This is page 481 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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R -- RAKNA. 481

R

R, (err), the seventeenth letter, had in the old Runes two forms; one as initial and medial (radical), RUNE; the other as final (inflexive), RUNE or RUNE. Of the last two, RUNE is used in the old Runes (stone in Tune, the Golden horn) in the words gastir, hokingar, wiwar, as these inscriptions have now finally been read and settled by Prof. Bugge of Christiana; RUNE is used in the common Runes; and its name was reið, -- reið kveða rossum versta, in the Runic poem.

B. PRONUNCIATION, SPELLING. -- The pronunciation is as in Italian or in mod. Gr. (rh), and this still survives in Norway and Sweden, whereas the Danes have adopted a guttural r, which an Icelandic throat is unable to produce In ancient times radical and inflexive r were perhaps different in sound, as may be inferred from the spelling on the old Runic monuments, as well as from comparison; for the inflexive r was in the Gothic a sibilant (s), so that the Runic RUNE and RUNE may well have represented a sound intermediate between r and s. II. the inflexive r is assimilated in words such as heill, steinn, lauss: dropped in nagl, fors, son, vin, see the Gramm. :-- the ancient writers have a double r in nouns and adverbs, such as sárr, stórr, ferr, síðarr, optarr, meirr; even against etymology, as in hárr (high), márr (a mew). In mod. usage a final rr is never sounded. Again, in gen. and dat. fem. and gen. plur. and in compar., in words such as þeirri, þeirrar, þeirra, færri, fárra, the mod. sound and spelling is rr, where the ancients seem to have sounded one r only, þeiri, þeirar, þeira, færi, fára, which pronunciation is said to be retained in eastern Icel.; the Editions, however, have mostly adopted rr. The spelling of the vellums is often dubious, as in them a double r is written either dotted (r) UNCERTAIN or with a small capital R, but mostly without a fixed rule :-- Norse vellums often give rs for ss (mersa = messa, þersi = þessi, e.g. in the Hauksbók).

C. CHANGES. -- As the Icel. cannot sound w before r, a set of words which in Engl. and even mod. Dan. and Swed. begin with w, in Icel. belong to r; thus, rangr, röng, rata, reini, reitr, reista, reka, ríða, ríta, reiðr, rindill, risi, rist, röskr, róg, rugl, rölta, qs. wrangr, ... wrölta. In a few words the r has been dropped after a labial, thus Icel. víxl = A.S. wrixl, Icel. beisl = A.S. bridels, Lat. frenum, Icel. bauta-steinn qs. brautar-steinn; Icel. vá qs. vrá, Hm 25, Skv. 3. 29; or a false r is inserted, as in the Icel. ábristir = Engl. beestings, Goth. beist. Germ. beist-milch; bræla and bæla, bál; analogous are Engl. pin and prin, speak and A.S. spræcan, Germ. sprechen, Icel. freta, Lat. pedo :-- in a few Norse vellums ðr for ð is used before s, l, n, oðrla = öðla = óðala, öðrlask = öðlask, Guðrs = Guðs, heiðrnir = heiðnir, liðrsemd = liðsemd, soðrla = söðla, ráðrleitni = ráðleitni, e.g. the O.H.L. (see the pref. to Prof. Unger's Ed. p. ix), owing to an inability of sounding ðl, ðs. Again, metathesis has taken place in ragr, rass, = argr, ars.

&FINGER; All words having a radical initial h (hr) are to be sought for under h; see the introduction to that letter.

rabba (rabb, n), að, to babble, talk nonsense, Karl. 231.

RAÐA, að, [röð], to place in order, with dat.; raða e-u niðr, whence niðr-raðan. order.

raddaðr, part. having a voice of web and such tone, Bs. i. 154.

raddar-, from rödd (q.v.), the voice.

radd-lið, n. a band of singers, musical band. Fas. ii. 506.

radd-maðr, m. a man with a fine voice, Sturl. ii. 230, Bs. i. 127.

radd-sveif, f. the 'voice-tiller' = the tongue, Haustl.

raf-band, n. a rosary or necklace of amber beads, D.N. i. 743, iii. 417.

