This is page 407 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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M -- MANNAMUÜR. 407

M

M (enim), the twelfth letter of the alphabet, was in the oldest Runic

inscriptions (the Golden horn, the stone in Tune) ligr. red p^j and in the

later common Runes Sp and ^, whence later, the top being left

open, ^P and Y ! a" these forms being clearly derived from the old

/V^. Its ancient name was maðr (a man) -- ' nuiðr er moldar-auki, ' in

the Runic poem; but the likeness of Y to a Inai1 NV'tn uplifted hands is

merely accidental.

B. SrKLLiNG, CHANGES. -- The m is sounded as in English and other

Teutonic languages: it is usually single in the words tun -- five, um =

unim, fram -- framm, but erroneously, for it is sounded double, agree-

ably with the etymology. Changes: 1. peculiar to the Northern

languages is the interchange of mn and fn when both letters are radical;

thus, namn, neinna, = uafn, nefna; satnn, sainna, = safn, safna; jamn =

jafn; somna, sömn, -- sofna, svefn; hemna -- hefna; stamn- stafn; stomii

= stofn; hranm •••- lira in: the oldest Icelandic vellums frequently use the

mn, in namn, sanma. hr. imn, jamn, but more rarely in other instances,

as omn. Blas. 46; emni, Arna-Magn. 301. 3; somna. MS. 623. 34; somn-

inum, O. H. L. 82, 83; sjiinm, P*J. 14; it is still sounded instead u(fn

before d, as in hefnd, proncd. hemd, Hom. 7, iS: stcmdi = stefndi: the

fn has prevailed in the Icel., and is used in the Editions, as also in

modern usage: on the other hand, the Swedish lias throughout adopted

the mn; thus, Swed. hamn -- Icel. hiifu, Enjrl. haven; Swed. liim/ia -- Icel.

lifna, Dan. levrie; S\ved. dmne -- -Icel. cfni; each language has taken

its course without regard to etymology, for in some of the words / is

radical, in others in. 2. otherwise m and / seldom interchange, as

in the threefold form of the particle of, nm, umb; himinn, himncskr,

and hifinn, hifneskr; neina (nisi), cp. Go;h. niba; hvilnit and hvilft,

q. v.; as also Mal-kolfr -- Mai-kolmr, þjáiti and þiuhni, skelmir and

skelrir. II. in vellums m is dropped in the 1st pers. plur. of

verbs bctore the pron. vér, vit, thus hiifu vér, eigu vit, but in mod. usage

eigum vit; hence comes the Norse form nu'r (plur.), mil (dual), by an

anastrophe of the v and substitution of the final m from the preced-

ing verb: in ollu-megin, báðu-megin, etc., see megiii. In old vellums

the A. S. CÏ- is used to mark a double m, thus frami -- -- -frammi; in most

cases a medial or final m is marked by a stroke above the line. The

Rune Y 's often used for the word maðr.

maðka, að, /o become maggoty, Stj. 91: maðkaðr, part, maggoty.

MAÐKR, in. [Ulf. mada -- aKw\^\ A. S. mr. ilu; O. II. G. 'inado;

Germ, made; an augmented form, Engl. Maggot, qs. madog: Dan.

madike; Norse makk, Ivar Aascn; Scot, mancb] :-- a maggot, grub,

worm; dvergarnir hüfðu kviknat sem maðkar ï holdi Ymis ... ok

vóru þá maðkar, Edda 9; vail haun allr niöðkum í he!, 1-111. 414;

mölu ok maðka, Fb. ii. 78; síðan hitti borbjiïrn i maðka-sjó sem liggr

user Vinlandi, ... ok niaðkr sá smó neðan skipit til úfæru, A. A. 198,

199; þar drógu vér maðka digrari nianns læri, Al. 174, Stj. 91, Sks. 50

(improp. of an insect); ámu-maðkr, a rain worm; sjó-maðkr, s ea worms,

þorf. Karl. 438; skel-maðkr, worms with shells, id. maðka-veita, u,

f. a brood of maggots.

maðk-sjór, m. a sea full of worms, þorf. Karl. 438.

maðk-smoginn, part, worm-eaten, of drift timber, ships.

