This is page 293 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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HUNDRAÐASTI -- HÚFR. 293

had a hundred men, of whom eighty were billetted out and forty returned, Fms. xi. 88, 89; hálft hundrað, a half hundred = sixty, Mork. l.c. 2. a division of troops = 120; hundraðs-flokkr, Fms. vi. (in a verse). II. in indef. sense, hundreds, a host, countless number, see hund-, as also in the adverb, phrase, hundruðum, by hundreds (indefinitely), Fms. vi. 407, Þiðr. 275, 524: in mod. usage as adjective and indecl., except the pl. in -uð, thus hundruð ásauðum, Dipl. iv. 10.

B. As value, a hundred, i.e. a hundred and twenty ells of the stuff wadmal, and then simply value to that amount (as a pound sterling in English). All property, real as well as personal, is even at present in Icel. taxed by hundreds; thus an estate is a 'twenty, sixty, hundred' estate; a franklin gives his tithable property as amounting to so and so many hundreds. As for the absolute value of a hundred, a few statements are sufficient, thus e.g. a milch cow, or six ewes with lambs, counts for a hundred, and a hundrað and a kúgildi (cow's value) are equal: the charge for the alimentation of a pauper for twelve months was in the law (Jb. 165) fixed to four hundred and a half for a male person, but three hundred and a half for a female; cp. also the phrase, það er ekki hundrað í hættunni, there is no hundred at stake, no great risk! In olden times a double standard was used, -- the wool or wadmal standard, called hundrað talið = a hundred by tale, i.e. a hundred and twenty ells as stated above, and a silver standard, called hundrað vegit, a hundred by weight, or hundrað silfrs, a hundred in silver, amounting to two marks and a half = twenty ounces = sixty örtugar; but how the name hundred came to be applied to it is not certain, unless half an örtug was taken as the unit. It is probable that originally both standards were identical, which is denoted by the phrase, sex álna eyrir, six ells to an ounce, or a hundred and twenty ells equal to twenty ounces (i.e. wadmal and silver at par); but according as the silver coinage was debased, the phrases varied between nine, ten, eleven, twelve ells to an ounce (N. G. L. i. 80, 81, 387, 390, passim), which denote bad silver; whereas the phrase 'three ells to an ounce' (þriggja álna eyrir, Sturl. i. 163, passim, or a hundred in wadmal equal to half a hundred in silver) must refer either to a double ell or to silver twice as pure: the passage in Grág. i. 500 is somewhat obscure, as also Rd. 233: the words vegin, silfrs, or talin are often added, but in most cases no specification is given, and the context must shew which of the two standards is there meant; the wool standard is the usual one, but in cases of weregild the silver standard seems always to be understood; thus a single weregild (the fine for a man's life) was one hundred, Njála passim. 2. the phrases, hundrað frítt, a hundred paid in cattle, Finnb. 236; tólf hundruð mórend, twelve hundred in dark striped wadmal, Nj. 225; hundrað í búsgögnum ok í húsbúningi, Vm. 65; hundraðs-gripr, hestr, hross, kapall, hvíla, sæng, rekkja, psaltari, etc., a beast, a horse, a bed, etc., of a hundred's value, Am. 2, 10, Vm. 25, 39, 60, 153, Jm. 3, 30; hundraðs-úmagi, a person whose maintenance costs a hundred, Vm. 156; hundraðs virði, a hundred's value, 68. For references see the Sagas and laws passim, and for more information see Mr. Dasent's Essay in Burnt Njal.

C. A hundred, a political division which in olden times was common to all Teut. nations, but is most freq. in old Swedish laws, where several hundreds made a hérað or shire; cp. the A. S. and Engl. hundred, Du Cange hundredum; old Germ. hunderti, see Grimm's Rechts Alterthümer; the centum pagi of Caesar, Bell. Gall. iv. ch. 1, is probably the Roman writer's misconception of the Teut. division of land into hundreds; this is also the case with Tacit. Germ. ch. 12: cp. the Swed. local names Fjaðrunda-land, Áttundaland, and Tíunda-land, qs. Fjaðr-hunda land, Átthunda land, Tíhunda land, i.e. a combination of four, eight, ten hundreds. The original meaning was probably a community of a hundred and twenty franklins or captains. This division is not found in Icel.

hundraðasti, adj. an ordinal number, the hundredth.

hundrað-falda, að, to 'hundredfold,' Stj. 545.

hundrað-faldliga, adv. hundredfold, Barl. 200: -ligr, adj., 19.

hundrað-faldr, adj. hundredfold, Stj. 94, Bs. ii. 157, Matth. xiii. 8.

hundraðs-höfðingi, a, m. a centurion, Stj. 630, N. T., Fms. i. 142, Post. 656 B. 2, Róm. 260. hundraðs-blót, n. a hecatomb, (mod.)

hunds-ligr, adj. currish, Barl. 160.

hundtér, m. a hunter, (Engl. word,) Thom. 16.

hund-tík, f. a 'she-tyke,' bitch, Fs. 71, Fas. iii. 231.

