafnar tveir ok gullu hátt, Fms. i. 131; ernir gjalla hátt, Sighvat; fuglar sýngja, gjalla eðr klaka, Skálda 170: of a bull, to bellow, Fb. i. 545: of things, as of a bow-string, to twang, strengr gellr, Fbr. 206; strengir gullu, Arnór; gjallandi geir, Eg. (in a verse): of a man, to yell, shout, hann stökk þá upp ok gall við, Fms. vii. 171: mod. to shout out (in reply), hún er gipt dóna fyrir austan, gall einhver við af Neðri-bekkingum, Piltr og Stúlka, p. 73: of an echo, to ring, svá gall í hverjum hamri, Fms. ix. 513, v.l.; so of a blacksmith's hammer, Eg. (in a verse).

gjallr, adj., also spelt gallr, ringing, poët. epithet of gold, a shield, weapon, horn, Fs. 111 (in a verse), Vsp. 42, Haustl. 1, Fm. 9, 20; gallir geirar, Ó. H. 23: of a person weeping, Skv. 3. 33: as the word is rare and obsolete, esp. in the form gallr, transcribers and editors have in some passages wrongly put the well-known gamlir (old) where that word yields no sense, as in Vsp. l.c., Ó. H. l.c. 2. as subst., the sea, a sword, shield are called gjallr, the resounding, Edda (Gl.)

gjalti, vide göltr.

gjarða, u, f. a hood, Edda (Gl.)

gjarðari, a, m. a cooper, N. G. L. iii. 2, 10.

GJARN, adj., compar. gjarnari; superl. gjarnastr; [Ulf. gairns, only once; A. S. georn; Germ. gern; lost as adj. both in Dan. and Swed.; cp. gerr above, which is only used in a limited sense] :-- eager, willing, Fms. iv. 81, Dropl. 19; a saying, gjörn er hönd á venju, Grett. 130: with gen., gjarn e-s, 656 C. 24, passim; used in a great many poët. compds, but also freq. in prose, as in góð-g., gentle; íll-g., malevolent; öfund-g., envious; metorða-g., ambitions; væru-g., loving rest; á-gjarn, avaricious; fé-gjarn, covetous; sín-g. and eigin-g., selfish; óbil-g., unyielding; nám-g., eager for learning; háð-g., scoffing; ó-gjarn, unwilling; sátt-gjarn, peaceful; vide Lex. Poët. p. 246.

gjarna, mod. gjarnan, adv. willingly, Nj. 57, Lv. 20, Eg. 234, Fms. i. 79, Ísl. ii. 441, Bret. 34, Sks. 241, Orkn. 158.

gjarnliga, adv. willingly, Bs. i. 355.

gjarn-samliga, adv. = gjarnliga, Sks. 221.

GJÁ, f., gen. gjár, acc. and dat. gjá; pl. gjár, gen. gjá, dat. gjám, mod. gjáar; [a Scandin. word, akin to gína; found in the north of Scotland in the form geo, geow: cp. Gr. GREEK] :-- a chasm, rift, in fells or crags; hrinda þeim fyrir björg eðr í gjár, Fms. ii. 238; til þess er hann kemr at gjá einni, en sú gjá gengr um eyna þvera, fyrir annan enda gjárinnar, hinu-megin gjárinnar, yfir gjána, etc., Fær. 170, 171; kasta hringinum í gjár eða vötn, Bs. i. 329; milli gjá ok gljúfra, Stj. 90; at enni efri gjánni, Nj. 224: also freq. in local names, Ahnanna-gjá, the famous rift in Thingvalla, Nj. 113, 246, 247, Sturl. i. 206, Landn. 312, v.l.; Hrafna-gjá, Brímils-gjá, Kötlu-gjá; it often denotes a rift with a tarn or pool at bottom, whereas gil is a rift with running water. COMPDS: gjár-bakki, a, m. a rift brink (that of the Almanna-gjá), Nj. 224. gjár-barmr, m. the edge of a geow, Fas. iii. 414. gjár-munni, a, m. the mouth of a geow, Fas. iii. 415. gjár-skúti, a, m. a geow-nook, Bárð. 166.

gjá-hamarr, m. the upper wall of the Almanna-gjá, Grág. i. 26.

GJÁLFR, m., gen. rs, poët. the din of the sea, the swelling waves, Sks. 148 :-- the sea, freq. in poëtry and in poët. compds, vide Lex. Poët.; in prose Icel. say, orða-gjálfr, 'word-din' empty sounding wards, flood of phrases. gjálfr-ligr, gjálfr-samr, gjálfrugr, adj. noisy, roaring, Sks. 192. Ships are gjálfr-dýr, gjálfr-marar, gjálfr-stóð, steeds of the sea, Lex. Poët.

gjálfra, að, to roar, of the sea: to chatter.

gjálgrun, f. [cp. gjelg = din, Ivar Aasen], idle talk, prating, Ísl. ii. 139.

gjá-lífi, n. = gjólífi.

