This is page 469 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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ORMSBIT -- ÓÐAFAR. 469

Bolgos in Dante's Inferno, Canto 24. Serpents gnawed at the root of the world-tree Yggdrasil, Gm. 34. Pits of snakes were a place of punishment, Ragn. S. l.c., Am., Akv.; but only in mythological, not in historical records. Serpents brooded over gold and treasures, cp. the serpent Fafnir, Edda, Fm., Gullþ. ch. 4, Ragn. S. (begin.); whence in poetry gold is called orm-bekkr, -beðr, -ból, -garðr, -land, -látr, -láð, -reitr, -setr, -stallr, -torg, -vangr, -vengr, the bank, bed, abode, garden, land, litter, earth, etc. of snakes, Lex. Poët. For the world-serpent, see miðgarðr. orm-fellir, m. the snake-killer = the winter, Fms. vi. (in a verse): a sword is called a snake, blóð-ormr, rand-ormr, see Lex. Poët.; ketil-ormr, a sausage, Korm.: of ships of war with dragons' heads, Ormr inn Langi, Ormr inn Skammi, Ó.T. II. pr. names, Ormr and Ormarr; and in compds, Hall-ormr, Ráð-ormr, Þór-ormr, Goð-ormr, Veðr-ormr. = the holy Serpent, a name which indicates serpent worship, although no record of such worship is found in the Sagas. COMPDS: orms-bit, n. a snake-bite, Pr. 470. orma-bæli, n. a den of snakes, Fms. vi. 143. orms-tunga, u, f. a snake's tongue cast in silver, Dipl. iii. 4, v. 18, Bs. i. 690: as a nickname, Landn. orma-turn, m. = ormagarðr, Þiðr. 334.

orm-snáldr, n. snakes' noses, Konr.

ORNA, að, [perh. akin to ofn or from varmr?], to get warm; þá tók Pétr at lifna ok ornuðu liðir hans, es hann vas kaldr allr orðinn, Greg. 77; svá tekr brunnrinn at orna, sem sól gengr til viðar, Al. 51; ornandi geislar, Sks. 40; orna ok hitna, Barl. 93; með ornandum tárum, 90: impers., e-m ornar, it gets warm for one, one gets warm; taki menn glímur stórar ok viti ef mönnum ornar, Sturl. iii. 20; þegar er honum ornaði, 623. 33 . hleypr hann til ára ok vill láta orna sér, Fms. xi. 141; veðr var á geysi-kallt, ok höfðusk margir á fótum ok létu orna sér, viii. 306 :-- orna sér, to warm oneself; nú lát hann orna sér ok fari síðan til sels várs, Lv. 60, and so in mod. usage. II. reflex. pass., flestir ornuðusk af ásjón hennar, Str. 73.

or-óf and or-æfl, n., see örof, öræfi.

orra-beinn, adj., better örra-beinn, q.v.

ORRI, a, m. (wrongly spelt horri in Ó.H. 78, l. 8), [Dan. aarfugl] :-- the heathcock, moor-fowl, tetrao tetrix, Stj. 77, Ó.H. 78; þiðra eðr orra, Gþl. 449. II. a nickname, Ó.H., Fms. vi: whence Orra-hríð, f. the name for the last onslaught in the battle at Stanford-bridge led by Eystein Orri, Fms. vi; hence, as an appellative, any fierce onslaught is in Icel. called orrahrið. orra-skáld, n. a nickname, Landn.

orrosta, u, f., mod. orosta or orusta, with a single r; in rhymes orrostur þorrinn, Sighvat, shewing that the assimilation had even then taken place: [this word is identical with A.S. eornest = duellum; O.H.G. ernust = pugna: whence Fngl. earnest. Germ. ernst, of which orrosta is an assimilated form, qs. ornosta, see Grimm's Dict. s.v. ernst] :-- a battle, Hm., Nj. 8, Fms. v. 71, vi. 69, in countless instances, for orrosta and bardagi (q.v.) are used indiscriminately. 2. in local names, Orrostu-hólmr, -hváll, -tangi, Battle-hill, etc., Korm., Eg. COMPDS: orrostu-laust, n. adj. without battle, Fms. ix. 323, Hkr. ii. 300. orrostu-ligr, adj. warlike, Fms. x. 230. orrostu-maðr, m. a warrior, Nj. 40, Fms. i. 52. orrostu-slög, n. pl. battles, Fms. xi 200. orrostu-staðr and orrostu-völlr, m. a battle-place, Korm. 4, Fas. i. 501, Fms. i. 95.

orrostligr, adj. belonging to war, Róm. 309.

or-sök, f. [Germ. ursache; Dan. aarsag], a cause, freq. in mod. usage. orsaka-laust, n. adj. without a cause.

