This is page 328 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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328 JARÐARBRIGÐ -- KAFNA.

gaard; thus, túlf, tuttugu, sextíu, ... hundraða jörð, land of twelve, twenty, sixty, ... hundreds value; byggja jörð, to lease a farm; búa á jörð, to live on a farm; leigja jörð, to hold land as a tenant (leigu-liði); góð bú-jörð, good land for farming; harðbala-jörð, barren, bad land; plógs-jörð, land yielding rare produce, eider-down or the like; land-jörð, an inland estate, opp. to sjóvar-jörð, land by the sea side; Benedikt gaf sira Þórði jarðir út á Skaga hverjar svá heita ..., Dipl. v. 27. COMPDS: jarðar-, sing. or jarða-, pl.: jarðar-brigð, f. reclamation of land, N. G. L. i. 238, Jb. 190. jarðar-bygging, f. a leasing of land. jarðar-eigandi, part. a landowner, Gþl. 337. jarðar-eign, f. possession of land, Pm. 45: an estate, Dipl. iii. 10, iv. 9. jarðar-hefð, f. a holding of land, tenure, Jb. 261. jarðar-helmingr, m. the half of a land or farm, Dipl. iv. 2, v. 24. jarðar-hundrað, n. a hundrað (q.v.) in an estate. jarðar-höfn, f. = jarðarhefð, Gþl. 91. jarðar-flag, n. mortgaged land. Dipl. v. 9. jarðar-kaup or jarða-kaup, n. the purchase of land, Dipl. iii. 8. jarðar-leiga, u, f. rent of land, Gþl. 260. jarðar-lýsing, f. the publication of a conveyance of land, Gþl. 307. jarðar-mark, n. a landmark, march or boundary of land, Dipl. v. 7. jarða-mat, n. a survey of land for making a terrier: jarðamats-bók, the terrier of an estate :-- so also jarða-máldagi, a, m. jarðar-máli, a, m. a lease, MS. 346, 167. jarðar-megin, n. a certain portion of land; þá skulu þeir svá halda garði upp sem þeir hafa j. til, N. G. L. i. 40; halda kirkju-góðs eptir jarðarmagni, H. E. i. 459; sá leiðangr er görisk af jarðarmagni, Gþl. 91. jarðar-partr, m. a portion of land, Dipl. iv. 13. jarðar-rán, f. seizure (unlawful) of land, Gþl. 357. jarðar-reitr, m. a parcel of land, Jm. 8, Pm. 52. jarða-skeyting, f. escheatage of land, N. G. L. i. 96. jarðar-skipti, n. a parcelling of land, Gþl. 286, 287: mod. jarða-skipti, n. pl. = exchange of lands, Dipl. i. 12. jarðar-spell, n. damage of land, Rd. 274, Gþl. 311. jarða-tal, n. a 'land-tale,' a register of farms. jarðar-teigr, m. = jarðarreitr, Dipl. iii. 12. jarðar-usli, a, m. = jarðarspell. jarðar-verð, n. the price of land, Dipl. v. 17, 22. jarðar-vígsla, u, f. consecration of land by sprinkling holy water, N. G. L. i. 352. jarðar-þjófr, m. a 'land-thief,' a law term of a person who removes the mark-stones, N. G. L. i. 44.

JÖRFI, a, m. gravel; hann jós á þá jörfa ok moldu, Stj. 529. 2 Sam. xvi. 13, 'lapides terramque spargens' of the Vulgate :-- gravel, gravelly soil; þar var þá víða blásit ok jörvi, er þá vóru hlíðir fagrar, Fas. ii. 558; Þorsteinn gékk frá at jörva nökkurum, Þorst. Síðu H. 183: in local names, Jörfi (Eb.) in the west, and in the south Klifs-jörfi, also called Klifs-sandr, Bjarn. (in a verse). Jörva-sund, n., Hkv. 1. 24 (Bugge), Vídal., Skýr. 302.

JÖRMUN-, a prefix in a few old mythical words, implying something huge, vast, superhuman: [cp. the A. S. eormen- in eormcn-cyn, -grund, -lâf, -strind, -þeôð; and Hel. irmin- in irmin-got = the great god, irmin-man = the great man, irmin-sul = a sacred column or idol, irmin-thiod = mankind, see Schmeller] :-- great; the compds. of this word, which occur in old Scandin. poets only, are, Jörmun-gandr, m. the Great Monster, a name of the northern Leviathan, the Midgard Serpent, Vsp. 50, Bragi (Edda i. 254): Jörmund-grund, f. = A. S. eormen-grund (Beowulf), = the earth, Gm. 20: Jörmun-rekr, m. a pr. name, A. S. Eormenric (the Goth. form would be Airmanariks), Edda, Bragi: Jörmun-þrjótr, m. the Great Evil One, of a giant, Haustl.

jörmunr, m. a name of Odin, Edda (Gl.): name of an ox, id.

jöstr, m., gen. jastar, [ister, Ivar Aasen], a kind of willow, Bragi (Edda) twice.