MAÐR, m., qs. mann-r, which form also occurs in old poets, cr. !'i

mattnr und nrini, velltkla, (for the change of nn before r into ') see the

introduction to letter N); gen. nianns, dat. maiuii, acc. maun, plur. menu,

qs. menn-r; with the article, menninir, so always in old writers, but in

mod. mennirnir erroneously, as if from niennir: the plur. meðr. answer-

ing to the sing, maðr, occurs in old poets -- m e f)r vituð öðlin:; rfj-'Va, P'ms.

vii. 87 (in a verse); Norð-m e()r róa nnf)ri. vi. 309 (in a verse); m?()r

fengu mikit ve*)r, Edda 102; hirð-m e dr, v e dja, Rekst., all verses of the

Ilth and 12th centuries; er ineîSr Myrkvið kalla, Akv. 5: meðr hlutu

sár, Fbr. 75 new Ed. (in a verse): gen. pl. manna, dat. iiuiiinmn, acc.

menu. In Ballads and Rimur after the 15th century, and hence in eccl.

writers of later times, a noni. mann is now and then used, esp. in compels

influenced by Germ, and Engl., e. g. hreysti-mann, Skiða R. 58; or

for the sake of rhyme, ætla Ju'i ekki, aumr maim | af koinast muni

strafflaust hann, Pass. 14. 17: [Ulf. manna = ('w6paiiros; in other Teut.

languages spelt man, or better mann. ']

B. A man -- Lat. bomo, Gr. avOpu-rros, also people; eigi vil ek

segja frá manninum þvíat mér er niaðrinn skyKlr, þat er frá nianni at

segja, at maðr er vel auðigr at K, Nj. s; j; n:cnnskr niaðr, a manlike

man, ahnman being, opp. to giants or beings of superhuman strength. Gin.

31; menu eru her koinnir ef menu skal kalla, en líkari crn þeir þursum

at vexti ok sy'n en mennskum monnum, Eg. ïio; flvjuin mi! ekki er

við menn um at eiga, Nj. 97; bat hafa ganilir menn niælî, at þess maims

mundi hefnt verôa cf hann fï'lli á gn'tfu, Eg. 107; þeir UUEJU menn (the

young people) elskask sin í millum, Mar.; þótt nökkut væri þústr á með

enum yngrum münnum, Ld. -200; fjöldi manns, múgr manns, Ems. ii.

45i 234, xi. 245; þykkir mönnum nükkur várkunn til þess, 192; var bat niargra manna nuii, at..., Eg. 537, Eniï. i. 45; er þat illt manni ?

Eg. 604; sá maðr, that person, K. p. K. 4; manna beztr, fríðastr ..., the

best, fairest... of men, passim; allra manna bezt, beyond all men, best of

all men, Bs. i. 67; kona var enn þriði maðr, Hkr. iii. 184; hvárr þeirra

manna, each ofthe wedded fair. Gray;, i. 476; góðir menu, good men ! in

addressing, passim: allit., Guði ok gúðuni niönnum, to God and all good

men, Bs. i. 68: sayings, maðr skal eptir mann lifa, man shall live after

man (as a consolation), Eg. 322: maðr er maims gaman, man is man's

comfort, 11111. 46; whence huggun er manni monnum at, Pass. 2. 10:

maðr eptir mann, man after man, in succession; or, niaðr af manni, man

after man, in turn: svndi maðr manni, man shewed it to man, it went

round from band to hand, Ems. vi. 216; mi segir maðr manni þessi

iagnaðar-tiðendi. Bs. i. 181, foiðr. 142; kunni þat inaðr manni at segja

at Bróöir felldi Brjan, Nj. 275. 2. phrases, þat veil menu (the verb in

sing., the noun in plur.), every one knows that! to be sure ! Art. 31, 62,

Karl. 48; nicôr of veil, Sighvat: mod. viti menn ! with a notion of irony;

thus also menu segja, men say, (in old pout, usage elliptically, kveða -- Lat.

dicunt, Ybm. 24, 26, 28, 30. Gin. 13, lldl. 42, llni. í I; k\'iib'J, people said,

Ym. 33): the sing, maör -- Er. on, mod. Dan. man (in Dan. man siger), is

not vernacular. 3. in compds. kvenn-maðr, a woman; karl-maðr, a

man: (. ii families, Alyra-inenn, Síðu-nicnn, Landn.: inhabitants, people,

Norð-menu, Norsemen; Noregs-ineni), / he men of Norway; Athenu-nienn,

Athenians; Kcrintu-meim. Oj rin/ h iVi ns; of condition of life, leik-menn, lay-

m ew; kenni-ineun, clergymen; biiand-rncnn, pea s ants; valds-rncnn, rulers;

kaup-nienn, merchants; sjo-inenn, seamen; vinnu-inenn, labourers. 4.

degree in a lineage: at þriðja, fjóröa, iînita ... manni, in the third, fourth,

fifth ... degree, Gn'ig. i. 321; manni firnari en systrungr ..., one degree

remoter than ... . used ot odd degrees (e. g. four on one side and three

on the other), ii. 172; hann var manni firr en systrungr Bárðar, hewax

an oild iccond cousin of 1!. . lîárð. 165; hence tvi-inenningar, þrí-incnn-

ingar, fjor-menningar ..., a second, third, fourth ... cousin, passim. II.

a man. Lat. vir; vi'-r liofum brjii skip ok hundruð manna á hverju. Eas.

ii. 521; síðan tor hann til manna sinna, Fms. v. 514; grciða e)-ri gulls

hverjum manni,, 178; hann for nicð of maims yfir landit, iv. 146; and so

in countless instances: Sigurðar-menn, the followers ofS.; Tuina-ineiin,

konungb-inenn, Krist-menn, kross-inenn, vii. 293, 299, 0. II. 216. 2.

a husband; Guð er Kristinnar andar inaðr er honum giptisk í tru, Greg.

