This is page 445 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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N -- NANNA. 445

N

N (enn), the thirteenth letter, is in the old Runes represented on the Golden horn by the character RUNE on the stone in Tune by RUNE, and in the later Runes by RUNE or RUNE, all derived from the Lat.-Gr. RUNE; it was called nauð (need, A.S. neâd), nauð görir neppa kosti, Runic poem. In ancient MSS. the capital N or the A.S. RUNE is used to mark a double n, thus, maij, keija, UNCERTAIN = mann, kenna.

PRONUNCIATION. -- The n is sounded as in other Teut. languages; but nn after a diphthong has a peculiar sound like dnh, thus steinn hreinn = steidnh hreidnh; whereas, after a single short vowel the sound is as usual, hann, mann; this ndh sound does not seem to be ancient, as may be seen from rhymes such as, seinn þykki mér sunnan, Sighvat: a confusion between rn and nn first appears in MSS. of the 15th century; e.g. eirn hreirn, = einn hreinn, and so in early print: before t the n is aspirate, vint = vinht, cp. introduction to letter L.

CHANGES. -- The nn before r in olden times was often changed to and sounded as ð, not only in maðr, suðr (= mannr, sunnr), öðrum, aðrir, aðrar (from annarr), miðr (= minnr), in which cases it is still sounded so; but also in saðr, muðr, bruðr, fiðr, meðr, uðr, guðr, kuðr, = sannr ... kunnr; tveðr = tvennr, gryðri = grynnri, Bs. i. 342, 349; saðrar = sannrar, Greg. 23, Líkn. 3: it is so used in rhymes by the poets; in all these latter instances the nn has reappeared in mod. usage; cp. Engl. mouth = munnr, but sunna (the sun). May not the change of the participles in -iðr into -inn (Gramm. p. xxiv, col. 2) be due to the same phonetic principle, but in inverted order? The n is elided in jamn-mikit, sounded and spelt jam-mikit; jam-góðr = jamn-góðr :-- nn or n for nd, in sunz = sunds, lanz = lands, munulaug = mundlaug; bundnir, sounded bunnir and spelt so, Edda i. 240. In some words the nn is due to assimilation, as that of zn in rann, Goth. razna; but often of or nd in the cognate Teut. languages, thus Icel. nenna, Goth. nanþjan; finna, Engl. find. For the absorption of final and medial n see Gramm. p. xxx, col. 1.

FINGER For words with a radical h (hn) see under H.

-NA, a suff. demonstr. particle, see Gramm. p. xxxviii, col. 2 (III); esp. freq. in mod. usage in the words hér-na, þar-na, ha-na, nú-na, svá-na (proncd. svo-na or so-na), q.v., Band. 18; as also þér-na, Fms. vi. 422; þat-na, MS. 623. 19; þess-na, Fas. ii. 147; við-na, Fms. iii. 73; gær-na, vi. 254: with verbs rarely, var-na, Fas. ii. 174: part. spurt-na, Fb. i. 433: and lastly in the pers. pron. ha-nn, hó-n.

NABBI, a, m. [Engl. knob; North. E. and Scot. nab], a small protuberance on the skin or on greensward; nabba-þýfi, fjalls-n., D.N. iii. 861, freq. in mod. usage: the name of a dwarf, Hdl. 7.

nadda, að, to provide with studs; naddaðr, studded.

NADDR, m. a stud, nail; knébjargir með stálhörðum nöddum, Sks. 405; nadda á umgjörðinni, Fms. vi. 212; hann hnitar saman penninginn, ok eru tuttugu naddar á, Gísl. 14; nadda borð, a 'stud-board', poët. for a shield from its being ornamented with metal studs, see Fms. vii. 323: in poetry, nadda él, róg, as also nadd-él, -fár, -skúr, -regn, -hríð, -veðr, = a battle, Lex. Poët. nadd-göfugr, adj. 'stud-glorious,' an epithet of Heimdal, Hdl. 34, with reference to the beams of dawn (studs of light?); as an epithet of a giant, the father of Men-glöð, Gg. 14.