RAFR, m., pl. rafir and rafar, amber; in raf-kastandi. rastar raf, sea amber, of which necklaces were made, Lex. Poët., cp. Tacit. Germ. ch. 45. II. metaph. the amber-like fat and fins of a flounder hung up to dry and eaten as a dainty; rikling ok rafi, Sturl. i. 164, v.l.; einn gildr rafr, D.N. v. 616; sex rafi, i. 183; rafa, riklinga, N.G.L. iii. 119: in mod. usage it is called rafa-belti, n. the belt or round of the fins, Dipl. iii. 4. rafa-kollr, m. a nickname, Sturl.

rag, n a roving about.

raga, að, [Dan. rave], to stagger about.

raggaðr, part. provided with röggvar, q.v. raggaðar-klæði, n. = röggvarklæði, Fas. i. 346.

Ragi, a, m. a pr. name, Landn. Raga-bróðir, m. a nickname, id.

ragl, n. a reeling; ókyrrt hjól. ragl, ról, Hallgr.

ragla, að, to stagger about. Run. Gramm.; dýr ragla, Hallgr.

rag-menni, n. a craven person. Fas. ii. 49 (in a verse).

rag-mennska, u, f. craven fear, cowardliness, Karl.

rag-mæli, n. an ignominious calumny, the accusing one of being 'ragr;' ok bera þar upp ragmæli (rógmæli Ed. erroneously) um Þorstein, með því móti at Þorsteinn væri kona níundu hverja nótt, ok ætti þá viðskipti við karlmenn, Þorst. Siðu H. 175, Sd. 142, Eb. 60.

ragn, n. a cursing, swearing.

ragna, að, [regin], to imprecate, use exorcism; hygg ek at þú hafir ragnat at mér svá rammar vættir at ek varð at falla fyrir, Fms. ii 150; nema þeim ragni íllska eðr úvizka, unless they be cursed (afflicted?) with illness or insanity, N.G.L. i. 3. 2. in mod. usage, to swear; blóta og ragna, to curse and swear.

ragna-rök, see regin and rök.

RAGR, adj. [rög, ragt (q.v.), by way of metathesis from argr] :-- craven, cowardly; bíð þú ef þú ert eigi ragr, Nj. 205; hinnig værir þú undir brún at líta sem þú mundir eigi ragr, 55; en ek vissa þá eigi at ek munda eiga stafnbúinn bæði rauðan ok ragan, Fms. ii. 308; vesöl eru vér konungs er bæði er haltr ok ragr, vi. 322; ragr sem geit, Kari. 398; rennr þú nú, Úlfr enn ragi, ... Kallaðir þú þá eigi Úlf enn raga, er ek lagða til at hjálpa þér, er Svíar börðu yðr áðr sem hunda, ÓH. 167; ragr riddari, Str. 59; Hagbarðr inn ragi, Hbl. 27. 2. = argr, q.v.; e.g. to say that a man is a woman (blauðr) is the gravest abuse in the language: Þorvaldr svarar, ek þolda eigi er þeir kölluðu okkr raga, Biskup mælti, þat var lítil þolraun, þóat þeir lygi þat at þú ættir börn, þú hefir fært orð þeirra á verra veg, þvíat vel mætta ek bera börn þin ef þú ættir nokkur, Bs. i. 44; þegi þú, rög vættr, Ls. 61 (of Loki, of whom it is also said, átta nætr vartú fyrir jörð neðan, kýr mólkandi ok kona, ok hefir þú þar börn borit, ok hugða ek þat args aðal, 23); verða ek kona hin ragasta, ef ..., Karl. 405; rass-ragr: any one who used this word to a person might be killed on the spot with impunity, otherwise the penalty for it was full outlawry; þau eru orð þrjú er skóggang varða öll, ef maðr kallar mann ragan eðr stroðinn eðr sorðinn, ... enda á maðr vígt í gegn þeim orðum þremr, Grág. ii. 147.

rag-skapr, m. dastardliness, MS. 4. 16, Karl. 80, 318; íllsku ok ergi, hórdóm ok ragskap, Barl. 138.

rag-speki, f. cowardice. Mag. 65.

rak, n. the rakings of hay in a field: en kona tók rökin, Grett. 109 new Ed., freq. in mod. usage, but only in plur. II. the wick in a lamp.

