This is page 326 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)
This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.
Click here to go to the main page about Cleasby/Vigfusson. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.
This page was generated on 13 Apr 2019. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.
The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.
játing, f. = játning, Hom. 4.
játning, f. confession, esp. in an eccl. sense; játning heilagrar trúar, Fms. i. 142; Trúar-játning. the Creed, confession of faith; Augsborgar-trúarjatning = the Augsburg Confession, Confessio Augustana, Vídal. passim: synda-játning, confession of sins, H. E. i. 476, Bs. i. 746, 846, passim.
játsi, adj. indecl. saying yes, confessing; konungr varð honum þess játsi, Fms. x. 379.
já-yrði, n. = jáorð, Fms. ii. 291, vii. 359, xi. 218, Sturl. iii. 315, K. Á. 112.
JÓÐ, n. [this interesting word is prob. akin to óðal, auðr, eðli, referring to an old lost strong verb, jóða, auð, throwing light upon the sense of these words] :-- a baby, Edda 108, Rm. 38; jóð ól Edda, jósu vatni, Rm. 7; ól ek mér jóð, Gh. 14, Skv. 3. 60 (Bugge); eiga jóð, Vkv. 31; fæða jóð, Am. 103; jóðs aðal, a baby's nature, poët. of one sucking like a baby, Ýt. 13: poët., arnar-jóð, úlfs, gyldis, örnis jóð, an eagle's, wolf's, giant's kin, Lex. Poët.; hauk-jóð, a hawk's offspring, Rekst.; hún (the fox) á sér í holu jóð, hvað eiga þau að eta? Snót.
jóð-dís or jó-dís, f. a sister, poët., Edda 109, Ýt. 7: as a pr. name, of women, Jó-dís, Jó-fríðr, Jó-reiðr, Jó-runn; of men, Jó-steinn, see the remarks under dís.
jóðla, að, [jóð], to drawl like a baby.
jóð-ligr, adj. blooming like a baby; hón mun barn fæða ok mun þat sveinn vera bæði mikill ok jóðligr, Fb. ii. 9; hón fæddi meybarn bæði mikit ok jóðligt, Ísl. ii. 19.
jóð-móðir, f. [Dan. corrupt jorde-moder], a midwife.
jóð-sjúk, f. adj. 'baby-sick,' in labour, Ann. 1371.
jóð-sótt, f. the pains of childbirth, travail-pains, Fms. iv. 32, Mar. passim.
jóð-ungr, adj. 'baby-young,' infantile, Skv. 3. 37.
jóð-verkr, m. = jóðsótt, Mag. 95.
JÓL, n. pl., in rhymes, gólig, Jóla, Ó. H. (in a verse); [A. S. geôl, sometimes used of the whole month of December, whereas December is also called æra geola = fore Yule, and January æftera geola = after Yule; the plur. in Icel. perhaps refers to this double month. The origin and etymology of the word Yule is much contested, and has been treated at length by Grimm (Gesch. der Deutschen Sprache), who tries to make out a relation between the Lat. J&u-long;lus or J&u-long;lius and the Teut. Yule, the one being a midsummer month, the other a midwinter month; like former etymologists, he also derives the word from hjól, a wheel, as referring to the sun's wheeling round at midwinter and midsummer time. The resemblance of the words is striking, as also the old northern celebration of the midsummer feast Jónsvaka (see below), which was in fact a kind of midsummer Yule.]