HUNGR, m., but in mod. usage neut., as in Bs. ii. 135; [Ulf. huhrus = GREEK; A. S., Engl., Dan., Swed., and Germ. hunger; O. H. G. hungar] :-- hunger; hungr várn, Greg. 58; mikinn hungr, Sól. 50; fyrir hungrs sakir, Gþl. 531; seðja fenginn hungr, Al. 83; svelta hungri heill, to starve, Ls. 63; þungan hungr, Gd. 49; sinn sára hungr, Fas. ii. 222; svelta hungri heill, to starve, Ls. 62.

hungra, að, [Ulf. huggrjan], to be a-hungred, to hunger, impers., þá hungraði hann (acc.), Stj. 144, Greg. 30; oss hungrar, 28; hungrandi = hungraðr, Sks. 632.

hungraðr, adj. hungry, Stj. 145, 152, Sks. 632, Hom. 18, Bs. i. 46, Str. 45.

hungran, f. = hungr, Bs. ii. 135.

hungr-morða, adj., verða h., to die of hunger.

hungr-vaka, u, f. the hunger-waker: the name of an old historical work, from its exciting hunger (thirst) for more knowledge, Bs. i. 59.

HUPPR, m. [Ulf. hups = rib; A. S. hype; O. H. G. huf; Engl. hip; Germ. hüfte] :-- a hip, Vígl. 21, passim: the loins of a carcase, as in the ditty, þegar eg rís aptr upp ei mun kjöt að fá, fáið þér mér heitan hupp, hólpinn verð eg þá, Jón Þorl.

HURÐ, f. [Goth. haurds = GREEK; A. S. hyrdel; Engl. hurdle; O. H. G. hurt] :-- a door, = Lat. janua; drepa, berja á hurð, Th. 3, Ísl. ii. 31, Hom. 96, Vm. 34, Jm. 8, Stj. 402; reka aptr hurð, Ísl. ii. 158, Korm. 10, Eg. 749; úti-hurð, stofu-hurð, búr-hurð, eldhús-hurð, N. G. L. i. 38; hurð er aptr, shut, Ísl. ii. 31, passim: a hurdle, Grág. ii. 328: a lid, Eg. 234. II. metaph. phrases, eigi fellr honum þá hurð á hæla ef ek fylgi honum, the door shuts not on his heels if I follow him, i.e. I go in with him, he is not alone, Fas. i. 204; ef hér hafa hurðir verit loknar eptir þessum manni, if he has been taken in-doors, Ld. 42; hurð hnigin, a shut door, for this phrase see hníga; at seilask um hurð til lokunnar, to stretch oneself across the door to the latch, to try to reach farther than one can, Grett. 67 new Ed. COMPDS: hurða-naust, n. a shed of hurdles, Háv. 26 new Ed. hurðar-áss, m. a 'door-beam;' hurðás or hurðásar were the roof-rafters nearest the door, where things (weapons, fish, meat) were hung up, almost answering to the rót or dyra-lopt in mod. Icel. dwellings, cp. Eg. 182, 183, Bs. i. 209, N. G. L. i. 349, 397: the phrase, reisa sér hurðarás um öxl, to carry the door-beam on one's shoulder, to undertake a thing one is not equal to. hurðar-bak, n. the back of a door; ab hurðar-baki, behind the door, Stj. 118, Fms. vi. 188, Ísl. ii. 45, Fas. ii. 115, Barl. 70. hurðar-bora, u, f. a key-hole, Grett. 137 A. hurðar-flaki, a, m. a hurdle, Grett. 114 A. hurðar-hringr, m. a door-ring, Ísl. ii. 158, Pm. 113, El. 26. hurðar-hæll, m. = hurðás, N. G. L. i. 349, v.l. hurðar-járn, n. a door-hinge, Am. 16, Þiðr. 364, Rétt. 2, 10, Fms. ii. 163. hurðar-klofi, a, m. a door-groove, = gátt, q.v., Eb. 226. hurðar-lauss, adj. 'doorless,' without a door, Pm. 14, 66. hurðar-loka, u, f. a door-bolt, MS. 4. 29. hurðar-oki, a, m. a cross-plank joining the boards of the door, Eb. 182.

hurð-áss, m. = hurðar-áss.

hurr, m. [cp. Engl. hurry], a hurley-burley, noise, Thom. (Ed.) 96, 97, 103.

hussun or hoson, interj. of dislike, cp. Engl. hiss! Dan. hysse! o hoson yðr er hlæið! þvíat ér monoð sýta ok gráta, Hom. (St.); hussun þér gömlum! Karl. 532.

hutututu, interj., to express shivering from cold, Orkn. 326.