NAÐR, m., and naðra, u, f.; the r is radical, naðrs, naðri, an irreg. dat. nöðri, Edda 97 (in a verse); [Ulf. nadrs = GREEK, Luke iii. 7; A.S. nædre; O.H.G. natra, f.; Germ. natter] :-- a viper, adder, snake, Edda 99, Hkv. Hjörv. 9, Vsp. 56; fránn naðr, 65, Edda 54 (in a verse); eitrsvalr naðr, 97 (in a verse); naðrs-tunga, snake-tongue, Ísl. ii. (in a verse): the fem. naðra, in Edda 99, Stj. 97, 417, Fas. i. 220; nema sú naðra er renndi at honum, 76; nöðrur ok ormar, Fms. iv. 248 :-- in poetical expressions, naðra-deyðir, 'snake-bane,' i.e. the winter, Mork. 214; naðrs-bingr, serpent-lair, i.e. gold; unda naðr, wound-snake, i.e. the sword; rausnar-naðr = a ship (see rausn); sjávar-naðr, a sea-serpent, i.e. a ship of war; val-naðr, hræ-naðr, carrion-serpent, i.e. a sword, see Lex. Poët.: the word is never used in prose. 2. freq. also of a war ship = Ormr, Hallfred (Fs. 208, 209). 3. the name of a sword, Eg. COMPDS: nöðru-kyn, n. a generation of vipers, N.T. nöðru-ætt, f. = nöðrukyn, 625. 90.

Naðverskr, adj. Nazarene, Mar., N.T., Vídal., Pass.

naf, n. = nöf (q.v.), the bark of a tree, Hkr. i. (in a verse).

NAFARR, m., dat. nafri, [from nöf, q.v.], prop. a 'nave-borer,' an auger, whence a gimlet, Sks. 31, Fs. 176, Ld. 116, Edda 48, 49, Vm. 165. COMPDS: nafar-gat and nafars-rauf, n. a gimlet hole, Edda 49. nafra-skjóða, u, f. a gimlet case, Fb. i. 301.

nafar-skeptr, adj. a GREEK; línbrækr nafarskeptar, Fms. vii. 170 (of cloth of a peculiar texture); cp. einskepta, ferskepta.

NAFLI, a, m. [A.S. navela; Engl. navel; O.H.G. nabulo; Germ. nabel; Dan. navle; Gr. GREEK; Lat. umbilicus] :-- the navel, Fms. v. 346, Hb. 415. 15. COMPDS: nafla-gras, n., botan. koenigia Islandica, Hjalt. nafla-strengr, m. the umbilical cord.

NAFN, often spelt namn, n.; [Ulf. namo; common to all Teut. languages without the n, which has been preserved in the Norse; Dan. navn; Swed. namn; Lat. nomen; Gr. GREEK] :-- a name; af hans nafni tók nafn Britannia, Fms. xi. 416; spyrja e-n at nafni, Nj. 6; gefa namn, Grág. i. 101; at nafni, by name, passim; kalla á namn e-s, 623. 24; í nafni e-s, in one's name, id., passim; skírnar-nafn, a baptismal name; auk-nafn, a nickname. For the ancient ceremony, even of the heathen age, of sprinkling infants with water and giving them a name see the remarks and references given s.v. ausa, (to which add Dropl. 25, ok mun ek ekki við þér sjá, þvíat þú jóst mik vatni.) Proper names were either single as Steinn or compound as Hall-steinn, Þor-steinn, Vé-steinn, Há-steinn, Her-steinn, Gunn-steinn, see Þorst. hv. 46, Eb. 126 new Ed. (Append.); for giving names to infants see Vd. ch. 13, Nj. ch. 14, 59, Ld. ch. 13, Eb. ch. 7, 11, 12, and the Sagas passim. The ancient Teutons and Scandinavians used but one name, for nicknames are rare or of later date, and perh. came into use through contact with foreigners, as with the Gaelic tribes in the west, for in the Landn. such names abound in Icel., though they were afterwards disused; the law makes it a case of outlawry to 'give names,' ef maðr gefr manni nafn annat en hann eigi áðr ok varðar fjörbaugs garð, ef hann reiðisk við, Grág. (Kb.) ii. 182, see however nafn-festr below. For illustration see lists of names subjoined to the Editions of the Sagas, Landn., Bs., Fms., Fb. iii, Espól. Annals; a list of nicknames, Fb. iii. 657-663. Worthy of note is the desire of the men of old to live again in a new name, cp. Vd. ch. 3, Fb. ii. 7-9, and many other instances; one who falls short of the man he is named after is said to kafna undir nafni. 2. gramm. a noun, Skálda 180. II. a name, title; at gipta hana tignara manni fyrir nafns sakir, Fms. i. 157; hersir at nafni, Ld. 8, Ó.H. 106; nafn ok veldi, Eg. 268; keisara-nafn, konungs-n., jarls-n., passim; at nafni, nominally, not really, not well; fontr með búnaði at nafni, Pm. 68, 78. COMPDS: nafna-gipt, f. a giving of names, Stj. 130; in a bad sense, a calling names, mod. nafna-skipti, n. a change of names, Hom. 57. nafna-skrá, f. a roll of names.