Jösurr, m. a pr. name, Hdl.; perhaps derived from Norse jase = a hare, Ivar Aasen.

jötun-bygðr, part. peopled by giants, Ýt.

Jötun-heimar, m. pl. Giants'-land, Edda, Haustl., Vsp., Stor., Sæm. 70.

jötun-kuml, n. the giant-badge, the stamp of the giant, Fas. iii. (in a verse).

jötun-móðr, m. giant's mood, giant's fury, a kind of berserksgangr, Vsp. 50; færask í jötunmóð, Edda 136, Fms. iii. 194.; opp. to Ás-móðr.

JÖTUNN, m., dat. jötni, pl. jötnar; [this word, so popular in Icel. and still preserved in the form jutel of the Norse legends, hardly occurs in Germ. or Saxon, except that A. S. eoten, ent, and entisc occur perhaps ten or a dozen times, see Grein] :-- a giant, Vþm. passim, Vsp. 2; jötuns brúðr, a giant's bride, Hdl. 4; jötna synir, the giants' sons, opp. to 'sons of men,' Vþm. 16; jötna vegir, the giants' ways, the mountains, Hm. 106; jötna rúnar, the giants' mysteries, the mysteries of the world, Vþm. 42, 43; jötna garðar, the giants' yard or home, Skm. 30; jötna mjöðr, the giant's mead, poetry, see Edda 47, 48; jötuns hauss, the giant's skull = the heaven (cp. Vþm. 21), Arnór; jötuns und, the giants' wound = the sea, Stor. 2; gold is called the speech of giants (orð, munntal jötna), Lex. Poët.; Thor is the bane of giants, jötna-bani, -dólgr, Lex. Poët. For the genesis of the Jötnar see Edda. Famous giants of whom the Edda records tales were, Ýmir, Hýmir, Hrungnir, Þjazi, Örvandill, Gýmir, Skrýmir, Vafþrúðnir, Dofri, see Edda (Gl.): for appearances of giants in the Sagas see Nj. ch. 134, Hkr. i. 229, Landn. 84, Fb. i. ch. 453-455.

jötun-uxi, a, m. 'giant-ox, ' a kind of beetle, scarabaeus.

K

K (ká) is the tenth letter of the alphabet; in the common Runes it was represented by RUNE (kaun); the Anglo-Saxon k was called ceân or cên = Germ. kien, a pine or fir-tree; but as this was not a Norse word, the Scandinavians represented it by the Norse word nearest in sound to it, kaun (a boil or scab), which bears witness of the Anglo-Saxon origin of the old Norse Runic poem.

B. PRONUNCIATION. -- The k is sounded hard or aspirate, the pronunciation varying as that of g does, see p. 186; it is hard in kaldr, koma, kunna, aspirate in kel, kem, kenna, kið, kyssa, kæti, keyri, vekja, etc.; the only difference is that k has the same sound, whether initial or medial, kaka, kíkir, just as in English: in modern Danish the medial k has been softened into g, e.g. Icel. sök, vaka, líka, Engl. sake, wake, like, are in Danish sounded sag, vaage, lige, whereas Sweden and Norway as well as Iceland have kept the old pronunciation. 2. the letter k before t and s is sounded as g, thus okt and ogt, þykkt and þygt, slíks and slígs are sounded alike; and so k is now and then misplaced in MSS., e.g. lakt = lagt, heilakt = heilagt. The spelling and other points referring to k have already been treated under C, p. 93; for qu = kv see Gramm. p. xxxvi. (II. i. δ).

