This is page 259 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.

Click here to go to the main page about Cleasby/Vigfusson. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.

This page was generated on 13 Mar 2021. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.

The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.


a march, Fms. v. 74. Her-gautr, m. a name of Odin. her-gjarn, adj. warlike, Bkv. 2. 20. her-glötuðr, m., poët, a destroyer of hosts, Skv. her-gopa, u, f. a bondwoman, Hornklofi, an GREEK. her-grimmr, adj., poët. fierce, Edda. her-hlaup, n. a rushing to arms, Nj. 265, Eg. 10, Fms. i. 55, 210, vii. 270, x. 180. her-horn, n. a trumpet, Al. 35, Stj. 394. her-kastali, a, m. a castle, stronghold, Bs. ii. 113, Mar. her-kerling, f. a monster-hag, Sturl. i. 36. her-klukka, u, f. an alarm bell, Fms. ix. 369, 510, 529. her-klæða, dd; h. sik, to put on armour, Bær. 13: reflex., Fms. i. 43, Eg. 287, Ó. H. 107. her-klæði, n. pl. armour, Eg. 49, Fb. ii. 71, Barl. 98, passim. her-konungr, m. a king of hosts, in old writers almost used = sea-king, warrior-king, Eb. 4 (of king Olave the White), Fms. i. 24, Fb. ii. 282, Edda 105, Magn. 412. her-kumbl, n. a war token, arms (on shields, helmets), Nj. 231, Fms. v. 53. her-land, n. a harried land, invaded and in a state of war, Fms. vi. 38. her-leiða, dd, to lead off into captivity, Stj. 49, 385, 489, Mart. 130, Ver. 30. her-leiðing, f. captivity, Fms. x. 224; esp. of the Babylonian captivity, Al. 166, Rb. 382, 386, Ver. 30, Stj. 26, 49, passim. her-leiðsla, u, f. = herleiðing, Mar. her-lið, n. war-people, troops. Eg. 10, Fms. i. 98, iv. 213. her-liki, n. a monster, N. G. L. i. 376, 395. her-lúðr, m. a trumpet, Stj. 392. her-maðr, m. a man of war, a warrior, Fms. i. 8, xi. 160, 373, Nj. 268, passim. hermann-liga, adv. gallantly, Eg. 383. hermann-ligr, adj. warlike, gallant, Ld. 110, Nj. 39, Fms. viii. 436, xi. 245, Stj. 495. her-margr, adj. like a host for number, Lex. Poët. her-megir, m. pl., poët. warriors, Hkv. 2. 4. Her-móðr, m. a mythol. pr. name, Edda. hernaðr, see the word. her-nam, n. = herfang, Sks. 614. her-numi, adj., 655 x. 2, Greg. 17, and her-numinn, part. captive, Eg. 41, 343. her-næma, d, to capture, Bær. 13. her-óp, n. a war-whoop, war-cry, Eg. 80, Nj. 245, Orkn., Stj. 312, Ó. H. 107, Fb. ii. 125, passim. her-saga, u, f. war-news, Fms. i. 41, N. G. L. i. 102; hersögu-ör, f. = herör, Gþl. 82, v.l. her-skapr, m. warfare, harrying, Fms. v. 344, x. 231, 234, 392, xi. 226, Fas. i. 375, Fs. 4, Stj. 385, Róm. 264, passim. her-skari, a, m. a host. her-skár, adj. (herská, herskátt), a land exposed to raid or in a state of war; landit var þá herskátt, lágu víkingar úti, Eg. 241, Fms. xi. 217, Hkr. i. 44; í þann tíma var mjök herskátt (unruly time), Orkn. 64; þar var herskátt af víkingum, Hkr. i. 106, Bjarn. 15, Ld. 82, Fas. i. 374: of a person, martial, warlike, Fms. i. 198, vii. 16, x. 413, Orkn. 22. her-skip, n. a ship of war, Fms. i. 7, Nj. 8, Ó. H. 16, N. G. L. i. 100, 102. her-skjöldr, m. a war shield, a red shield, opp. to the white shield of peace (friðar-skjöldr), used in phrases as, fara (land) herskildi, to harry (a land), Eg. 246, Fms. i. 62, 116, 131; fara við herskildi, id., Hkr. i. 233, cp. Stj. 542, 619 (2 Kings vi. 14), 641. her-skrúð, n. (her-skrúði, a, m., Fms. x. 234, Stj. 570), harness, Bjarn. 11. her-spori, a, m. a 'war-spur,' caltrop, Fms. vii. 183, Al. 74, Sks. 392. her-stjóri, a, m. a commander, Edda 93. her-stjórn, f. command of troops, Hkr. i. 211. her-sveitir, f. pl. hosts, margfjöldi himneskra hersveita, Luke ii. 13. her-taka, tók, to capture, esp. in part. pass., Fms. i. 28, vii. 129, Eg. 234, 344, Stj. 495. her-taka and her-tekja, u, f. captivity, Stj. 75, Barl. 114. her-tekning, f. captivity, Stj. 52. her-togi, a, m. [A. S. heretoga; Germ. herzog], originally a leader, commander, and often used so in old poets, Lex. Poët.: as a nickname, Guthormr hertogi, Hkr. Har. S. Hárf.: as a title, a duke (e.g. of Normandy); the first Norse duke was the earl Skuli, created duke A.D. 1237, vide Edda 104, Sks. 788, Gþl. 364: eccl. = prince, hertogi myrkranna, Satan, 623. 31. hertoga-dómr, m. a dukedom, Fms. xi. 312, 326. hertoga-dæmi, n. a duchy, Fms. xi. 319, Fas. ii. 475. hertoga-efni, n. a duke to be, N. G. L. ii. 399. hertoga-inna, u, f. a duchess, Ann. 1326. hertoga-nafn, n. the title of a duke, Fms. ix. 46. her-turn, m. a turret on wheels, a war engine, Fms. x. 358. her-tygð, f. = hertýgi (?), an GREEK, Hallfred. her-týgi, n. pl. armour, harness, Germ. heerzeug. her-týgja, að, to put armour on, freq. in mod. usage. her-váðir, f. pl. 'war-weeds,' armour, Hkm., Konr. 39. her-vápn, n. pl. weapons, Hkr. ii. 7, Fms. vii. 147, Jb. 389. her-vegir, m. pl., poët. war-paths, Gh. 2. her-verk or her-verki, n. ravage, plunder, Stj. 598, Hkr. i. 85, Fms. ii. 156, ix. 396. her-vígi, n. battle and ravage, thus defined: it is hervígi when three or more persons are slain or wounded on each side, Grág. ii. 114, 124, Fms. viii. 300: mod. a stronghold. her-víkingr, m. a plunderer, pirate, Fms. i. 225, v. 238, x. 282, Fas. i. 449, Stj. 573. her-væða, dd, to put armour on, Edda 25. her-þing, n. a council of war, Eg. 357, Finnb. 262; but v.l. húsþing is better. her-þurft, f. want of troops, Fagrsk. ch. 32. her-ör, f. a 'war-arrow,' to be sent round as a token of war: the phrase, skera upp h., to summon to arms, Eg. 9, Fms. i. 92, vi. 24, x. 388, Fb. ii. 172, 188, Gþl. 82, cp. 433: for these customs see the remarks s.v. boð, p. 71, as also Scott's Notes to Marmion, Canto III, on the Fiery Cross of the Scottish Clans.

