This is page 312 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)
This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.
Click here to go to the main page about Cleasby/Vigfusson. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.
This page was generated on 14 Sep 2019. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.
The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.
a cord of hemp, as a bowstring or the like, Höfuðl. 12; boga fylgði hörr, toginn hörr, Edda (in a verse); hörfa sleipnir, the hemp horse = the gallows, Ýt. 12. hör-dúkr, m. a linen cloth, Hallfred.
hör-skrýdd, part. f. clad in linen, Skv. 3. 49.
hörtl, n. [qs. hörkl or hörkull?], the roughness of frozen ground; það er hörtl í götunum, hörtl að ríða.
hör-týgill, m. a hempen cord, Stj. 416. Judges xv. 14.
HÖRUND, n. the skin, of a person, prop. the cuticle or inner skin, as shewn by the phrase, milli skinns ok hörunds, between the skin and hörund, Bs. i. 252; verðr hörundit ok skinnit allt blátt sem drep, Mar.; e-m rennr kalt vatn milli skinns og hörunds, one feels a cold chill between the skin and hörund; allt hans hörund er svá hart sem horn, Þiðr. 183 (of the 'Gehörnete,' Sigfried); þá koma bláir flekkir í hörundit, Bs. i. 611; þá kom hrollr á hörund honum, Orkn. 182; allir synir hans stóðusk eitr á hörund utan, Sæm. 118; var allr þroti ór hans hörundi, Bs. i. 644; sár vóru mörg fallin á hörund hans, 298; h. ok líkamr, Mar., Karl. 524, v.l.; ef þrútnar hörund, Grág. ii. 129: hence skin, complexion, bert hörund, 129, Fms. vi. 143; svartr (hvítr) á hár ok hörund, swart (fair) in hair and skin, vii. 157; allra manna fegrstr á hörund, viii. 446: the flesh, var sem elds-hiti kæmi í h. honum, Hkr. i. 102; nálgaðist kuldi hans hörund, Sks. 758; meyjar h., id., 1 Kings i. 1, 2; vatn þat rennr í h. sem mungát, Sks. 164; allar æðar í hans hörundi, Fbr. 149: genitalia, euphemistically, þegar hann kemr við mik þá er hörund hans svá mikit, at hann má ekki eptirlæti hafa við mik, Nj. 13. COMPDS: hörunds-bjartr, hörund-hvítr, hörund-ljóss, adj. of bright complexion, Hkr. iii. 179, Landn. 120, Bs. i. 127, Bret. ch. 9. hörunds-litr, m. complexion, Bs. ii. 180, Fb. ii. 300.
B. Fem. the flesh; svá sem hörundin dró oss í glæpinn, Stj. 149; hörundar hungr, the lusts of the flesh, Sól. 50; fara hungri hörund, 71; kipp svá ór sárinu at eigi slái hörundinni saman, O. H. L. 73; hörundar litr, complexion, Edda 19, Fms. v. 347.
hörund-fall, n. impotentia (?); þat má skilja festar-mál, ef h. kemr á annat-tveggja, N. G. L. i. 27, cp. ii. 320, H. E. i. 247, (a lawful cause for divorce.)
hörund-kuldi, a, m. coldness of the skin, chill, Sks. 758.
hörund-mjúkr, adj. soft-skinned, of a woman, Orkn. (in a verse).
Hörzkr, adj. from Hörðaland, Landn.
hör-þráðr, m. a linen thread, Bs. i. 644.
hös-magi, a, m. a sheep with a gray, dusky belly, Grett. 154: the spelling haustmagi is caused by a false pronunciation.
hös-mögóttr, adj. gray on the belly, Grett. 148.
HÖSS, adj., acc. hösvan, with a characteristic v; [A. S. hasu, gen. hasweg and haswig; Engl. hazy; Lat. caesius] :-- gray, of a wolf; úlfr enn hösvi, Em. 6; hösvan serk hrísgrisnis, a gray wolf's coat, Hl., Edda 86; höss örn, a gray eagle, Fms. vi. 159 (in a verse); and höss sverð, a dusky sword blade (or = hvöss?), Lex. Poët.: in pr. names, Hös-kollr, in common pronunciation Höskuldr, the gray Coll; the old form is freq. presented in good MSS., e.g. Arna-Magn. 468, as also in the old ditty, trautt man ek trúa þér | troll kvað Höskollr, Sturl. ii. 136; but that even in the 13th century the name was pronounced as at the present day is shewn by the pun in the words Höskuld and haustskuld, Sturl. iii. 216. The word is quite obsolete, and does not occur elsewhere in prose.