31: freq. in mod. usage, maðrinn minii, w y husband! dóttur-maðr, a

son-in-law. 3. metaph., vera maðr fyrir e-u, to be man enough for it,

able to do it; eg er ekki maðr f\-rir því, inaðr til þess, id.; hann svndisk

eigi maðr til at setja. sk í svá háíeitt sreti, Bs. i. 743; mikill, lítill, niaðr

fyrir sur, to be a great, strong, weak man, and the like. III. the

Rune m, see introduction.

C. COMPDS, inarms- and manna-: manns-aldr, in. a man's life,

generation. 6. ', 3. 10, Ems. viii. 240, Eas. i. 406. mauns-bani, a, in.

' man's bane, ' a man-slayer. Js. 49, Ni. 119. manns-barn, n. a ' man's

bairn;' in the phrase, hvert in., every child of man, Stud. 1. 47. maniia-

bein, n. pl. human bones, Fms. i. 230. manns-blóð, n. human blood,

Nj. 59, Ems. iii. j 25. manna-bukar, m. pl. corpses of slain, Ems. iii.

7' x'- 355- manna-bygð, f. human abodes, opp. to the wilderness, Ems.

i. 2 15. marma-bter, in. tlwclling-bo;i?ef, Ann. 1390. manns-bsotr,

f. pl. weregrlil. Eg. 259. manns-efni, n. a;;; an to be; gott-m. (see

efni\ Eg. 368, Ems. i. 174, Eær. 231. manna-farvegr, in. a foot-

pa:h, ('îþi. 539. manns-fmgr, m. a human finger. nianna-forráð,

n. ' man-sway ' rule, dominion; the g^dord or priesthood is often in the

Laws and Sagas so called, Hrafn. 21, Nj. 149, Gn'ig., Ísl. ii. 402, Ems. x.

45. manna-forrœði. n. -- niannaforráð, Nj. 231, Ld. 3. 10. manns-

fótr, m. a human foot, Hkr. ii. 114. inaiina-fundr, m. a meeting

of men, (în'ig. i. 420. manns-fylgja, u, f., or manna-i'ylgjur, f.

pl. fetches of men, I. v. 69, Es. 68; see íylgja. manna-för, n. pl.

men's footprints, Eg. 578. manna-grein, f. distinction of men, Ems.

viii. 21. inanns-hauss, m. a human skull, borf. Karl. 242. manns-

liar, n. human hair, Edda 4, Eas. iii. 266. manns-hold, n. human

Jie:h, Ems. xi. 235. manna-hugir, m. pl., see hugr III. 2, lláv. 55,

Jjórð. 17 new Ed. manna-hús, n. pl. men's bonset, Fbr. 77:

human abodes. manns-höíuð, manna-höfuð, m. (he human head,

K. Á. i. Ems. x. 280, Nj. 275. manns-hönd, f. a human hand,

Fas. i. 66. mo. nua-kona, u, f. a man's wife, married w)ii*nn,

Gn'ig. i. 335. 337, 34r, 341, 380, Bs. i. 777, Sks. 340. manna-

lát, n. the loss of men. loss af life, death, Nj. 248, Eg. 585, Orkn.

296. marms-lát, n. a person's death, decease; heyra inannslut,

to bear of a person's ch-atb. raanns-lif, n. man's life, Honi. 6.

manns-liki, n. human shape, Edda 9. manna-lof, n. praise of men,

Hom. 83. manna-inal, n. human voices, human speech, Nj. 154;

or manns-rnal, id., in the phrase, \ að heyrist ekki inanusmal, no

man's voice can be heard, of a great noise. inanna-missir, in. the

loss of men, Sturl. iii. 7, Eas. ii. 552. manns-morð, n. murder,

N. G. L. i. 256. manna-mót, n. -- mar. nfuudr, (jrag. i. 343. manns-

mót, n. manly mien, ' manfnlness, ' Ems. i. 149, xi. 86; þat er inanns-

niót að honum, he looks like a true man. manna-munr, m. distinc-

^ /ion, difference of men. 13s. i. 85. 5. mauna-mxigr, m. a crcwd of people.