This is page 323 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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JAKI -- JARL. 323

JAKI, a, m. [cp. A. S. gicel], a piece of ice, broken ice, Fas. i. 472, Eb. 236-240, Grett. 140, passim. COMPDS: jaka-för, f. and jaka-hlaup, n. broken ice in a river, Grett. l.c.; see jökull: bel-jaki, a bulging piece of ice, metaph. a rough strong man; hann er mesti beljaki.

Jakob, m. James: Jakobs-land, n. St. James' land, Compostella in Spain: Jakobs-messa, -vaka, St. James' mass, vigil, Fms.: botan., Jakobs-fífill, m. erigeron Alpinus, Alpine flea-bane, Hjalt.

JALDA, u, f. [provinc. Swed. jälda], a mare, only in poetry, gömul jalda í stóði, Kormak (twice); í jöldu líki, Fms. xi. 42 (in a verse); ríða jöldu, Grett. (in a verse). Jöldu-hlaup, n. Mare's-leap, a local name in the north of Ireland, Landn.

jam- and jamn-, see jafn-.

jamla, að, to grumble, (slang.)

Jamtr, m. pl. men from Jamtaland in Sweden, Fms.

japla, að, to mumble, as with a toothless mouth.

jappa, ad, to harp on the same thing.

JAPR, m. [Norse jever], poët. a kind of snake, Edda (Gl.)

japra, u, f. = japr, Edda (Gl.)

JARA, u, f., poët. a fight, battle, Edda (Gl.), Ísl. ii. 353 (in a verse); jöru skript, a 'war-tablet,' i.e. a shield; jöru-þollr, a warrior, Lex. Poët. II. in pr. names; of women, Jar-þrúðr (mod. Jarð-þrúðr), Fms. vii; of men, Jör-undr, Landn.

jarða, að, [Engl. to earth], to earth, bury, Bjarn. 69, Nj. 99, Eg. 130, Ísl. ii. 19, Mar.: reflex., H. E. i. 510.

jarðan, f. earthing, H. E. i. 493.

jarðar-, see jörð.

jarð-bann, n. 'earth-ban,' when, from the earth being frozen or covered with snow, there is no feed for cattle, Eb. 290, Fb. i. 522, Bs. i. 873.

jarð-borg, f. earth-works, an earth stronghold, Hkr. ii. 69.

jarð-bugr, m. the earth's convexity, Rb. 474.

jarð-búi, a, m. an earth-dweller, a dweller in underground caves, Fms. iii. 119.

jarð-byggjandi, part. a tenant, Gísl. 83.

jarð-byggvir, m. = jarðbyggjandi, Vellekla.

jarð-díki, n. an earth-dyke, Stj. 194, v.l.

jarð-eigandi, part. a landowner, Gþl. 348.

jarð-eign, f. landed property.

jarð-eldr, m. 'earth-fire,' volcanic fire, Landn. 78, Symb. 27, Bret. 8, Stj. 89, Grett. 141 new Ed.

jarð-epli, n. pl. [Germ. erd-apfeln, Fr. pommes de terre], potatoes, (mod.)

jarðeskr, adj. = jarðneskr, Barl. 36.

jarð-fall, n. an earth-slip, Gísl. 33, Glúm. 341, Sks. 50, Pr. 381, Ísl. ii. 10.

jarð-fastr, adj. earth-fast, fixed in the earth; j. steinn, Fms. xi. 442, Fas. ii. 256, Finnb. 324; j. hæll, Stj. 417, v.l.

jarð-fé, n. treasure hidden in the earth, Grág. ii. 403, Hkr. i. 12.

jarð-fjúk, n. a snow-drift, Valla L. 218: mod. skafrenningr.

jarð-fólginn, part. hidden in the earth, Gþl. 310, Barl. 199.

jarð-gjá, f. an earth-pit, Stj. 193.

jarð-gróinn, part. = jarðfastr, Eg. (in a verse).

jarð-göfigr, adj. 'lord of earth,' epithet of a king, Eg. (in a verse).

jarð-hellir, m. an underground cave, Stj. 89.

jarð-hita, u, f. = jarðhiti, Stj. 82, Bs. i. 306.

