This is page 465 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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OFSALEGR -- OK. 465

Fms. vi. 26; ofsi ok újafnaðr, Eg. 8; ofsa ok údáðir, Fms. i. 208; at eigi mætti ofsi steypa lögunum, Hkr. i. 72; at sjatna mundi þeirra o., Ísl. ii. 386: extravagance, meir með ofsa en fyrirhyggju, Ld. 186; Þorsteini þótti nokkut svá vita ofsa þarvist þeirra ok eigi með fullri forsjá, Fs. 13; til ofsa ok frásagnar, Gþl. 275. II. gen. prefixed, excessively; ofsa hörð veðr, vehement gales, Bs. i. 893; ofsa kláði, a sore itch. Fél. x; ofsa þrútuligr, Hkr. 642 new Ed. COMPDS: ofsa-legr, adj. excessive. ofsa-maðr, m. an overbearing, violent man, Eg. 174, Nj. 89, Fms. vi. 155, vii. 113. ofsa-veðr, n. a violent gale.

of-sinka, u, f. over-stinginess, Hom. 85.

of-sjónir, f. pl.; in the phrase, sjá ofsjónum yfir e-u, to look down upon, despise; brott ætlar hann ok görir hann þat ílla ... þurfti hann ekki ofsjónum yfir þessu landi at sjá, Sturl. i. 225; ef hann hefði eigi séð ofsjónum yfir mannlegu eðli, Al. 160 :-- in mod. usage, to grudge one a thing. 2. mod. the seeing of phantoms.

ofskaps-maðr, read ofrkappsmaðr, Bjarn. 34.

of-skemtan, f. over-pleasure, Fms. ii. 271.

of-skvaldr, n. over-swaggering, great noise, Fms. vi. 287.

of-skynja, adj. overlooking, looking down upon; þeir þykkjask sér ærnir, en mér nokkut o., Fms. v. 226; sýnisk mér sem flestir menn sé honum o. vestr þar. Sturl. iii. 168.

of-sköpun, f., medic. monstrosity, Fél. x.

of-snjár, m. vast masses of snow, N.G.L. i. 392.

of-sókn, f. persecution, Fær. 134, Fms. i. 224, Stj. 497, Ver. 29, Th. 79, Bs. ii. 142, passim.

of-stark, n. 'over-strength,' showiness, pride, Str. 82 (twice).

of-stopi, a, m. overbearing, arrogance, insolence; fara með ofstopa, Nj. 222; vildi Guð nú enda láta á verða þeirra ofstopa, Fms. vii. 18, Hom. 76; ofmetnaðr ok o., Rb. 394. ofstopa-maðr, m. an overbearing man, Eb. 14, Fms. i. 6, vii. 238, Nj. 215, Orkn. 8; íllt er at eggja ofstopa-mennina, Fb. i. 522.

of-stríðleikr, m. over-strength, violence, Sks. 156.

of-styrmi, n. = ofviðri, Fr.

of-stýri, n. an 'over-steering,' unmanageable thing; ætla ek at þú verðir oss skjótt ofstýri, Fas. i. 365 (Skjöld. S.); yðr mun o. verða at leggja mik við velli, Boll. 344: hence the mod. ó-stýrilátr, unruly, qs. ofstýrilátr.

of-stæki, n. ferocity, Ld. 252; grunar mik at ei komir þú því við fyrir þeirra o., Ísl. ii. 347, Mag. 164; ofstækis-maðr, a fierce man, Mag.

of-stækr, adj. hot, fierce, vehement.

of-stæri, n. [stórr], pride, haughtiness, Thom. 182.

of-stöður, f. pl. priapismus, Fél. x.

of-svefni, n. over-sleep, lethargy, N.G.L. ii. 418 (v.l.), Bb. 3. 81.

of-svæsi, n. temerity. H.E. i. 261, N.G.L. i. 458.

of-svæsinn, adj. in over-high spirits.

of-sækja, sótti, to persecute, Magn. 482, Stj. 402, 448, 478, passim. ofsækjandi, part. a persecutor, Stj 376.

of-sögn, f. 'over-saying.' exaggeration, Fas. i. 25.

of-sögur, f. pl. exaggeration; ekki hefir hann ofsögur frá þér sagt, Fms. vi. 206; hafa eigi o. verit frá sagðar þeirra garpskap ok herði, xi. 151; eigi má ofs gum segja frá vitsmunum þínum, it cannot be too highly praised, Ld. 132, Fas. i. 84, Ísl. ii. 36, Mag. 99, 113.

