This is page 234 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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234 HALDA -- HALLA.

hélt konungr Erling fyrir tryggvan mann, Fms. ix. 399. β. to hold, deem, be of opinion; the old writers seem not to use the word exactly in this sense, but near to it come such phrases as, hón hélt engan hans jafningja innan hirðar hvárki í orðum né öðrum hlutum, i.e. she held him to be above all men, Ld. 60; halda menn hann fyrir konung, Fb. i. 216; still closer, halda menn at Oddný sé nú betr gipt, Bjarn. 12 (but only preserved in a paper MS.): this sense is very freq. in mod. usage, to hold, mean, eg held það; eg held ekki, I think not; (hence hald, opinion.) γ. phrases, halda mikit upp á e-n, to hold one in much esteem, love, Stj. 33; halda af e-m, id., Fas. i. 458, ii. 63, 200, iii. 520, esp. freq. in mod. usage, (upp-á-hald, af-hald, esteem.) 4. to hold on, keep up; halda varnir, to keep up a defence, Sks. 583; halda vörð, to keep watch, Eg. 120, Grág. i. 32, 264; halda njósn, Eg. 72, 74, Fms. xi. 46; halda tal af e-m, to speak, communicate with one, ii. 88. 5. to hold, be valid, be in force, a law term; á sú sekt öll at halda, Grág. i. 89; á þat at h. allt er þeir urðu á sáttir, 86; enda á þat at h. með þeim síðan, ii. 336. IV. to hold, compel, bind (with the notion of obligation or duty); heldr mik þá ekki til utan-ferðar, Nj. 112; þó heldr þik várkunn til at leita á, i.e. thou art excused, thou hast some excuse in trying, 21; var auðsætt hvat til hélt um sættir, Bjarn. 70; þik heldr eigi hér svá mart, at þú megir eigi vel bægja héraðs-vist þinni, Eb. 252; þar mælir þú þar, er þik heldr várkunn til at mæla, Nj. 227; ek mun vera vinr hans, ok alla þá, er at mínum orðum láta, halda til vináttu við hann, i.e. I will be his friend, and all those who lend ear to my words I will hold to friendship with him, Eg. 18. 2. halda sik frá e-u, to keep oneself from, to refrain from a thing, Sks. 276 B; h. sik frá munaðlífi, Post. 656 A. ii. 16, Hom. 53, 135; h. sik aptr af e-u, to abstain from, Hkr. i. 512. V. absol. to be the cause of, be conducive to a thing; heldr þar margt til þess, there are many reasons for this, Nj. 192; vildim vér vita hvat til heldr, Fms. vii. 106; en hann vissi eigi hvat til hafði haldit, er hann kom eigi, xi. 11; margir hlutir héldu til þess, Eg. 38; þat hélt til þess, at ..., Al. 94; hélt til þess (conduced to it) góðgirnd hans, stórmennska ok vitsmunir, Fs. 29; hefir þat mjök til haldit, er ek hefi svá lengi dvalizt, at ek ætlaða, Ld. 32; hann lét bæði til h. vingan ok mágsemd, Fs. 24; heldr þat mest til at þá var komit útfall sjávar, Ld. 56; hélt þat mest til þess, at hann gafsk bezt í öllum mannraunum, 60; þat eitt hélt til, at þeir fóru eigi málum á hendr Þórði, at þeir höfðu eigi styrk til, 138. VI. to hold, comprise; sólar-öld heldr tuttugu ok átta ár, Rb. 510; h. skor (of weight), Grág. i. 500.

UNCERTAIN In some instances the use of dat. and acc. wavers, e.g. halda húsum, to keep up the houses, Grág. ii. 278, 335; h. hliði, to keep the gate in repair, 265; but halda hlið (acc.), 332: to keep, observe, h. lögum, griðum, boðorðum, Glúm. 333, Grág. i. 357, ii. 166, 623. 28; hélt hann þessu sumu, Fms. x. 416 (Ágrip); halda ílla orðum, vii. (in a verse); þeir er því þingi áttu at h., Glúm. 386; h. sáttum, St. 17; h. eiðum, Bkv. 18; Gizuri þótti biskup h. ríkt (protect strongly) brennu-mönnum, Sturl. i. 201 C; Guð er sínum skepnum heldr (keeps, protects) ok geymir, Mar.; þá hélt engi kirkju mönnum, ... kept no man safe, Fms. ix. 508; h. njósn (acc.) um e-t, Eg. 74; h. til njósn, 72; njósnir, Fms. xi. 46. In most of these instances the acc. is the correct case, and the dat. is due either to careless transcribers or incorrect speaking: in some instances an enclitic um has been taken for a dative inflexion, thus e.g. sáttum haldi in Stor. l.c. is to be restored to sátt um haldi; eiðum haldit in Bkv. l.c. to eið (for eiða) um haldit; in others the prep. um has caused the confusion, as 'halda njósn um at' has been changed into halda njósnum at. But in the main the distinction between the use of dat. and acc. is fixed even at the present time: the acc. seems to represent the more primitive usage of this verb, the dat. the secondary.