höstugr, adj. [hastr, herstr], harshly, Pass. 40. 4.
hösvask, að, dep. to slink (as a wolf?), sneak, Fms. iii. 189.
hösvir, m. a gray wolf, Edda (Gl.): name of a slave, from his dress, Rm.
höttóttr, adj. hooded, of cows or sheep with heads differing in colour from the body.
HÖTTR, m., hattar, hetti, acc. pl. höttu, a later form hattr, Dropl. 13, Eg. 407, Nj. 32, 46, Gísl. 55, O. H. L. 46, as also in mod. usage; [the A. S. hôd, Engl. hood, O. H. G. huot, Dutch hoed, Germ. hut may perhaps be identical; but A. S. hæt, Engl., Dan., and Swed. hat certainly answer to the old höttr, cp. also hetta, q.v.] :-- a hood, in olden times only a cowl fastened to a cloak, as is seen from numerous instances. Fms. i. 149, ii. 72, viii. 368, x. 225, 229, 301, Eg. 375, 407, Grág. ii. 132: a cowl of felt, þófa-höttr, Dropl. 13, Nj. 179. 2. of a gorgeous foreign hood or turban from the east, Fms. xi. 77, 85; called Gerzkr (Russian) in Nj. 46, Gísl. 55, or Girskr (Greek) in O. H. L. 46; Danskr höttr, a Danish hood, Ó. H.: a hat in the mod. sense was unknown to the men of old; even the hat-like helmet was called stál-húfa, a steel cap, not stál-höttr. II. in poetry the head is called hattar land, hauðr, -stallr, -fell, -steði, the land, knoll, fell, stithy of the hood; or hatt-staup, n. a hat-knoll, Ad.: Odin is represented wearing a hött, and so the helmet is called the hood of Odin, etc.; as also Ála höttr: the vaulted sky is foldar höttr = earth's hood, Lex. Poët.: dular-h., huldar-h., a hiding hood, hood of disguise. hattar-maðr, m. a hooded man, man in disguise, Rd. 272; Síð-höttr, 'Deep-hood,' was a favourite name of Odin from his travelling in disguise, cp. Robin Hood. III. a pr. name, Fas.
hötuðr, m. [hata], a hater, Lex. Poët.
I Í J
I is the ninth letter; in the old Runic alphabet it was called íss or ice (Skálda 176), and represented by RUNE (ís köllum brú breiða of the Runic poem), a form borrowed from the Greek or Latin: but 'stunginn Íss' (RUNE) was in later Runes used to represent e.
A. PRONUNCIATION, SPELLING. -- I is either a vowel (i), or consonant (j), called joð: these are here treated separately: 1. the vowel i is sounded either short (i) or long (í), the short (i) like Engl. hill, prolonged with a breath; but it is almost certain that in olden times it was sounded short, as in Engl. wit. 2. the long (í) is sounded as Engl. e or ee in evil, feet. 3. the j is sounded as Engl. y before a vowel, jata, jarð, jól, as yata, yard, yole. The oldest writers bear witness to the use of j as a consonant; thus Thorodd says, -- i þá er hann verðr fyrir samhljóðanda settr, Skálda 164; and the second grammarian, -- en ef hljóðstafr (vowel) er næstr eptir hann, þá skiptisk hann í málstaf (consonant), svo sem já, jörð eða jór, 170; and Olave Hvítaskáld, -- i ok u hafa því fleiri greinir, at þeir eru stundum samhljóðendr, sem í þessum orðum, iarl and uitr, 176; but in syllables beginning with j (ja, jo, ju) in old alliterative poetry it always stands for the vowel, from the earliest poems down to the 15th century, e.g. jörð or ægi -- iðja-græna, Vsp. 58; viltú nokkut jötuninn eiga | ýtum görir hann kosti seiga, Þrymlur 2. 2; Ölmóðr hafði annan dag | járnið þetta at sýna, Skíða R. 64, which, as now pronounced, would sound harsh, since in modern poetry syllables beginning with j cannot be used alliteratively with any other letter, cp. Pass. 37. 1, 10, 40. 8, 46. 3, 11, etc.; only in such words as eg (jeg), eta (jeta) can i serve both as a vowel and consonant, see Pass. 6. 2; but jeg in 5. 5, 10, (the verse 6 of the same hymn is a poetical licence); so also the name Jesús is now and then used alliteratively with a vowel, 47. 