RAKA, að, [Engl. to rake], to rake or sweep away; hann rakaði á burt með hendi sinni Lv. 50. 2. to rake hay; hann sló, en kona hans rakaði ljá eptir honum, ok bar reifa-barn á baki, Bs. i. 666; raka upp hey, Eb. 260; tók hón eigi at raka upp, þótt þat væri mælt, id.; þeir rökuðu upp töðuna, Háv. 47; raka ljá, Fb. i. 522: raka saman fé, to rake money together, Ísl. ii. 14, Glúm. 364. II. [Swed. raka], to shave; lét hann göra sér kerbað ok fór í, ok lét raka sik, Fms. x. 147; hón rakar af Samson sjau hans lokka, Stj. 418; raka skegg, Karl. 95; rakat jaðar-skegg, Sks. 66 new Ed.; ok rakaði um höfuðit á Hálfdani, Fas. iii. 535.

rak-hlaup, n. a running straight; með rakhlaupinu, Fms. viii. 410.

raki, a, m. dampness, wet; rakinn á trénu, Best. 60: passim in mod. usage, raki í húsi, damp in a house; raki í jörðu.

RAKKI, a, m. a dog, Sturl. iii. 116; rakki, skikkju-r., a lap-dog, Orkn. 114; lá rakkinn á húsum uppi, Nj. 114; rakkar þar geyja, verðr glaumr hunda ..., Am. 24; hér eru rakkar tveir, er ek vil gefa þér, þeir vóru harðla litlir ok fagrir, viðjar vóru á þeim af gulli, ok spennt gull-hring um háls hvárum þeirra, Fas. iii. 45, Stj. 71; sumir menn segja at hann sendi rakkann til Finns þess, er heitið hafði at lækna hann Fb. i. 394; konungr tók þá fætr rakkans ok lagði at stýrinu, 405. rakka-víg, n. a dog fight, Bs. ii. 148; smá-r., Stj. 99. II. [Shetl. rakie], naut. the ring by which the sail-yard moves round the mast, Edda (Gl.) passim in mod. usage: poët. a ship is called rakka hjörtr, the ring-hart, Hkv.

rakk-látr, adj. bold, upright, Am. 61.

rakk-liga, adv. boldly, valiantly, Hallfred.

rakk-læti, n. boldness, Hom. (St.)

RAKKR, adj. [Dan. rank = slender, of stature], prop. straight, slender; sé ek at þú heldr nokkut rakkara halanum en fyrir stundu, Ölk 36; rökk brúðr, slender, Orkn. (in a verse); rökk drós, Bs. ii. (in a verse). 2. metaph. upright, courageous, bold; but hardly used except in poetry, vera rakkr at húsum (better rækinn, v.l.), Sks. 92 new Ed.; rakkr þengill, Sighvat: freq. in poët. compds, fólk-r., dáð-r., Lex. Poeuml;t.: and used in prose in hug-rakkr, bold, hence is derived rekkr, q.v.

rak-leið, f. (but used adverb.), straightway; r. norðr til Björgynjar, Fms. viii. 331.

rak-leiðis, adv. straight.

rak-leitt, n. adj. straight, Fms. ix. 285, 473, 484.

rak-lendi, n. damp land.

rak-lendr, adj. damp, wet, of land.

RAKNA, að, to be unwound, unwind itself; en þráðrinn raknaði af hörhnoða, Fms. vi. 296; rakna upp, to get loose, of a seam or the like: þá lætr Loðinn rakna hendr af Sigríði, L. loosened the grasp, let S slip through his hands, Fbr. 138; láta hendr rakna niðr fyrir sik, to let the hands sink, hold them still, Sks. 92 new Ed. 2. to be paid back, restored; láta ránit r., to slip it, yield it up, Bs. i. 15, Sturl. ii. 210 C; enda verða at r. (must be discharged) leigurnar allar fyrst, Grág. i. 188, 189; þá skal allt r. féit þat er með var fundit, 276; ok raknar þá mundrinn, in that case the 'mund' is to be paid, 318; þá raknar undan þeinrer UNCERTAIN áðr löfðu, 190; at gripir jarls raknaði, that they should be restored to him, Fms. xi. 87. 3. láta trú eðr vinfengi r. eðr réna, to slacken or lessen, Hom. (St.); láta eigi sannindi rakna, H.E. i. 245; seint tók gleðin at rakna, Skíða R. II. rakna við, to come to one's senses,