nafna, u, f. a female namesake, Fas. iii. 554, Hom. 80.

nafn-bót, f. a title, rank, Nj. 6, Fms. iii. 185, ix. 257, Fb. ii. 288: redress, Ísl. ii. 386.

nafn-festr, f. 'name-fastening,' a gift which it was usual to give when a new name was given to any one; þú, sveinn, hefir gefit mér nafn, at ek skal heita Hrólfr kraki, en þat er títt, at gjöf skal fylgja nafnsfesti, Edda 8l; konungr mælti, þú ert vandræða-skáld -- Hallfreðr svarar, hvat gefr þú, konungr, mér at nafnfesti ef ek skal vandræða-skáld heita, Fs. 116; þetta fingr-gull vil ek gefa þér, Þormóðr, at kvæðis-launum ok at n., þvíat ek gef þér þat nafn at þn skalt heita Þormóðr Kolbrúnar-skáld, Fbr. 37 new Ed., Fb. i. 213, 262, 418, Fms. iii. 182.

nafn-frægr, adj. famous, Ld. 20, Nj. 125, Stj. 73.

nafn-gipt, f. the bestowing a title, Eg. 66: a giving of names.

nafn-gipta, t, to name, Fms. vii. 125, Stj. 82.

nafni, a, m. a namesake, Nj. 103, Fb. i. 76, Fs. 77.

nafn-kenna, d, to name, Stj. 140: nafn-kendr, part. famous.

nafn-kunnigr, adj. renowned, Grett. 87 A, Mar.

nafn-liga, adv. by name, H.E. i. 484.

nafn-ligr, adj. fit as a name, Fms. vi. 390.

nafn-toga, að, to name, mention, Fms. vi. 104: to extol, laud, nafn-togaðr, part. famous, freq. in mod. usage.

naga, að, = gnaga (q.v.), to gnaw.

nagga, að, [akin to gnúa], to rub :-- to maunder, Grett. 98 A.

naggr, m. a peg: metaph. an urchin.

NAGL, m., pl. negl, in mod. usage nögl, f., gen. naglar, pl. neglr. Fas. ii. 370 (paper MS.); [A.S. nagel; Engl. nail; O.H.G. nakal; Germ. nagel; Dan. negl; Lat. unguis; Gr. GREEK] :-- the nail, Edda 110; negl ok hár, Fms, vi. 402, Fb. ii. 375; nagl sinn, Art. 70; á nornar nagli, Sdm.; hans negl vóru svá sterkir, Bev. 20; blóð stökk undan hverjum nagli, ... hann skóf nagl sinn, Fas. i. 285; þat skip er gört af nöglum dauðra manna, ef maðr deyr með úskornum nöglum, Edda 41; hár eða negl eða frauðafætr, used for witchery, N.G.L. i. 362; kart-nagl, Nj. 52. COMPDS: nagls-rætr, f. pl. the root of the nail, Grág. i. 501. nagl-æta, u, f. disease of the nail, Fél.

nagla, að, to nail, Gþl. 346.

Nagl-far, n. the mythical ship made of nail-parings, Vsp. 50; for the tale see Edda 41.

Nagl-fari, a, m. a giant, the husband of Night, Edda 7.

nagl-fastr, adj. = naglafastr, Jb. 220.

NAGLI, a, m. [A.S. nægel; Engl. nail; Dan. nagle] :-- a nail, spike; naglar í skipi, Skálda 192; eyri fyrir nagla hvern ok ró á, N.G.L. i. 100; hurðin brotnaði at nöglum, Ó.H. 117, passim; tré-n., járn-n., hestskó-n. (a horseshoe-nail), Bs. i. 382: metaph., var-n., slá varnagla fyrir e-u, to take precaution :-- a peg, þar vóru í naglar, þeir hétu regin-naglar, Eb. 10 :-- medic. the core of a boil, kveisu-n. COMPDS: nagla-far, n. a nail-print, John xx. 25. nagla-fastr, adj. fastened with nails, Gþl. 346.

nagr, m., wrongly spelt naðr, Fms. i. 178 (in a verse), a kind of bird, a magpie(?), Edda (Gl.); sveita nagr, blóðs-nagr, the blood-hawk, raven, poët., Haustl., Ísl. ii. 349 (in a verse).

nakinn and naktr, adj. naked; see nökwiðr.

nakkvat, see nekkverr.

Nanna, u, f. [nenna], the name of a goddess, the wife of Balder, Edda,