oft, see opt.

of-tala, u, f. an 'over-number,' surplus, N.G.L. i. 182.

of-tekja, u, f. a taking too much, wronging, Bs. i. 115.

of-tign, f. a too great honour, Fas. ii. 489.

of-traust, n. 'over-trust,' a too great confidence.

of-treysta, t, to trust too much, Hsm.

of-tæki, n. = ofstæki(?), Njarð. 368 v.l.

of-vald, n. = ofrvald, H.E. ii. 83, Stj. 121, 154, Art. 64.

of-vallt, see ofallt.

of-veðri, n. = ofviðri, Hom. 97, Fas. ii. 78.

of-verkr, m. a violent pain, Bs. i. 343, 456, Stj. 435.

of-viðri, n. a violent gale, Fms. viii. 256. K.Þ.K. 78, Fas. ii. 37.

of-vilnan, f. conceit, presumption, Stj. 144, Hom. (St.)

of-virðing, f. over great an honour, Fms. vi. 17.

of-viti, a, m. an over-wise person = Germ. sonderling, one who behaves in a strange manner; hann er o., a popular phrase.

of-vægilegr, adj. 'over-weighing,' overwhelming, immense, Bs. ii. 5.

of-vægr, adj. overwhelming: o. herr, Ó.H. 242.

of-væni, f. 'over-weening' spirits, Vikv. 7.

of-þrá, immoderate lust, Hom. 85.

of-þröngva, ð, to force, ravish, Stj. 384.

of-þögli, f. stubborn silence. Art. 30.

of-þögull, adj. over-silent. Art. 30.

of-ætlan, f. an 'over-task,' too great a task.

of-öltiliga, adv. = úfelmtliga(?). Sturl. iii. 185 C.

OK, copulative conj.; the mod. form is og, which appears in the 15th century MSS., but the word is usually in the MSS. written thus RUNE. The Runic inscriptions mostly have auk, which diphthongal form has in the conj. been changed into ok, but is retained in the adverbial auk = etiam. As neither the stone in Tune nor the Golden horn happens to have the word, we are in the dark as to its earliest Scandinavian form. The particle ok is characteristic of the Scandinavian languages, as distinguished from the Germ. und, Engl. and; although this is more apparent than real, for the identity of ok with the Goth. copulative particle jah and uh. Hel. jac, has been conclusively demonstrated by Grimm, who also makes out an identity between Goth. uh, standing for hu, and Gr. GREEK, Lat. -que; the metathesis of uh for hu is analogous to Lat. ac = Gr. GREEK. Grimm farther supports this etymology by comparing the Teutonic compounds ne-hu, Icel. contr. né, with Lat. ne-c = ne-que, which proves the identity of both the suffixed particles, the Lat. c or que and the Teut. uh. The Goth. jah is a compound = jâ-uh = 'immo-que;' the Norse ok, too, is prob. a compound particle, the j being dropped, and then jâ-uh contracted into auh = auk; the final guttural h (sounded as RUNE), instead of being absorbed by the preceding vowel, was hardened into the tenuis k. The negative verbal suffix -a and -að, the nominal suffix -gi, and the copula ok will thus all be derived from one root, -- one of the many instances of the Protean transformations of particles, even the negative and positive being interwoven into the same word.