C. REFLEX.: I. to hold oneself, to stay; héldusk þeir þá ekki fyrir norðan Stað, Fms. i. 63; mátti hann eigi þar haldask, Landn. 246; h. á baki, to keep oneself on horseback, keep one's seat, Grág. ii. 95; munu þeir skamma stund hér við haldask, Nj. 247: to be kept, remain, þá skal hann h. með Helju, Edda 39: to resist, megu vér ekki við h. fyrir ofreflis-mönnum þessum, Nj. 254; hélzk þá ekki við honum, Eg. 289; mann er svá hefir haldisk við höfuð-syndum, Hom. 157. β. to hold out, last, continue; ok hélzk ferillinn, Eg. 579; hélzk undr þetta allt til dags, Nj. 272 (twice); hélzk konungdómr í kyni hans, Rb. 394; lengi síðan hélzk bruna-öld með Svíum, Yngl. S.; lengi hélzk þat í ætt þeirri, at ..., Eg. 770; hélzk vinátta með þeim, Nj. 66; þat hefir enn haldizk í ætt hans, Fms. iv. 8; ok hefir þat haldizk (it has continued to be so) síðan er ek hefi hann séð, Ld. 174; honum haldisk (imperat.) sigr ok langt líf, Ver. 57; betr þætti mér, at hún héldisk þér, that it (the luck) would hold out for thee, Fb. ii. 74; ef hann helzk í útrú sinni, if he perseveres in his untruth, 623. 26. γ. to be kept safe and sound; menn allir héldusk (all bands were saved) ok svá fé, Ld. 8, Fs. 143; þar héldusk menn allir ok mestr hluti fjár, Eg. 405; hafði fé vel haldizk, has been well kept, done well, Ld. 34. δ. to be valid, stand; eigu þau handsöl hennar at haldask, Grág. i. 334; engi má haldask dómr hans, Edda 15; skyldu þau (the truce) haldask um þingit, Nj. 348. 2. impers., mér helzk, e-m helzk vel, ílla, á e-u, to have a good hold, have luck with a thing; mér helzk lítt á sauða-mönnum, Grett. 110 A. 3. recipr., haldask á, to hold or pull one against another, wrestle, (hence á-höld); var sagt Magnúsi, at þeir héldisk á úti, that they were fighting outside, Sturl. ii. 44. II. part. pass. haldinn, [Dan. holden], so 'holden,' in such and such a state; vel haldinn, in good condition, faring well, well to do, Eg. 20, 234; hugðusk þar ok haldnir (safe) mundu vera, Ver. 34; þungliga h., very sick, Eg. 565, Hkr. ii. 199; vel haldinn, doing well; tak heldr annat fé, svá mikit, at þú þykisk vel haldinn af, i.e. fully satisfied, having got full redress, Boll. 350; Sveinn sagði, at hann vill hafa tvá hluti fjárins, Hrani sagðisk ekki af því haldinn (satisfied) vera, Fms. iv. 31: in the phrase, heilu ok höldnu, safe and sound, Bs. i. 191, Fms. xi. 376, Hkr. i. 319; með höldnu hljóði, preserving the sound, Skálda 175. 2. ok mun þykkja sér misboðit ef þú ert haldinn (kept, protected), Finnb. 344. β. kept, observed, Fms. xi. 99. γ. held in custody, in prison, Bs. i. 419, Sturl. i. 151. III. gerund., haldandi, holding good, valid; sá dómr er eigi haldandi, is not valid, K. Á. 304; af öllu afli er friðr haldandi, Hom. 5. 2. part. act., með upp haldandi höndum, with uplifted hands, Bs. i. 684.

halda, u, f. = hadda, q.v.

hald-góðr, adj. of good hold, durable, of clothes, etc., Sks. 403.

haldin-, part. pass. in the compds, haldin-orðr, adj. discreet, close, Fms. ii. 18, x. 326, Eg. 51; haldin-yrði, n. keeping close, Sks. 361, Sd. 169: in mod. usage these words mean the keeping one's word.

hald-kvæmask (hall-), d, dep. to avail, suit; nægjask eðr h., Stj. 149.

hald-kvæmd, f. convenience, comfort, Sturl. i. 212.

hald-kvæmligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), convenient, comfortable, Sks. 377.

hald-kvæmr, and assimilated hall-kvæmr, Nj. 265, Fas. ii. 240, Sks. 505; or hall-kœmr, 380, 505 B, [cp. koma at haldi], adj. fit, meet, convenient, Hom. 141, Sturl. i. 45, Fms. ii. 261, Grett. 106 A.

hal-dreki, a, m. a 'tail-dragon,' scorpion, Stj. 578, Hb. 732. 18, Ant. 7.

hald-samr, adj. holding close, Stj. 635; vera h. á e-u, to keep it close, Fms. vi. 440, x. 170; e-m verðr ekki haldsamt á e-u, it slips out of one's hands.

hald-semi, f. closeness, Greg. 24.