HERRA, m. (herri, a, m., Clem. 36), irreg. and indecl. in sing., pl. reg. herrar, [derived from herr, as dróttinn from drótt, þjóðan from þjóð; Germ. herr; Dan. herre, etc.] :-- gener. a lord, master, Fms. i. 218, x. 45, 159, xi. 381; in olden times herra was used in addressing a king or earl, as Fr. sire, Engl. sir, see the Sagas passim: I. as a title; in A.D. 1277 knights and barons were created in Norway, to whom the title of Herra was given; Herra Rafn, Herra Þorvarðr, Herra Sturla, etc., Árna S., Laur. S., Ann. passim: the bishops and abbots were also so styled, e.g. Herra Arngrímr (an abbot), Bs. ii. After the Reformation, Herra became an integral part of the style of bishops, as Sira of priests, Herra Guðbrandr, Herra Þorlákr, Herra Oddr, etc., and can only be applied to the Christian name; cp. the ditty in which the old woman addresses the bishop bv Sira, and is rebuked for her rudeness, Sælir verið þér, Sira minn, | sagða eg við Biskupinn; | ansaði mér þá aptr hinn, | þú áttir að kall' 'ann Herra þinn. In mod. usage Herra is often applied to any person whatever, but only in writing; for in conversation the Icel. has no equivalent to the Engl. Mr. or Germ. Herr, and a person is simply addressed by his name or other title, Sira if a clergyman, and the like. In the N. T. dróttinn, herra, and lávarðr (from Engl.) are used indiscriminately. II. COMPDS: herra-dómr, m. dominion, lordship, Bs. i. 728, Fb. i. 81; yðarr h. in addressing, as your lordship in Engl., D. N. passim. herra-dæmi, n. = herradómr, H. E. ii. 73, Fb. i. 247. herra-liga, adv. in lordly fashion, Karl. 148. herra-ligr, adj. lordly, Fb. i. 90. herra-maðr, m. a lord, a knight, a lordly man, Fms. x. 445, Bs. i. 736, 780 (Lv. 59 looks as if corrupt). herramann-liga, adv. in lordly manner, Finnb. 276. herramann-ligr, adj. lordly. herra-nafn, n. the title of a herra, Ann. 1277. herrasam-ligr, adv. in lordly way, Fas. iii. 70. herra-sæti, n. a lordly seat, Magn. 502.

herra, að, to confer the title of herra upon a person, Ann. 1294.

herran, m. = herra, a name of Odin, vide Herjan, Edda.

hers-borinn, part. born of a hersir, Hdl.

hers-höfðingi, a, m. a commander, Stj. passim, Fms. vi. 151.