Gjálp, f. [A. S. gealp; Hel. gelp; Engl. yelp], Yelper, name of a giantess, Edda; from gjálpa, að, to yelp.

gjár, yesterday, vide gær.

GJÓ, f. [cp. Engl. gay], enjoyment, esp. in a bad sense, sensuality, Sks. 435. COMPDS: gjó-lífi, n. a 'gay,' i.e. vain, life; g. eðr ofdrykkjur, Fms. viii. 106 (v.l.), Stj. 161. gjólífis-menn, m. pl. vain persons, Fms. viii. 238, v.l. gjó-menn, n. pl. id., Sks. 366; in mod. usage gjá-lífi, n. (and gjá-lífr, adj.), a life of pleasure, a gay, idle life, Vídal., Pass. 4. 10.

GJÓÐR, m. [gjo, Ivar Aasen], (a bird, falco haliaetus, Edda (Gl.), Stj. 316, Róm. 382, Þiðr. 93.

gjóla, u, f. a gust of wind.

GJÓSA, pret. gauss, mod. gaus, pl. gusu; pres. gýss, mod. gýs; pret. subj. gysi; part. gosinn: [a Scandin. word not found in Saxon nor Germ., cp. Engl. gush] :-- to gush, break out, of a furnace, volcano, or the like; þar gauss upp stundum eldr, Nj. 204; hann sá eld mikinn g. upp, Grett. 96; gauss ór honum spýja (a vomit) mikil, Eg. 216; froða gaus ór kjapti þeim, Fas. i. 425; svá sem þar gjósi upp svartr reykr, Sks. 203; gaus upp grátr, Róm. 234.

gjósta, u, f. a gust, Edda 99, Bs. i. 667 (in a verse).

gjós-æðr, f. a 'gush-vein,' an artery, Sturl. iii. 97.

GJÓTA, pret, gaut, pl. gutu; pres. gýtr; pret. subj. gyti; part. gotinn;, [Ulf. gjutan; A. S. geôtan; O. H. G. giuzan; Germ. giessen; Dan. gyde; Swed. giuta = to cast (of metal), but this sense is not found in the Icel.] :-- to drop, throw, cast one's young, with dat.; Icel. say kefla or kelfa (kálfr), of a cow, whale, deer; kasta, of a mare; kæpa, of a seal (kópr, a young seal;) hrygna, of a fish; gjóta, of a cat, dog, fox, mouse, and of a fish, to spawn; whence gota, spawn; got-rauf, q.v.; þá gjóta þeir hrognum sínum, Sks. 46; nýgotinn hvolpr, a new-dropped cub (dog, kitten). 2. in the phrase, gjóta augum, to twinkle, Fas. iii. 497; gjóta hornauga, to look askant. -- That gjóta was originally used in a nobler sense maybe inferred from the fact that the names of two Teutonic people, the Gautar (Gauts) and Gotar (Goths, = the born, Lat. nati) are in all likelihood derived from the same root.

gjóta, u, f. [Dan. gyde], a narrow lane.