jarð-hiti, a, m. subterranean, volcanic heat, Bs. i. 118, Grett. 136.

jarð-hlutr, m. a land-allotter, liege-lord, Kormak.

jarð-hola, u, f. an earth-hole, Eg. 767, Edda (pref.), Al. 166, Stj. 89.

jarð-humall, m. wild hops, Hjalt.

jarð-hús, n. an earth-house, underground home, Landn. 32 (in Ireland), Fms. vi. 149 (in besieging), Eg. 234, Fær. 169; or an underground passage opening into a dwelling house, and used for hiding or as a means of escape, freq. mentioned in the Sagas, Dropl. 28, Gísl. 44, Háv. 49, Fms. i. 15. jarðhús-nautr, in. a sword taken from a j., Fs.

jarð-kerald, n. a large vat fixed in the floor, for keeping butter or the like, Pm. 91; mod. birða.

jarð-kol, n. pl. fossil coal or saltpetre (?), Sks. 392; jarðkol ok brennusteinn = saltpetre (?) and brimstone.

jarð-kostr, m. a choice of land, land to be had, Stj. 190.

jarð-kross, m. a cross-shaped sod, cut so as to serve for a mark or boundary, K. Þ. K. 90, Valla L. 208, Dipl. i. 7.

jarð-kykvendi (-kvikendi), n. a land animal, Ver. 2.

jarð-laug, f. a bath in a warm spring from the earth, Ísl. ii. 412.

jarð-laust, n. adj. furnishing no grazing; cp. jarðbann.

jarð-leiga, u, f. land-rent, Js. 83.

jarð-leysi, n. = jarðbann.

jarð-ligr, adj. earthly, Lat. terrestris, Edda (pref.), Fb. iii. 465, Fms. x. 317, Niðrst. 6, Greg. 44, Hom. 38, Hem. 33. 2.

jarð-litr, m. earth colour, dark colour, MS. 544. 39.

jarð-lús, f. an 'earth-louse,' pediculus calcareus (Mohr), or rather a kind of beetle, cp. A. S. earðwicge, Engl. earwig: used in contempt, munu jarðlýsnar, synir Gríms, verða mér at bana? Landn. 146.

jarð-lægr, adj. lying on the ground, of a keel, Fms. x. 319.

jarð-munr, m. [Dan. jords-mon], a strip of land, portion, D. N.

jarð-neskr, adj. earthly, esp. in an eccl. sense, Fms. x. 342, Stj. 14. 20, O. H. L. 11, Játv. ch. 3, N. T., Vídal., Pass.

jarð-næði, n. a home, tenancy. jarðnæðis-lauss, adj. homeless, of a tenant.

jarð-plógr, m. ploughing, Stj.

jarð-ríki, n. the earth, the world, Edda (pref.), Sks. 491, Fms. i. 225, Barl. 84, etc.: esp. the kingdom of earth, eccl., opp. to himinríki, N. T., Vídal.

jarð-setja, t, to bury, Pr. 413.

jarð-skjálfti, a, m. an earthquake, Sks. 143, Hom. 139, Mar., freq. in mod. usage; cp. landskjálpti.

jarð-stofa, u, f. = jarðhús, Fms. vii. 32: the floor = Germ. erdgeschoss, D. N. i. 350, iv. 395, (Fr.)

jarð-varp, n. the act of throwing to the earth.

jarð-varpa, að, to throw one to the earth, a law term.

jarð-vegr, m. the earth, Mag.: in mod. usage a soil, góðr j., íllr j., sendinn j., etc., good, bad, sandy soil.

jarð-yrkja, u, f. agriculture, (mod.)

jarganlega, adv. querulously, (mod. and slang.)

JARKI, a, m. [akin to jaðarr, qs. jaðrki], the outside of the foot, Edda 110, freq. in mod. usage; hoppa út á jörkum, to walk on the jarki: in the Færoic dialect jarki is used of the hand = handar-jaðar.

jarkna-steinn, m. [prob. a for. word derived from the A. S. eorcnan-stân] :-- a gem, it occurs only in the following poems, Vkv. 23, 33, Gkv. 1. 18, 3. 9, which may all have been composed by one man, who borrowed the word from the A. S.