HÚÐ, f. (húðna, acc. with the article, Edda i. 370); [A. S. hûð; Engl. hide; O. H. G. hût; Germ. haut; Dan.-Swed. hud; Lat. cutis] :-- a hide, of cattle; húð af nauti (neat), en skinn at sauði (sheep), N. G. L. i. 420; nauts-húð, but sauð-skinn; hörund, of a man; há (q.v.), of a horse; skrápr, of a shark; roð, of a fish; hvelja, of a whale, cyclopterus, etc., Eg. 69, Nj. 201, K. Þ. K. 38, Grág. ii. 403, Sturl. ii. 50, Dipl. v. 18; of a seal's skin, Sks. 168, 179; húða-vara, Eg. 69; húða-fang, a supply of hides, N. G. L. i. 101. II. metaph. as a law term, of flogging or 'hiding' (as the phrase still is in vulgar Engl.); fyrirgöra húð sinni, to forfeit one's hide; leysa húð sína, to redeem one's skin from flogging, N. G. L. ii. 133, 168; berja húð af e-m, to flog, i. 10, 85. COMPDS: húðar-lausn, f. saving one's hide, N. G. L. i. 349. húð-fat, n., naut. a 'hide-vat,' i.e. a hammock, Sturl. ii. 50, Fms. vi. 168, 244, vii. 166, viii. 316, Fb. i. 539, Boll. 344, Fs. 64, Finnb. 232, Gþl. 94, Orkn. 274: the hammocks were leather bags, and sailors used to bring them ashore and keep them in the harbour-booths (see búð). húðfats-beðr, m. a hammock bed, D. N. iv. 475. húðfats-félagi, a, m. a hammock mate, Fms. ix. 321. húð-keipr, m. a canoe of skin, such as is used by the Esquimaux and savages of Vínland (America), Þorf. Karl. passim, Fs. 145, Fb. i. 541. húð-lát, n. loss of one's hide, i.e. a flogging, Grett. 161, Bs. i. 792. húð-sekkr, n. a hide-bag, Jb. húð-skór, m. a shoe of a raw hide, Hbl. 35. húð-stroka, u, f. a 'hiding,' flogging, Grett. 135, Thom. 331, Mar. húð-strokinn, part. flogged. húð-strýking, f. flogging, Pass. húð-strýkja, t, to flog, flagellare, Clar., Bær. 20, N. T.

HÚFA, u, f., proncd. húa, [Scot. how; O. H. G. hûba; Germ. haube; Dan. hue] :-- a hood, cap, bonnet; húfa hlaðbúin, Fms. vii. 225; höttr né húfa, Sks. 290; bar kona vatn í húfu sinni, Bs. i. 461, Gísl. 24, Bs. ii. 21, Dipl. v. 18 (belonging to a priest's dress), passim; stál-húfa, a steel hood; skott-húfa, a tasseled cap; koll-húfa, a cowl or skull-cap; nátt-húfa, a night cap. 2. the name of a cow with a white head; heimsk er hún Húfa, Stef. Ól., Kveld. ii. 197; Skinn-húfa, a nickname. húfu-lauss, adj. hoodless, bare-headed. II. ( = húfr), part of a church, in the old timber churches, Ísl. ii. 402 (of a temple); hann lét færa innar háaltarit í húfuna, Bs. i. 830, 890, D. N. v. 586. húfu-viðr, m. timber for the húfa, Bs. i. 144.

HÚFR, m., an older form hófr, Fms. i. 176 (in a verse), as also in hófregin (q.v.), and in the phrase, eiga mikið í hófi (below) :-- the hulk or hull of a ship; hann þrífr upp fork ok rekr út í húfinn á skipi þeirra, hann færði forkinn í þann húf skipsins er seglit hafði ofan farit ok seglit hallaðisk áðr, Fær. 165; upp í naustið ok settu undir húfinn á skipi Orms, Ísl. ii. 81; kjöl eða stafna, húf eða hálsa, N. G. L. i. 100, freq. in Lex. Poët.; skeiðar-húfr, a ship's hull, Arnór; stíga fyrir húf,