This is page 405 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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LÖGMAÐR -- LOGRÆNA. 405

lög-maðr, m. [old Swed. lagman; the president of the supreme court

formerly held in Orkney was called the lagman] :-- ' law-man. ' In the

ancient Scandinavian kingdoms each legal community or state (log) had

its own laws, its own parliament (lögþing), and its own 'law-man' (lagh-

mann, logmaðr); the lagman was the first commoner and the spokesman

of the people against the king and court at public assemblies or else-

where; he was also the guardian of the law, and the president of the legis-

lative body and of the law courts. As in the heathen time laws were not

written, the lagman had to sry what was the law of the laud in any case

of doubt; in the general assemblies, at least in Iceland, he had to ' say

the law (from memory) to the assembled people from the Law-hill

(LogbergiJ; hence in the Icelandic Commonwealth he was called lög-sögu-

jnaðr (q. v.), the ' law-speaker, ' ' law-sayer, ' ' speaker of the law, ' and his

office log-saga or lög-sögn =' law-speaking:' 1. Sweden and Gothland

in olden times were the classical lands of lagmen, for the whole kingdom

was a confederation of commonwealths, each with its parliament, law-

speaker, and laws, who were all of them united under one king; see the

Various records in the old Swedish laws, Sveriges Gamla Lagar, as edited

by Schlyter, as also the classical account given of lagman Thorgny in O. H.

ch. 60 sqq. -- í hverri þessi deild landsins er sitt lögþing, ok sin log, yfir

hverjum lögum er lögmaðr, ... þat skulu log vera sem hann réð upp at

kveða; en ef konungr, eða jarl, eða byskupar fara yfir land ok eigu þing við

búendr, þá svarar lögmaðr af hendi búenda ...; aðrir lögmenn allir skulu

vera undir-menn þess lögmanns er á Tíunda-landi er, Ö. H. 65. 2.

in Norway the political institutions of the old patriarchal ages were

greatly disturbed through the wars and conquest of Harald Fairhair; the

ancient laws of Norway too have been preserved in a much more

fragmentary state than those of Sweden; of some of the most interest-

ing laws only the eccl. section has been preserved, often in Icelandic

transcripts or abridged. The most interesting records of the lagmen are

therefore not to be found in the Norse laws, but in the Sagas, e. g. the

debates in the Hák. S. Gamla, ch. 71-80, 85-97 (in the Flatey book),

as also in the þinga-þáttr in Fms. vii. 123-150, and in stray passages in

the Icelandic Sagas, in such phrases as lögmenn ok konungr, logmenn

ok dómendr, lenda menn ok logmenn ok alla aiþyðu, Eg. 352. 3.

in the later Middle Age in Norway, and in Icel. after 1280, the

lagman was a justice, who presided in the court lögrétta, at the lögþing

(II), cp. jb. passim. 4. in the Icelandic Commonwealth, the officer

whose duties have been described above was specially called lögsögu-

maðr, and lögmaðr is only used = lagamaðr = a lawyer, -- þat er ok, at

lögsögumaðí skal svá görla þáttu alla upp segja, at engi viti einna miclogi

görr, en ef honum vinsk eigi fróðleikr til þess, þá skal hann eiga stefnu

via fimm logmenn (lawyers, men skilled in law), en næstu dægr áðr, eðr

fleiri, Grág. i. 2, 3; þat skal allt hafa er finnsk á skrdO þeirri er Hafiiði

lét göra ... en þat eitt af annarra lögmajma fyrirsögn (of other lawyers)

er eigi mæli því í gegn, 7; Njáll var lögmaðr svá mikill (so ^ reat a

lawyer), at eingi fannsk hans jafningi, Nj. 30. At the union with Nor-

way (A. D. 1272) the lögsögu-maðr of the Commonwealth was replaced

by two lagmen of the Norse kind, so that in the Sagas composed after

that date (e. g. the Grettla) or in Sagas preserved in later transcripts, the

terms were now and then confounded, and 'lögmaðr' was, by way of

anachronism, used of the lögsögu-maðr of the old Commonwealth, cp.

Grett. 64, 115, 173, 191 new Ed., Nj. 24, 164, 237 (v. 1.), Eg. 597, Ísl.