A. And, a copula between two or more nouns; í upphafi skapaði Guð himinn ok jörð, Edda (pref., Gen. i. 1); ríki ok konungdóm, Fms. i. 23; mikill ok sterkr, Nj. 2; væn kona ok kurteis ok vel at sér, 1; dætr þrjár ok sonu þrá, 30. If the nouns are many the usage may vary :-- the nouns may be paired off, eldr ok vatn, járn ok málmr, Edda 36; or the copula is only put to the last, eldr, vatn, járn ok málmr; or, if emphatic, it may be reiterated, eldr ok vatn ok járn ok málmr; or ok may be left out altogether, málmr. steinar, jörðin, viðirnir, sóttirnar, dýrin, fuglarnir, eitrormar, Edda l.c. 2. bæði ok, bæði er hann vitr ok framgjarn, Nj. 6. 3. in comparison, as, and, = Lat. ac, atque; með jöfnum skildaga ok Hrólfr Kraki görði, Fb. ii. 137; samr maðr ek áðr, the same man as before, i. 364; hafa með sér sín epli, ok bera saman ok hin, and compare them and the others, Edda 46; hón var þá úlík ok fyrr, Fms. i. 185; þat er mjök sundrleitt ok Kristnir menn göra, it differs much from what Christians do, x. 171; á sömu leið ok fyrr, i. 253; samsumars ok Steingerðr gékk frá Bersa, Korm. 160; jamvandhæfr ok flörbaugsmaðr, Grág. i. 89. 4. of an adversative character, and yet, but; mörgum sárum ok engum stórum, Fms. x. 370; þetta eru áheyrilig boð, ok újafnlig. Nj. 77; úsællig kona ertú, ok (but yet) ekki svá at eigi megi sæma við slíkt, Fms. vii. 167. 5. the particle ok connects together the parts of the sentence; þá mælti Frigg, ok spurði, then spoke Frigg, and asked, Edda 37; at þú bættir ráð þitt, ok bæðir þér konu, thou shouldst mend thy condition, and take thee a wife, Nj. 2 :-- it is used to mark the progress of a speech or sentence, féllusk Ásum orðtök ok svá hendr, ok sá hverr til annars, ok vóru allir með einum hug til þess er unnit hafði verkit; Loki tók. Mistiltein, ok sleit upp, ok gékk til þings ...; Höðr tók Mistiltein, ok skaut at Baldri; Æsir tóku lík Baldrs, ok fluttu til sjávar, Edda 37; sendu þeir Ívar til hans, ok skyldi hann vita, Fms. x. 27. II. in the old law (the Grág.) the apodosis or conclusion is headed by ok, then, as in the standing phrase, ok verðr hann útlagr, ok varðar þat ... marka útlegð, and he shall pay, i.e. then he shall ...; þeir menn er sakir eigu, ok skulu þeir ganga til dóms ..., and so in every page of the Grágás. III. in some ancient epic poems the ok is as an historical particle put at the head of sentences or verses in a manner which closely resembles the use of the Hebrew HEBREW; the old Ýt. is in this respect remarkable, -- ok sikling, I; ok salbjartr, 2; ok sá brann, 3; ok Visburs, ok allvald, 4; ok landherr, 5: ok ek þess opt fregit hafðak, 6; ok allvald, 7; ok þat orð, 8; ok hnakkmars, 10; ok varð hinn, 11; ok Hagbarðs, 12; ok þrálífr ... ok sveiðuðs. 13; ok lofsæll, 14; ok Austmarr, ok við aur, ok dáðgjarn, 16; ok ljóshömum, 18; ok ofveg, ok sá frömuðr, 19; ok Ingjald, ok sjá urðr, 20; ok Skæreið, 22; ok nú liggr, 23: ok launsigr, ok buðlung, 24; ok um ráð, ok launsigr, 25; ok niðkvisl, 26; - so used about thirty times in this single poem; in other poems less freq., but yet it occurs, e.g. in the fragments of Vellekla, see also the references given s.v. auk (III). IV. the placing the copula before both the parts to be joined is curious; this only occurs in a few instances in old poetry; ok einnar átta, 'and' one eight, i.e. one plus eight = nine, Hd. (composed about 986 A.D.); ok hárar hamljót, 'and hoary scraggy' = hoary and scraggy, Haustl.; ok Sörli þeir Hamðir, 'and Sorli Hamdir' = S. and H., Bragi; ok átta enni-tungl fjögur höfuð, 'and eight eyes four heads' i.e. four heads and eight eyes, id.; ok hörga blóthús, Rekst.; ok svá jarlar Óláfar, = jarlar ok svá Óláfar, Sighvat; ok hringa hlínar óþurft mína, the woe of her and myself, Kormak; ok há grasi viði = há grasi ok viði, Gm. 17; ok Elfar Gandvikr miðli, Edda (Ht.) 1. V. used as an interjection; þú skalt fara í Kirkjubæ -- Ok, hvat skal ek þangat? Nj. 74; ok skaltú enn þora at mæla jöfnum orðum við mik, 656 B. 10: akin to this is the mod. usage in exclamations, wrath, wonder, indignation, og, hvað er nú að tarna! og, hvernig ætli þú látir! og, ekki nema það! VI. the following are prob. ellipt.; segðú mér þat ..., ok ek vilja vita, tell thou me that, and I wish to know = that which I want to know, Skm. 3; ætlar jarl at höggva þessa menn alla, ok þeir hofðu nú höndum á komit, all those, and (whom) they had got hold of, Fms. xi. 14.