GJÖF, f., gen. gjafar, pl. gjafar, later gjafir; dat. gjöfum: [Ulf. giba; A. S. gifu, geofu; Engl. gift; Germ. gabe, whence mod. Swed. gåfua, Dan. gave, and Icel. gáfa] :-- a gift, Nj. 7, 163, Eg. 33, Fms. i. 296, iv. 105, x. 47, Bs. i. 76, 143, N. G. L. i. 8, passim: in mod. usage Icel. distinguish between gjöf and gáfa, using the latter of the gifts of nature, gifts of mind, cleverness, but gjöf in a material sense. The ancients were fond of exchanging gifts, which were either a part of hospitality or tokens of friendship; the former were munificent, the latter might be small, Hm. 51: at a feast (wedding, funeral, or the like) the host used to make gifts to all his more honoured guests at departure; the technical phrase for this was, leysa menn út með gjöfum, to dismiss with gifts; vóru allir menn með gjöfum brott leystir; hence útlausnir, departure from a feast, Sturl. iii. 268: a departing friend or visitor had to be dismissed with a gift (kynnis-gjöf, Fms. vi. 358). The gifts consisted chiefly of weapons and costly clothes; but favourite gifts were a steed (Bjarn. 55, 58) or oxen of a fine breed (Sturl. i. 106), hawks, tents, sails, white bears (Ó. H. ch. 114, Fms. vi. ch. 72-75, 100, Hung. ch. 2), in short anything that was rare and costly, görsimi, metfé. Again, friends had to exchange gifts, so as to cement their friendship, cp. Hávamál passim, -- vápnum ok váðum skulu vinir gleðjask; gefendr ok endrgefendr erusk lengst vinir, 40; gjalda gjöf við gjöf, 41; geði skaltú við hann (viz. the friend) blanda ok gjöfum skipta, 43; glík skulu gjöld gjöfum, 45; sýtir æ glöggr við gjöfum, 47. Gifts were obligatory, and were a token of grace and goodwill on the part of giver and receiver. A gift when received was called the 'nautr' of the giver, e.g. a ring or sword presented by a king was konungs-nautr. The instances in the Sagas are very many, e.g. Eg. ch. 36, 81, Ld. ch. 7, 27, 43, 45, Sturl. passim, Glúm. ch. 6, 25, Vápn. p. 19, Hrafn. 23, Lv. ch. 14, 15, Ó. H. ch. 114, Har. S. Gilla ch. 16, Hung. ch. 13, 17, Páls. S. ch. 16, and last, not least, the curious Gautr. S.; the remark of Tacit. Germ. ch. 21, gaudent muneribus, sed nec data imputant nec acceptis obligantur, is only partly true; ást-gjafar, love-gifts; vin-gjafar, friend-gifts, cp. Gr. GREEK, Ó. H. 125; hefndar-gjöf, a fatal gift; Jóla-gjöf, a Yule present, Eg. ch. 70; sumar-gjafir, summer-gifts, on the day when summer begins. COMPDS: gjafa-laust, n. adj. dismissed without gifts, Nj. 167, Fms. vii. 106, Sturl. iii. 268. gjafa-leysi, n. scanty gifts, Fms. v. 188. gjafa-skipti and gjafa-víxl, n. exchange of gifts, Gísl. 13, 96, Bs. i. 82 :-- in a technical sense, brúð-gjöf (q.v.), bekkjar-gjöf (q.v.), morgun-gjöf, a bride-gift, bench-gift, morning-gift, cp. N. G. L. i. 27, 29, 51, passim: til-gjöf, a dowry, -- all referring to a wedding: með-gjöf -- fúlga, q.v.; á-gjöf, q.v.; milli-gjöf, discount; líf-gjöf, pardon; ofaní-gjöf, rebuke: Icel. also give the name to foddering, setja á gjöf, hence gjafar-mál, n. foddering hour, Gþl. 442.

gjöfull, adj., pl. gjöflir, munificent, Eg. 42, Fms. v. 240, Bs. i. 61: with gen., g. síns fjár, Hm. 38; stór-gjöfull, q.v.

GJÖGR, f. a cleft, rift; gljúfr ok gjögrar, Bs. i. 200; rare, but still existing as the local name of a fishing-place in north-western Icel., (Gjögr, or á Gjögri), used as neut.

gjögra, að, to reel, stagger (now skjögra), Fas. ii. 550 (in a verse).

GJÖLL, f. [vide gjalla], din, alarum (poët.) COMPDS: Gjallar-brú, n. the bridge leading to Hel, vide Edda. Gjallar-horn, n. the horn of Heimdal, Edda, Vsp.

GJÖLNAR, f. pl. [Engl. gills; Dan. gjæller; Swed. gäl] :-- the gills of a fish, Edda (Gl.); elsewhere rare, tálkn (q.v.) being the common word.

gjölnir, in. a kind of fish, Edda (Gl.)

GJÖRÐ, f., pl. gjarðar, mod. gjarðir, [Ulf. gairda = GREEK; Engl. girth, girdle; Dan. gjord] :-- a girdle, Ísl. ii. 340, Sks. 403, freq.; söðul-g., a saddle-girth; megin-g., main girdle, the belt of Thor, vide Edda: poët. the sea is called jarðar-g., earth-girdle :-- a hoop on tubs, botn-g., a bottom hoop :-- a kind of lady's head-gear, in western Icel. a kerchief wrapped round the head.

glaða, að, = gleðja, to gladden, but only in pres., Hkv. 1. 44, Höfuðl. 17, Fsm. 48: in prose, Fas. i. 221, Barl. 60.

glaðel, n. [from Lat. gladiolus], a kind of sword, Ld. 330, Þiðr.

glað-látr, adj. cheerful, Grett. 140 A, Fas. iii. 219.

glaðliga, adv. gladly, friendly, Nj. 177, Fms. xi. 376: gladly, willingly, i. 102, ix. 254, Fas. i. 218.

glaðligr, adj. glad, bright, cheerful, Fms. vi. 357.