(Gunnl. S.) ii. 208, 238, 256, Bs. i. (Hungrv.) 62, Fms. iv. 115, 176,

where the 0. H. edition has the true reading, being made from a vel-

lum of the Commonwealth time. P. two instances are recorded

referring to the loth century in Iceland, where a lögmaðr occurs as a

kind of county- sheriff" or officer, viz. in the Háv. S. (begin.) and the

Svarfdæla S. ch. 10; but both records seem to be spurious and adapted

to the state of things in Norway, for neither Saga is preserved in its pure

original state, but remoulded after the union; see Maurqr's Entstehung

des Ísl. Staates, Beitrage, 136 sqq. In Scandinavia during the Middle

Ages, as the power of the king increased, so that of the old lagman

sank, and at last died away. In England it is preserved in the Speaker

of the House of Commons, whose very name recalls to mind the law-

speaker of the old Scandinavian communities. II. a pr. name,

Lög-maðr, Orkn. COMPDS: lögmanns-dæmi, n. the jurisdiction

of a lagman, Fms. v. 266. lögmanns-eiðr, m. an oath of homage

to the king, Gþl. 66. logmarms-lauss, adj. without a lagman, Ann.

I39O- lögmanns-úrskurðr, m. a logman's decree, Jb. 170.

lög-mark, n. a lawful mark on sheep, Grág. i. 416, ii. 308, 309.

lög-mál, n. prescription, rule of the law; skulum vér þat lög-

mál hafa urn útgörðir várar er fyrr hefir ver. it, N. G. L. i. 104; með

þessu lögmáli skulu born hans til arfs koma, 152; greiða lögmál, to solve

a law point, Grág. i. 7; hafði þat lögmál á verit, at..., it was the old

law, that..., 309: = lögskil, mæla lögmálum sínum, Eg. 734. 2.

ordinance, statute, Th. 82, esp. in an eccl. sense; hly'ðinn Guði ok hans

lögmáli, Bs. i. 263; Guð hafði þat birt í inu forna lögmáli, Stj. 42,

Skálda 209, 210 (of the old and new covenant), Bad. passim: in mod.

usage esp. of the Mosaic law, Lögrnálið, N. T., Vidal., Pass. COMPDS:

lögmáls-bók, f. the book of the law, Stj. lögmáls-spjöld, n. pl. the

tables of the law, Th. 10. lögmáls-staðr, m. a law point, Germ, recbts-

punkt, Grág. i. 402; hvat viltú þá göra fyrjr lögmáls-staðinn ? Ísl. ii. 149.

logmals-ork, f. the ark of the covenant, Rb. 374, Pr. 77.

lög-máli, a, m. a law stipulation, Grág. ii. 234, 246, Jb. 201.

lög-met, n. le g' al taxation, N. G. L. i. 90.

lög-metandi, a, m. a legal taxer, surveyor, Grág. i. 88, 397.

lög-mót, n. a ' law-meeting, ' public meeting, Fs. 43.

lög-mæltr, part, defined in the law, prescribed in the law; in the old

oath, oil lögmælt skil, all pleadings or proceedings as prescribed in the law,

Nj. 2^2; see lögmætr below, which seems to be the older form.

lög-mætr, adj. legitimate, as prescribed in the law, oil lögmæt skil

af hendi leysa, Grág. (Kb.) i. 46; ok veita honum í því lögmæta björg,

78; lögmæt sök, a lawful case, Fms. iii. 144. 2. in mod. usage =

lawful; ó-lögmætr, unlawful, not valid.

LÖGN, f., pl. lagnir, [leggja], a net laid in the sea, opp. to a drag-

net, Gþl. 421; lagnar skip, a b oa t used in laying down nets, Eg. 4, O. H.,

D. N. ii. 89: in plur., lagnir, the place where the nets are laid; sela-lagnir,

tie's for catching seals. II. a neut. pl., hans menn róa á sjó at fá

græna fiska með lögn, ok nú urðu lögnin svá þung, at... ., Þior. 71 •

lög-prettr, in. a quibble in law, Fms. vii. 120.

lög-pundari, a, m. a legal steel-yard, Grág. i. 499.

LÖGR, m., gen. lagar; dat. legi. pl. legir, Lil. 31; acc. lögu, Fb. 1. 525

(in a verse); [A. S. lagu; cp. Engl. lake; O. H. G. Iqgu; Lat. locus'] :-- the

sea; koma urn log, to come by sea, Vsp. 51: in the allit. phrase, lopt ok log,

air and s e a, Sks. 47, Skm. 6; lands eða lagar, o n land or sea; or á landi

eða legi, Grág. ii. 171, Al. 107; hvergi kom ek þar lands ne lagar, at... .

Bs. i. 721, ii. 5, í 22; lagar hjarta, 'sea-heart, ' poet, for a stone, Ýt.; lagar

sîóð, the sea steeds' -- ships, Lex. Poët.; stiga land af le, gi, Hkv. Hjörv.