B. Yule, a great feast in the heathen time, afterwards applied to Christmas (as still in North. E.) In Icel. popular usage Yule-eve is a kind of landmark by which the year is reckoned, so that a man is as many years old as he has passed Yule nights, hafa lifað (so and so) margar Jóla-nætr; for the year counts from Yule night, whence the phrase, vera ílla or vel á ár kominn, to become well or ill in the year; thus a person born shortly before Yule is 'ílla á ár kominn,' for at next Yule he will be reckoned one year old, whereas one born just after it is 'vel á ár kominn.' The heathen Yule lasted thirteen days, whence are derived the names Þrettándi, the thirteenth = Epiphany, i.e. the 6th of January, as also the Engl. 'Twelfth-night;' it is however probable that the heathen feast was held a little later than the Christian (see hökunótt). The heathen Yule was a great merry-making, and tales of ghosts, ogres, and satyrs were attached to it, esp. the Jóla-sveinar or 'Yule-lads,' a kind of goblins or monster satyrs, thirteen in number, one to each day of the feast, sons of the kidnapping hag Grýla (q.v.), whose names were used to frighten children with, see Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 219, 220. As the night lengthens and the day shortens, the ghosts gain strength, and reach their highest at Yule time, see Grett. ch. 34-37, 67-70, Eb. ch. 34, Flóam. S. ch. 22. The day next before Yule is called atfanga-dagr (q.v.) Jóla, when stores were provided and fresh ale brewed, Jóla-öl. Passages in the Sagas referring to Yule are numerous, e.g. Hervar. S. ch. 4, Hálfd. S. Svarta ch. 8, Har. S. Hárf. ch. 16 (in a verse), Hák. S. Góða ch. 12, 15, 19, Ó. H. ch. 151, Eb. ch. 31, Landn. 3. ch. 15 (in the Hb.), Bjarn. 51 sqq., Sturl. iii. 127. As for Yule games cp. the Norse and Danish Jule-buk, Jola-geit (Ivar Aasen) = a Yule goat, Dan. Jule-leg = a Yule game. II. in poetry a feast (generally); hugins jól, a raven's feast, Fms. vi. 255 (in a verse), cp. Bjarn. 36. COMPDS: Jóla-aptan, m. Yule-eve, Landn. 215, Fms. vii. 183, ix. 480, xi. 15. Jóla-bál, n. a 'Yule-bale,' Yule-fire, a bright blazing fire, Skýr. 265. Jóla-boð, n. a Yule banquet, Eg. 516, Fms. ii. 39, Hkr. ii. 70. Jóla-bók, f. a Yule book, lessons for Christmas Day, Am. 30, Pm. 14. Jóla-dagr, m. a Yule day (first, second, etc.), K. Þ. K., Nj. 165, 270, Rb. 44, 436. Jóla-drykkja, u, f. Yule drinking, Landn. 216, Fbr. 138, Bjarn. 51, Fms. vii. 274. Jóla-fasta, u, f. Yule-fast, the preparation for Christmas = Advent, K. Þ. K., Rb., Eb. 272. Jóla-friðr, m. Yule-peace, sanctity, Sturl. iii. 127. Jólaföstu-bók, f. lessons for Advent, Pm. 79. Jólaföstu-tíð, f. (-tími, a, m.), Advent time, K. Á. 188. Jóla-gjöf, f. a Yule gift, Christmas box, Eg. 516, Hkr. ii. 70: a tax paid to the king, N. G. L. i. 58, Fms. vii. 1, x. 410. Jóla-grið, n. pl. = Jólafriðr. Jóla-hald, n. a keeping of Yule, Fms. i. 31. Jóla-helgi, f. Yule holiday, K. Þ. K. Jóla-höll, f. a hall where Yule is held, Fms. ix. 372. Jóla-kveld, n. Yule-eve, Fms. i. 76, iv. 82, vii. 161. Jóla-les, n. a Yule lesson, Pm. 31. Jóla-morgin, m. Yule morning, Fs. 143. Jóla-nótt, f., see above, Fms. i. 31, x. 296, K. Þ. K. 126. Jóla-skrá, f. a Yule scroll, see Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 561, a kind of almanack with weather prophecies. Jóla-sveinar, m. pl., see above. Jóla-tíð, f. Yule-tide, N. G. L. i. 350: in plur., Jóla-tíðir, Christmas service, Fms. ii. 37. Jólatíða-bók, f. lessons for Christmas, Am. 72. Jóla-tungl, n. the Yule moon. Jóla-veizla, u, f. a Yule banquet, Fms. i. 31, x. 178. Jóla-vist, f. holding, staying the Yule, Eb. 236, Hkr. i. 72, Fms. ix. 290, x. 410, Sturl. i. 216. Jóla-öl, n. Yule ale, Eb. 274.
Jólfuðr, m. a name of Odin, Edda; as also Jólfr, a pr. name, Fas. ii.
JÓLL, m.; the mod. form njóli is no doubt a corruption from hvannjóli (q.v.), by dropping the former part of the compd, but retaining the final n, which was transferred to the latter part of the compd, just as in Dan. paa = opp-aa: [jol = angelica sylvestris, Ivar Aasen] :-- wild angelica; the word is recorded in the Edda Lauf., and occurs in Ls. 3, -- jól (acc.) ok áfu færi ek Ása sonum ok blend ek þeim svá meini mjöð, denoting that Loki threatened to poison their ale with ill-flavoured herbs (the passage must certainly be so taken, and not as suggested s.v. áfr, p. 40).
Jól-mánuðr, m. the Yule month, Rb. 556, Fms. x. 222.