HERSIR, m. [akin to hérað and herr], a chief, lord, the political name of the Norse chiefs of the earliest age, esp. before the time of Harold Fairhair and the settlement of Iceland: respecting the office and authority of the old hersar the records are scanty, as they chiefly belonged to the prehistorical time; they were probably not liegemen, but resembled the goðar (vide goði) of the old Icel. Commonwealth, being a kind of patriarchal and hereditary chiefs: in this matter the old Landnáma is our chief source of information; -- Björn Buna hét hersir ágætr í Noregi, son Veðrar-Gríms hersis í Sogni, móðir Gríms var Hervör dóttir Þorgerðar Eylaugs-dóttur hersis ór Sogni, Landn. 39; Arinbjörn h. ór Fjörðum, 66; Ási h., 76, 303, and another of the same name, 109; Ketill Veðr h. af Hringaríki, 94; Hrólfr h. af Ögðum, 48, 126; Ketill Raumr hét h. ágætr í Raumsdal, 173; Gormr h. ágætr í Svíþjóð, 195; Grímr h., 204; Þorsteinn Höfði h. á Hörðalandi, 228; Þórir Hauknefr h., 237; Úlfr Gildir h. á Þelamörk, 292; Veðr-Ormr h., 314; Arinbjörn h., Eg., Ad. 3; Vigfúss h. af Vörs, Glúm.; Klyppr h. á Hörðalandi, Fb. i. 19; Dala-Guðbrandr h., Ó. H. 106; Björn h. á Örlandi, Eg. 154; Þórir h. í Fjörðum, 155, cp. Rm. 36; hann var sem konungr væri yfir Dölunum, ok var þó h. at nafni, Ó. H. l.c., cp. Fb. i. 23; hersar hafa verit fyrri frændr mínir, ok vil ek ekki bera hærra nafn en þeir, Fms. i. 299: it is also prob. that by ágætr and göfugr (q.v.) the Landnáma means a hersir. At the time of Harold Fairhair the old hersar gradually became liegemen (lendir menn) and were ranked below a jarl (earl), but above a höldr (yeoman), the scale being konungr, jarl, hersir, höldr, búandi, see the record in Hkr. i. 80 (Har. S. Hárf. ch. 6), as also Edda 93; the name then becomes rare, except that hersir and lendr maðr are now and then used indiscriminately, heita þeir hersar eða lendir menn, Edda l.c. The old Norse hersar were no doubt the prototype of the barons of Normandy and Norman England. COMPDS: hersis-heiti, n. the title of a h., Edda (Ht.) hersis-nafn, n. id., Fb. i. 23.

her-skapr, vide herr.

her-skár, vide herr.

herstask, t, dep. [ = mod. hasta, q.v.], to speak harshly to one; hann herstisk á fjándann með reiði ok mælti, Greg. 50, Eb. 118 new Ed., Hom. 16 ( = Lat. exasperare), Blas. 31.

hersti-liga, adv. harshly, Greg. 55, (mod. höstuliga.)

hersti-ligr, adj. harsh-spoken; h. mál, sermo durus, Hom. 22.

her-togi, vide herr.

HES, f. (spelt his, Gþl. l.c.), pl. hesjar :-- a wooden frame attached to the tether of an animal, to prevent it from strangling itself; þat er ok hans handvömm ef af ofmegri verðr dautt eðr klafi kyrkir, en ef hæs (his, Gþl.) er í bandi ... þá er þat eigi hans handvömm, N. G. L. i. 25, (Gþl. 502, Jb. 364, Js. 121.) 2. metaph., in mod. usage, a cow's dewlap. 3. in mod. Norse usage hæsje (hesjar) are frames or rails on which hay or corn is put for drying; and hæsja is to dry on hæsje, vide Ivar Aasen, cp. Ný Fél. xv. 33; hence comes the provincial Icel. hisja (a verb): hisjungr and hisjungs-þerrir, m. of a soft air good for drying hay spread out on hesjar.

hesja, að, mod. hisja, to dry hay on a hes: það hisjar í það, to be aired.

heskr, adj. = hastr, haughty, harsh, Band. 31 new Ed.: [in parts of North. E. they speak of a hask, i.e. harsh, wind.]

HESLT, n. [hasl], a hasel, Str. 20. COMPDS: hesli-kylfa, u, f. a hasel-club, Hkv. 2. 20. hesli-skógr, m. hasel-wood, Art. hesli-