18, 21; the hymns of the Reformation follow the same usage. The pronunciation of j seems therefore to have changed: in early times it was probably similar to Engl. e in ear, tear, hear; an additional proof of this is, that the oldest spelling was, as in Anglo-Saxon, ea, eo ...; and Thorodd himself probably wrote ea, e.g. eafn, eárn, earl, for jafn, járn, jarl, see his words: in old poets ea sometimes makes two syllables, e.g. in the verse cited in Skálda 164 (of A.D. 1018); as also in the name Njáll (Niel), which is dissyllabic in the verses, Nj. ch. 136, 146. At a still earlier time j was probably sounded purely as a vowel. II. in ancient MSS. i serves for both i and j; in MSS., esp. of the 15th century, j is used ornamentally for initial i, e.g. jnn = inn, as also in the double ij = í, e.g. tijd = tíð, mijtt = mítt, the j was introduced into print only in the last year of the eighteenth century. 2. an i is often inserted in MSS., esp. after g, k, so as to mark the aspirate sound, e.g. gieta = geta, giæta = gæta, kiær = kær, etc.: in inflexions it is also more correct to write eyjar, bæjar, than eyar, bæar :-- ji is not written, but pronounced, e.g. vili ( = vilji), but vilja.
B. CHANGES. -- The i and e are exchanged in many root syllables, but i is usually the older, e the later if not the modern form, as, if and ef, brinna and brenna, tvinnr and tvennr, þrimr and þremr, miðil and meðal, snimma and snemma, gingu and gengu, fingu and fengu, tigr and tegr: the article varies between enn and inn :-- the inflex. -endi and -indi :-- Norse MSS. spell mek, þek, sek, = mik, þik, sik (e.g. Thom. Cd. Holm.); -ligr and -legr, gagnligr and gagnlegr: for the inflexive e and i see introduction to letter E (signif. B), p. 114 :-- i for y in old MSS., in firir, ifir, mindi, skildi, minni (mouth), minnast (to kiss, mouth) :-- i and u are interchanged in inflexion, as, morginn and morgunn, vandill and vöndull; but esp. in the adjective inflexions - igr and -ugr, blóðigr and blóðugr, auðigr and auðugr. II. the j in most instances originates from an e, either through absorption or contraction, as in jór (q.v.), or through the dissolution or breaking of e, as in jörð (q.v.); again, the i as initial is in most instances caused by absorption; as of n in í (in) and compds; of v or b in íllr (evil) and compds; of d in some compds in í- from ið; -- in Gothic there is only a single word (eisarn, i.e. ísarn = iron) with a long í initial. III. by comparison with other Teutonic languages it is seen that a radical initial i or j has in the Scandinavian been dropped in a few words, while it has been kept in Gothic, Saxon, and German, thus Icel. ár, Goth. jêr, Engl. year, Germ. jahr; Icel. ungr, Goth. juggs, Engl. young; Icel. ok, Goth. juk, Engl. yoke, Germ. joch, Lat. jugum; Icel. ami, ömurligr, and O. H. G. jamar, Germ. jammer; Icel. upp, Goth. jup, Engl. up; Icel. ér (ye), Goth. jus; Icel. ostr (a cheese), cp. Engl. yeast: in two words, jarteign and jurt, both of them probably foreign, the j stands for w: on the other hand, because of the resolution or breaking of vowels (Gramm. p. xxix, bottom), words which in Engl. and Germ. begin with e are in Icel. often to be found under j, thus Icel. jörð (old Scot. yerth) = Engl. earth, Germ. erde: there are also a few stray words, -- jata (a manger) for eta, jeta for eta, jeg for eg (ek). IV. the Icel. í answers to Ulf. ei (rísa, Goth. reisjan), to mod. Germ. ei in zeit, Engl. i as in time, Icel. tími; in early German the diphthongs ei and í were, as in Icelandic, distinguished (zît, îsarn, = mod. zeit, eisen). V. in