JARL, m., older form earl, [Hel. erl; A. S. eorl; Engl. earl]: this word had a double sense, one old and common to the Saxons as well as the earliest Scandinavians, one later and specifically Norse, which afterwards became English through the Norse and Danish invasion, and was finally established by the Norman Conquest.

A. A gentle, noble man, a warrior, and collect. gentlefolk, as opp. to the churl folk or common people (karlar, búendr); thus the old poem Rígsmál distinguishes three classes, earls, churls, and thralls (jarla-ætt, karla-ætt, þræla-ætt); so also in A. S. eorl and ceorl are almost proverbially opposed; in the old Saxon poem Heliand, 'erl' is used about a hundred times = a man. Prof. Munch suggested that the name of the Teutonic people Eruli or Heruli simply represents an appellative (warriors), which the Roman writers took to be a proper name. In the Scandin. countries this use of jarl is rare and obsolete, but remains in poët. phrases, in old saws, and in law phrases; oddar görva jarli megin, spears make the earl's might, Mkv.; rudda ek sem jarlar forðum mér til landa, I won me lands like the earls of yore, Glúm, (in a verse): jarls yndi, an earl's delight = a man's delight, Hm. 96; jörlum öllum óðal batni, Gh. 21; hlaðit ér, earlar, eikiköstinn, 20; ítrar jarla-brúðir, 'earl's-brides,' ladies, Gkv. 1. 3; alsnotrir jarlar, the gentle earls, 2; eggja ek yðr, jarlar, Am. 54; jarla einbani, 'earl-slayer' = GREEK, Em., Hkm.; karl-fólk ok jarla, churlfolk and earl folk, Sighvat; eitt mein sækir hvern jarl, every earl (man) has his ill luck, Fb. ii. (in a verse): in the law, jarls jörð, an earl's estate, is opp. to konungs jörð, a king's estate, in the phrase, hálfan rétt skal hann taka er hann kömr á jarls jörð, en þá allan ok fullan er hann kömr á konungs jörð, Grág. (Kb.) i. 192, for this is undoubtedly the bearing of this disputed passage; jarlmaðr is opp. to búkarl, Fms. vii. (in a verse); so also karlmaðr (q.v.) in its oldest sense is opp. to jarlmaðr, = churl-man and earl-man; hirð-jarl = hirðmaðr, Fms. xi. 302, v.l.; berg-jarl, poët. a 'crag-earl' = a giant, Edda (in a verse); bak-jarl, a 'back-earl,' an enemy in one's rear; of-jarl (q.v.), an 'over-earl,' an overbearing man.

B. A chief, as a title, specially Norse and Danish. The Landnáma, which is almost our only source for the political and personal history of Norway before king Harald Fairhair and the settlement of Iceland, records several chiefs of the 8th and 9th centuries who bore an earl's name as a family dignity; Ívarr Upplendinga-jarl (Upplönd, a Norse county), Asbjörn jarl Skerja-blesi, Eyvindr jarl, 317; Atli jarl Mjóvi af Gaulum (a Norse county), Þorkell Naumdæla-jarl (earl in Naumdale, a Norse county), 281; Grjótgarðr jarl í Sölva (a county), 297: and as a family title, the famous Háleygja-jarlar (the earls of the Norse county Hálogaland, whose pedigree from Odin was drawn out in the old poem Háleygja-tal; Hákon jarl Grjótgarðsson, etc.): so also the Mæra-jarlar, the earls of Mæri (a Norse county), the foremost of whom was Rögnvaldr Mæra-jarl, the forefather of the earls of the Orkneys (Orkneyja-jarlar) and the earls of Rouen (Rúðu-jarlar = the dukes of Normandy). II. along with the Danish and Norse invasion the name appears in England, Bjartmár jarl in Ireland, Landn.; Hunda-Steinarr, an earl in England, id.; see also the Saxon Chronicle passim, where the very name indicates a Danish or Norse connexion. It is very likely that many of the earls of the Landnáma were sovereign chiefs, differing from kings only in title, for in old poetry a king and an earl were addressed in the same way. III. about the time of Harald Fairhair all the petty chiefs became liegemen under one king, the earl being in dignity nearest the king, answering to comes