Os-ló or Ós-ló, f. the name of a town in Norway, which stood where the mod. Christiania is, Fms. passim.

oss, acc. and dat. pl. from vér; see ek (C. 2. γ).

ossir, adj. pl. ours, = várir, Germ. unser; ossa ván, Geisli 4; at vilja ossum, Am. 30; hendr ossar, 52; ossum rönnum i, Skm. 14; ossum niðjum, Hkv. 2. 9; liði ossu, Sighvat: in prose, ok ætlaði at láta meiða eðr drepa ossa landa fyrir, Íb. 10.

ostenta, u, f. the mid. Lat. ostentum, Rb.

OSTR, m. [prob. identical with jastr, the Engl. yeast, dropping the initial j; ostr is a word common to all the Scandin. languages (Dan.-Swed. ost), instead of the Saxon and Germ. cheese, cese (käse), which were no doubt borrowed from the Lat. caseus] :-- cheese; slátr, skreið ok ostar, Háv. 53; smjör ok ost, Nj. 74; þeir höfðu skyr ok ost (of a supper) ... hann bargsk lítt við ostinn, he went slowly on with the cheese, Eb. 244; þar vóru tveir diskar fram settir, þar var eitt skamrifs-stykki á diski hverjum ok forn ostr til gnægta, Fbr. 37; Geysu dætr skáru akkeri af osti, ok sögðu at þau mundi fullvel halda herskipum Haralds konungs ..., Fms. vi. 253; konan hafði einn ostinn í brott, one cheese, Bs. i. 247; ef þeir selja ær til osts, Grág. ii. 309. COMPDS: ost-fjórðungr, m. a weight of cheese, Vm. 28. ost-gjald, n. a tax payable in cheese, D.I. i. 248. ost-hleifr, m. a cheese, Ísl. ii. 351, Fs. 146, Vm. 28. ost-hlutr, m. a slice of cheese, Fbr. 38. ost-kista, u, f. a cheese-press, Nj. 76 (in which cheese was made). ost-tíund, f. a tithe paid in cheese, D.N. iii. 30. ost-tollr, m. = ostgjald; þangat liggr osttollr millum Botnsár ok Hvítskeggs-hvamms af skatt-mönnum ok búprestum, Vm. 59; for a duty payable in cheese see Vm. 28 (each farm having to pay a cheese), D.I. i. 248.

ostra, u, f. [for. word; Lat. ostrea], an oyster, Stj. 88, N.G.L. ii. 263.

ost-vægr, adj. equivalent to cheese; gjalda fjórðung ostvægs matar, Vm. 105.

OTA, að, [see etja I. 3, and not akin to hóta, as is suggested under that word] :-- to push forth, with dat.; ota sér fram, to push oneself forward, intrude oneself; Þórir otar sér fram milli manna, Ísl. ii. 150: the word is very freq. in mod. usage, ota e-u fram, to hold forth; cp. ok etr hann fram berum skallanum, Fb. i. 190.

OTR, m., gen. otrs, pl. otrar, [Engl. and Germ. otter; O.H.G. otar] :-- an otter; otr einn, otrinum, otrinn, otr ok lax, Edda 72; þar lá opt otr í urðinni ... veiða otr er lá í urðinni, Orkn. 274, 276; otrs líki, Fas. i. 151: poët., hafs otr, vánar otr, a 'sea-otter,' i.e. a ship, Lex. Poët.: in local names, Otra-dalr, in western Iceland, Landn., Gísl. COMPDS: otr-belgr, m. an otter-skin, Edda 73, Fas. i. 153. otr-gjöld and otrs-gjöld, n. pl., poët. 'otter's-gild,' i.e. gold, Fas: i. 154, Bm., see the tale in Edda 72, 73. otr-hundr, m. an otter-hound, Karl. 10. otra-skinn, n. an otter-skin, Rétt. 47.

oxi, a, m. an ox; see uxi: Oxi, a pr. name, Bs. i.