HALI, a, m. [Dan. hale, cp. Lat. cauda], a tail; kýr-hali, a cow's tail; nauts-h., ljóns-h., etc.; skauf-hali, reynard, a fox, whence Skaufhala-bálkr, the name of an old poem, an Icel. Reineke Fuchs. Icel. use hali properly of cattle, and lions, wolves, bears; tagl of horses (of the hair, but stertr of a caudal vertebra); rófa of cats, dogs; skott of a fox; sporðr of a fish; stél or véli of birds; dyndill of seals. The old writers do not make these nice distinctions, and use hali of a horse and tagl of a cow, which a mod. Icel. would not do; hylr öll kykvendi hár eðr hali, Sks. 504: in Gþl. 398 of cattle, cp. N. G. L. i. 24; ef maðr höggr hala af hrossi svá at af rófu fylgir, Gþl. 399; ef maðr höggr hala af hrossi fyrir neðan rófu, id.; nú skerr maðr tagl af nautum, id.; eru þeir í málum mestir sem refr í halanum, Fms. viii. 350; ef maðr skerr af hrossi manns tögl, þá gjaldi aura þrjá; en ef hala höggr af, þá skal meta hross, N. G. L. i. 228; ok svá ef hann höggr hala af hrossi svá at rófa fylgir, id.: of a lion's tail, Stj. 71. 2. phrases, nú er úlfs hali einn á króki, a wolf's tail is all that is left, Band. (in a verse), -- a proverb from the notion that wild beasts devour one another so that only the tail is left, cp. etask af ulfs-munni, vide eta: leika lausum hala, to play with a free tail, to be unrestrained, Ls. 50; veifask um lausum hala, id., Sturl. iii. 30; bretta halann, or bera brattan halann, to lift the tail, cock up the tail, to be vain or haughty, Hkv. Hjörv. 20; en ef eigi er unnit, þá muntú reyna hvárr halann sinn berr brattara þaðan í frá, Ísl. ii. 330; sé ek at þú heldr nokkru rakkara halanum en fyrir stundu áðan, Ölk. 36; draga halann, to drag the tail, sneak awav, play the coward; dregr melrakkinn eptir sér halann sinn nú -- Svá er segir hann, at ek dreg eptir mér halann minn, ok berr ek lítt upp eðr ekki, en þess varir mik at þú dragir þinn hala mjök lengi áðr þú hefnir Halls bróður þíns, Ísl. ii. 329; sveigja halann, id., Hkv. Hjörv. 21; (cp. Ital. codardo, whence Engl. coward): spjóts-hali, the butt-end of a spear, Eg. 289, Ld. 132, Hkr. iii. 159; snældu-hali, a staff's end. II. metaph. a train, the rear of a host; skammr er orðinn hali okkarr, we have a short train, few followers, Sturl. (in a verse). COMPDS: hala-ferð, f. the rear, Sturl. iii. 23. hala-rófa, u, f. 'tail-row,' i.e. a string one after another, like geese; ganga í halarófu, to walk in h.; cp. Dan. gaasegang, Fr. en queue. hala-stjarna, u, f. a 'tail-star,' comet, (mod.) hala-tafl, n. a kind of game, used synonymous to hnef-tafl, q.v., prob. similar to the Engl. 'fox and goose;' hann tefldi hnet-tafl, þat var stórt hala-tafl (having a fox with a big tail), hann greip þá upp töfluna ok setti halann á kinnbein Þorbirni (prob. of the brick representing the fox), Grett. 144 A; vide Skýrsla um Forngripa-safn Íslands by Sigurd Gudmundsson, Reykjavík 1868, pp. 38, 39; cp. also hali á hnefa-töflu in Vilmundar S. Viðutan, ch. 8. III. a nickname, Fb. iii.

hall, f. a hall; vide höll.

HALLA, að, [Dan. hælde; Swed. hälla], to lean or turn sideways, with dat., esp. of a vessel, ship, or the like; halla keri, fötu, staupi, skipi; but also of anything else, h. borði, stóli; Icel. distinguish between halla and the derivative hella, to pour out; hann hallar skipinu á ymsa vega, Fbr. 100 new Ed. II. metaph. to sway to the wrong side,