Jólnir, m. a name of Odin: in plur., jólnar, the gods, Edda (Gl.), Ht.
JÓM, n. a county in Pomerania, where the Danes had an ancient colony and stronghold called Jóms-borg, f. and Jóms-víkingar, m. pl. the Vikings of Jom: Jómvíkinga-bardagi, a, m. the battle of J. (in the year 994), Fms. passim: Jómvíkinga-saga, u, f. the Saga of J.
Jómali, a, m. [a Tchudic word], the idol of the Finns at the White Sea, Ó. H. ch. 122.
jóm-frú, f. a maid, miss; see jungfrú.
JÓN, m. (Jónn, Fb.), a pr. name, contraction of the older dissyllabic Jóann, John, Johannes, see Íb. 17: of the same origin are Jóhann, Jóhannes, Jens, which have come into use since the Reformation, whereas Jón or Jóan appears in Icel. at the middle of the 11th century, and soon afterwards became so popular that in the K. Á. (of 1276) it is made to serve for M. M. (N. or M.) in the baptismal formula, as also in the law formula, yfir höfði Jóni, against M. M., see Njála. Jóns-bók, f. John's book, the code of laws of 1281, named after John the lawyer (lögmaðr), who brought the book from Norway to Icel., Ann. 1281, Árna S. II. St. John Baptist's Day (June 24) is in the northern countries a kind of midsummer Yule, and was in Norway and Sweden celebrated with bonfires, dances, and merriment; and tales of fairies and goblins of every kind are connected with St. John's eve in summer as well as with Yule-eve in winter. The name of the feast varies, -- Jóns-dagr, m., Jóns-messa, u, f., Jónsvöku-dagr, m. the day, mass of St. John = the 24th of June; Jóns-nótt, f., Jóns-vaka, u, f., St. John's eve, 'John's-wake,' Rb. 530, Sturl. iii. 59, N. G. L. i. 340, 343, Fms. viii. 357, ix. 7: Jónsvöku-skeið, Fms. x. 49: Jónsvöku-leyti, id. In Norway the feast is at present called Jonsoka = Jónsvaka, and the fires Jonsoku-brising (cp. the Brisinga-men of the Edda). The origin of this feast is no doubt heathen, being a worship of light and the sun, which has since been adapted to a Christian name and the Christian calendar. For the fairy tales connected with this feast, see Ísl. Þjóðs., which tales again call to mind Shakspeare's Midsummer Night's Dream: Jónsmessu-öl, n. ale brewed for St. John's day, N. G. L. i. 137; þá var sumar-tíð ok hátíð mikil Jónsvöku-nótt, Bær. 17. 2. Jóns-dagr, Jóns-messa are also used to signify the day or mass of the Icel. bishop John (died A.D. 1121), April 23 and March 3, see Bs.: Jóns-höfuð, Jóns-skript, f. the head, tablet of St. John, B. K., Vm., etc.: Jóns-stúka, u, f. chapel of St. John, Sturl. i. 125.
JÓR, m., gen. jós, Ls. 13; dat. jó, Hm. 89; acc. jó, Hkv. 2. 47, Skm. 15, Kormak: plur. jóar, dat. jóm, Gm. 30, Hðm. 3; acc. plur. jóa, Hkv. 2. 38, but jói, 39; gen. plur. jóa, Gm. 43: [O. H. G. and Hel. ehu; in Goth. prob. aihvus; but as the Acts, Apocalypse, and Epistle of St. James are lost in the version of Ulf., we do not know the exact Goth. word for a horse: the Gr. GREEK (GREEK) and Lat. equus represent the uncontracted, the Teut. ehu, eô- (jó-r) the contracted form] :-- a stallion, but only used in poetry; in mod. poets the r is wrongly kept as radical in plur. jórar, dat. plur. jórum: poët. also, borð-jór, siglu-jór, 'board-steed,' 'sail-steed,' = a ship.
jór-bjúg or rather jór-bjúga, n. [from jöfur, a boar, and bjúga, q.v.] :-- a kind of sausage (?), a GREEK, Gkv. 2. 24, referring to iðrar blótnar and svíns-lifr soðin in the preceding verse.
jó-reið, f. horsemen (?), Hkv. 1. 47.
jó-reykr, m. the cloud of dust seen afar off above a body of horsemen, Fms. vi. 411, vii. 68, Al. 31, Fas. i. 497.
Jór-salir, m. pl. Jerusalem. COMPDS: Jórsala-borg, f. Jerusalem. Jórsala-fari, a, m. Jerusalem-traveller: as an appellative,