Ó

Ó- or ú-, the negative prefix before nouns and verbs, [Goth., Engl., and Germ. un-; Dan. and Swed. û-, the nasal being absorbed. The Icel. at a very early date changed this ú into ó, for the very oldest and best vellums use ó, not only the Greg., Eluc., Íb., the Miracle-book (Bs. i. 333 sqq.), but also the Grág., the Cod. Reg. of the Sæm. Edda, etc.; in later vellums of the better kind ú and ó are used promiscuously; till about the union with Norway the ú prevailed, and is chiefly used in vellums of the 14th century; but in the 15th the ó again took its old place, and has been retained ever since, agreeably with the usual pronunciation. The ó is therefore the proper Icel. form, e.g. ó-vitr = Engl. un-wise; that it was sounded thus even in the 12th century is also shewn by the treatise of the second grammarian (Gramm. p. i, col. 1), -- ó eðr ú þat skiptir orðum, svá sem er satt eðr ó-satt (ú-satt), Skálda 171. This change of spelling in the MSS. about (or a little before) the union with Norway cannot have been owing to any change in pronunciation, but was simply a Norwegianism, as were many other cases, e.g. the dropping the h before liquids, contrary to the Icel. pronunciation. On the other hand, as for the rest of Scandinavia, the ú has been retained in Denmark and in the east of Norway; but ó in the west and north of Norway (see Ivar Aasen's Dict.), as also in mod, Swed. (e.g. o-möjlig = Germ. un-möglich). In early Swed. (in the laws) u and o are used indifferently. The Orkneys seem to have followed the Icel., to judge from a rhyme in the poem Jd. composed by bishop Bjarni (died A.D. 1222), a native of the Orkneys, -- ó-teitan mik sútar, the metre of which requires a half rhyme, a rule followed strictly throughout that poem.

B. Of the compds with ú- or ó-, all but a few words are from un-; these exceptional words appear to be contractions, either, α. from ör-, where we have such double forms as ör-sekr and ó-sekr, N.G.L. i. 379; ör-viti and ó-viti, ó-verðr and ör-verðr, ó-vænn and ör-vænn, ör-hæfi and ú-hæfa, ör-keypis and ó-keypis, ú-dæmi qs. ör-dæmi(?), ó-bóta qs. ör-bóta(?), ó-birgr and ör-birgr; perh. also ú-helgi qs. ör-helgi, ú-heilagr qs. ör-heilagr; cp. also such words as ú-megin and ör-megna, ú-synja qs. ör-synja(?). β. from of-, esp. before a labial or dental; thus, of-vægr and ó-vægr, ó-frýnn qs. of-frýnn, ó-skö;p = of-sköp(?), ó-freskr qs. of-freskr, ó-fyrirsynju qs. of-fyrirsynju(?), ó-hljóð or ú-hljóð qs. of-hljóð(?), of-dæll and ó-dæll, of-ljóss and ó-ljóss. In some of these instances doubt may arise, for a double set of compds might have sprung up. On the other hand, the great number of compds with ur-, er- in German and Saxon, and the scarcity of such words in the Norse tongue, lead to the conclusion that many of these compds in the course of time have been lost or replaced by ú-; cp. also of-allt and á-valt, (of-saka and á-saka, of-brýði and á-brýði, of-munir and á-munr, af-vöxtr and á-vöxtr, af-burðr and of-burðr?). Since in most Editions the spelling with ú- has been adopted in these classes of words, they must be sought for under that head.

Ó, interj. oh, oh! Hom. 112, 119, Stj. 155; ó hoson, 623. 16: freq. in mod. eccl. usage, cp. hó. 2. as a noun; in the phrase, e-m er um og ó, to hesitate, waver; mér er um og ó, eg á sex börn í sjó en sex börn á landi, a ditty, Ísl. Þjóðs.: ó-já, oh yes! ó-nei, oh no! ó-ekki! id.

ÓA, að, [a contr. form from óg, ógur- ógn] :-- in act. in the mod. impers. phrase, e-n óar við e-u, it shocks one, one feels shocked; mig óar við því, it forebodes me evil; huga þeirra tók at óa fyrir einhverri hrellingu, Od. xx. 349. II. reflex. óask, to dread, fear; óumk ek of Hugin at hann aptr né komit, Gm. 20; óumk ek alldregi, Am. 13; ex skoluð óask dóm Guðligs veldis, Greg. 13; þat er ér óisk at taka Corpus Domini, 686. 5; þá óaðisk biskup mjök, then the bishop was much afraid, 655 xxii. B; óaðisk hann í hug sér, 623. 62; ok óaðisk greifinn er hanu hafði látið berja hann, xvi B. 4.

óan or óun, f. fear, distress; sigrmark í óunum (= ógnum), 656 B. 7.

óða-far, n.; í óðafari, in a hurry, Boll. 350.