C. CHANGES. -- The change of initial kn into hn has been mentioned in the introduction to letter H (B. II. 2. γ), where however 'hnefi' ought to be struck out of the list: for the changes of nk into kk see the introduction to letter N. II. according to Grimm's law, the Teut. k answers to the Gr. and Lat. g; thus Lat. genus, genu, gent-is, Gr. GREEK = Icel. kyn, kné, kind, etc.: but in borrowed words no change has taken place, as in Keisari, kista, kerti, kjallari, = Lat. Caesar, cista, cera, cella; the words borrowed in that way are verv numerous in this letter, but there are some slang or vulgar words, which seem not borrowed, and yet no change has taken place.

kaðall, m., dat. kaðli, [prob. like Engl. cable, borrowed from mid. Lat. capulum, caplum; the word perhaps denotes twisted ropes, for in olden times the Scandinavians made their cables of walrus skin, svörðr] :-- a cable, esp. as a naut. term, Fms. ii. 279, vii. 82, 283, Ó. H. 28, Fas. ii. 543, Gullþ. 8, passim.

KAF, n. [akin to kvef, kóf, kæfa (q.v.), dropping the v] :-- a plunge into water, a dive, diving; fær hann þá annat kaf at öðru, one dive after another, Fb. ii. 215; á kaf and í kaf, into water, under water; hlaupa á kaf. to plunge into water, dive, Fs. 48, Eg. 123, Fms. vi. 318, vii. 224, passim; sigla skip í kaf, ii. 64; fara í kaf, to go under water, duck, Bs. i. 355: as also of land covered with water or flooded, or even covered with snow, passim; falla í kaf, færask ymsir í kaf, they ducked one another, Fb. ii. 215; á kafi and í kafi, under water, diving, swimming, Bs. i. 355, Eg. 387, Fms. iii. 4, vii. 232, xi. 383, Grág. ii. 309: of snow, lágu hestarnir á kafi í snjónum svá at draga varð upp, Eg. 546: also metaph., standa á kafi, to sink deep, so as to be hidden, of a weapon in a wound; öxin stóð á kafi, Fms. vi. 424; kom annat hornit á kviðinn, svá at þegar stóð á kafi, Eb. 326: opp. to these phrases is, koma upp úr kali, to emerge, Stj. 75: plur. köf, gasping for breath, Bjarni 142, (and-köf, choked breath.) 2. poët. the deep; kafs hestr, the horse of the deep, a ship, Sighvat; kaf-sunna, the sun of the deep = gold, Eb. (in a verse). COMPDS: kafa-fjúk, n. a thick fall of snow, Fms. ix. 233, Bs. i. 442, Fs. 54. kafa-hríð, f. id., Sturl. i. 212, Fas. ii. 133.

kafa, að, to dive, swim under water, Jb. 403, Eg. 142, Fs. 92, Fms. iii. 4, Stj. 75, Fbr. 100 new Ed., Grett. 131, 141; kafa upp, to emerge, Stj. 249, passim: of a ship, to be swamped in a heavy sea, síðan kafaði skipit, Fas. ii. 492: reflex. to plunge into water, Sks. 116, N. G. L. ii. 284.

kafald, n. a thick fall of snow, freq. in mod. usage; mold-k. kafalds-fjúk, n. id.

kaffe, n. coffee; kaffe-kvern, kaffe-bolli, kaffe-ketill, a coffee-mill, coffee-cup, coffee-pot; derived from the Fr. café through Dan. caffe, and not older than the 18th century, for the satirical poem Þagnarmál of 1728 and Eggert Ólafsson (died 1768) mention tea and tobacco, but not coffee, which came into use in Icel. as a popular beverage not earlier than the end of the 18th century.

kaf-færa, ð, to duck another, Mag. 77.

kaf-för, f. a ducking, Þórð. 11 new Ed.

kaf-hlaðinn, part. deep-laden, of a ship, Ó. H. 115, Bs. ii. 81,

kaf-hlaup, n. a deep snow-drift, Eg. 74, Fms. viii. 400, ix. 366, v.l.

kaf-hleypr, adj. impassable, of snow, Fagrsk. 186.

KAFLI, a, m. [akin to kefli, q.v.; Swed. bud-kafle], a piece cut off; esp. a buoy fastened to a cable, net, or the like, Gþl. 427, 428; meðal-kafli, a 'mid-piece,' a sword's hilt. 2. metaph., tók at leysa ísinn köflum, the ice began to thaw into floes, Þórð. 11 new Ed.: in mod. usage, köflum and með köflum (adverb.), now and then, 'in bits.' II. mod. a piece, bit, episode, and the like; lesa lítinn kafla, miðkafli, a 'mid-piece.'

kafna, að, (older form kvafna, Sks. 108), to be suffocated, choked, in water, steam, or the like; kafna af sandfoki, Al. 50; sögðu at Kvásir hefði kafnat í mannviti, Edda 47; k. í stofu-reyk, Grett. 116: of light, to be extinguished, Sks. 208: of a horse, kafna eðr springa, Fas. iii. 74.