26. 2. a local name of large lakes, e. g. Logr = the Melar in Sweden,

0. H.; or of a great estuary, við á þá er Tanais heitir ok bann log er þar

fellr or, Stj. II. water, any liquid; tak log af grasi, Pr. 471; síðan

tók hann sér log nökkurn, kastaði þar í öskunni, ok gorði af graut, Fms.

ii. 163; ly'si, hunang ok allskyns lögr annarr, K. Á. 206; í vatni vörmu

eða köldu, en öngum legi oðrum eða vokva, H. E. i. 480; af þeim legi

er lekit hafði ór hausi, Sdm. 13; verpa lauki í lög, 8; spræna rauðum

legi, Ó. H. (in a verse); sár-lögr, benja-lögr = blood; hræ-lögr, hjör-lögr,

id., Lex. Poët.: lögr Sonar, Boðnar = the poetical mead, Edda; hver-Higr

Óðins, id., Ht. III. the Rune |\ (A. S. lagu.)

lög-ráðandi, part, a legal guardian, warden, Grág. i. 162 [cp. Germ.

vormund, as also volltniindig] , K. Jj. K. 158; at hann mundi réttr lögráð-

andi fyrir dýltur sinni, Lv. 32; hann let móður sína lögráðandi, Ld. 62.

lög-rán, n. l os s of right, injustice, lawless dealing, N. G. L. i. 88, Eb.

26 new Ed. (in a verse).

lög-rengd, f. a legal challenge, Grág. i. 17, 31.

lög-rengja, d, to quash a suit; 1. mál, fjiðr. 74, (lögrinnt, qs, lögrengt.)

lög-rétt, f. a public fold for gathering and dividing sheep when driven

in from the pastures, Grág. i. 417, Jb. 292.

lög-rétta, u, f. I. ' law-mending, ' an ordinance; þat væri gáð

lögrétta er konungrinn gaf um konunglega refsing, Sks. 670. II.

as a law term, the name of the legislature of the Icel. Commonwealth,

either from rétta log, to make the law right, or perh. better from róU, a

fence, qs. a law-fence, law-yard, law-court, from being held within the

sacred circle, called ve-bond; for the word is used of the place as well

as of the body sitting there, e. g. ganga til Kigréttu, to proceed to the 1.,

Nj. 150. 2. in the Norse law, as also in Iceland after the union with

Norway, lögrétta was the public court of law held during the general

assembly (þing), and presided over by the lagman; the members (lög-

rettu menn) were delegated from all the counties represented in the

assembly, see N. G. L. ii. 10 sqq., as also Jb. þingfara-balk, ch. 2, . 3.

in the Icel. Commonwealth the lögrétta was the legislative held during

the althing on the lögbergi (q. v.), and consisted of the forty-eight

Goðar (see goði); it was presided over by the lögsögu-maðr (see

lögmaðr), and controlled all laws and licences (ráða lögum, ok lofiim),

and was the supreme power in the land; for its power, composition,

and duties, see esp. Ib. ch. 5, Grág. passim, esp. the Lögrêttu-þáttr

or -section of the lögrétta, the |)ingskapa-þáttr, the Njála, and the

Sagas passim; of mod. writers, Maurer's Beitrage, Dasent's Introduc-

tion to Burnt Njál. COMPDS: lögréttu-fé, n. the treasury of the

1., from which the lögsögu-maðr was paid, Grág. i. 3. lögréttu-

maðr, n. [lagraetman, Jamiesonl, a member of the lögrétta, in Icel.

sense, Grág. i. 8; in Norse sense, Jb. i. lögréttu-seta, u, f. a seat

in the 1., Grág. i. 4. l^grettu-skipan, f. the or der, constitution of the

1., as to the number of its members, Jb. 9, Nj. 150. lögréttu-þáttr,

m. the section of law of the \., Grág. i.

lög-réttr, m. a 'law-right, ' lawful due; biskup býðr at gjalda fyrir

málit sex hundruð, ok kailar biskup meir en tvá lô'gréttu, Bs. i. 492.

lög-ripting, f. = lagaripting, Dipl. ii. 12.

lög-rjúfa, rauf, to dissolve by law, Jb. 122 A.

lög-ruðning, f. a legal challenge, of neighbours or judges, Nj. 2. 35.

lög-ræna, t, to deprive of law, to (real unfairly and in a lawless manner,

Gþl. 542, Bs. i. 737.