This is page 504 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)
This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.
Click here to go to the main page about Cleasby/Vigfusson. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.
This page was generated on 24 Jun 2017. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.
The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.
ancients were divided into 'rooms,' one for each pair of oars; each room consisted of two 'half-rooms' (hálf-rými), viz. one for each oar, thus a ship of thirty 'rooms' had sixty oars, see Vidal. Skýr. s.v. sessum at telja; á Lang-ormi vóru fjögur rúm ok þrjá-tigi, Fms. i. 219 (fjögur rúm ens sétta tigar, Hkr. i. 294, v.l.), cp. Fms. viii. 181; hann var sjau rúm ok tuttugu, Bs. i. 30; var þat skip þrítugt at rúma tali, ok ekki mikit í sér, ... þat skip kallaði hann Tranann, Hkr. i. 275; mikit skip, þar vóru sex rúm ok tuttugu, Fms. viii. 131; var þat þrítugt rúmum, 372. The interesting passage in Fms. ix. 33 (ch. 14) is an instance of ships with double rows of oars; Knútr inn ríki hafði skip furðu-liga stór, hann hafði sjálfr dreka þann er svá var mikill, at sextugr var at ruma tali ... Hákon hafði annan dreka, var sá fertugr at rúma tali, Ó.H. 161: the Hálfd. Eyst. S. ch. 26 (of a ship, tirætt at rúma tali) is a mere fable: only a few of the oar-rooms are known by special names, e.g. stafn-rúm, the two fyrir-rúm (eptra ok fremra), the two austr-rúm (one fore and one aft, or even four, cp. senn jósu vér í fjórum rúmum, Fms, vi, in a verse), the klofa-rúm, krappa-rúm, q.v.; betra er autt rúm en ílla skipað, better an empty seat than an ill-filled one, cp. Landn. 82 (in a verse). COMPDS: rúm-brík, f., see brík. rúm-fastr, adj. bed-ridden. rúm-fjöl, f. the side-board of a bed, see fjöl. rúm-föt, n. pl. bed-clothes. rúm-gylta, f. a sleeping sow(?), a nickname, Landn. rúm-rusk, n.; göra e-m rúmrusk, to shake a lazy fellow out of bed. rúm-stafr, rúm-stokkr, m. a bed-post, Fs. 6, Fms. ix. 293. rúm-stæði, n. a bedstead.
rúm-boraðr, part, 'wide-riddled,' coarse, of a sieve, Fms. viii. 243.
rúm-fár, adj. narrow, Al. 13.
rúm-góðr, adj. large, wide.
rúm-heilagr, adj.; in the phrase, r. dagr, a 'week' day, i.e. a common day, week day, Grág, i. 30, 73, 293, 395, Ám. 101.
rúm-lendi, m. the wide land, open land, Fms. viii. 14.
rúm-lendr, adj. roomy, wide, extensive, Al. 32.
rúm-liga, adv. roomily, largely, Grág. i. 4, Fas. i. 58.
rúm-ligr, adj. roomy, ample, wide, Sks. 403.
rúmr, adj., compar. rýmri, superl. rýmstr, [Ulf. rums = GREEK; Shetl. room] :-- roomy, ample, spacious; konungs garðr er rúmr inngangs, opp. to þröngr. Eg. 519; gatan var eigi rýmri (broader) en einn maðr mátti ríða senn, Fms. viii. 81; rúmr vegr, Barl. 70, opp. to þröngr vegr; Vandráðr stýrði þar sem þeim þótti rýmst milli skipanna. Fms. vi. 321; ok sem hann er lauss þvkkir honum skör rýmra, Fas. ii. 225; til þess ens góða ok rúma lands, Stj. :-- roomy, loose, fjöturinn var rúmr, Fms. vi. 15: as also of clothes :-- neut., flestum var þar fyrðum rúmt, ample room for all, Völs. R. 13; skipin lágu rúmt í höfninni, Fas. ii. 522 :-- adv., rúmt fim-tigi, fifty and upwards, D.N. iv. 141: rúmt hálfan sétta tug, i. 168.
rúm-snara, u, f. a slip-knot (mod. kappmella), Karl. 161, Fms. v. 288, Sd. 169, Mar.
rúm-sæi, n. (mod. rúm-sjór, m.), the open sea, Grett. 83 A.
RÚN, f., pl. rúnar: [rún, raun, reyna are all kindred words, and a lost strong verb, rúna, raun, meaning to enquire, may be presumed; the original notion is scrutiny, mystery, secret conversation; Gotb. runa, by which Ulf. several times renders the Gr. GREEK and GREEK (once, Matth. xxvii. 1), GREEK (twice, Luke vii. 30, 1 Cor. iv. 5); A.S. rún = a 'rowning' mystery, but also = writing, charter; Hel. rûna = colloquium, and geruni = loquela (Schmeller); cp. Old Engl. to rown, Germ.raunen; Gr. GREEK is also supposed to be a kindred word (Bugge). In Scandin. writers and poets rún is chiefly used of magical characters, then of writing, whereas the derivative word raun means trial, enquiry, and rúni and rúna = a friend or counsellor.]
B. A secret, hidden lore, mystery; frá jötna rúnum ok allra goða segðú it sannasta, Vþm. 42, 43; kenna rúnar, to teach wisdom, Rm. 33; dæma um rúnar ok regin-dóma, Hm. 112; minnask á fornar rúnar, Vsp. 59: saws, segja sannar rúnir, to tell true saws, Fas. ii. 302 (in a verse): a 'rowning' speech, vifs rúnir, a woman's whispering, Bm.; heita e-n at rúnum, to consult one, Gh. 12, Skv. 3. 14, 43; hniga at rúnum, Gkv. 3. 4. II. a Rune or written character; the earliest Runes were not writing in proper sense, but fanciful signs possessing a magical power; such Runes have, through vulgar superstition, been handed down even to the present time, for a specimen of them see Ísl. Þjóðs. i.435, 436, and Arna-Magn. Nos. 687. 4 to, and 434. 12 mo (Ísl. Þjóðs.pref. ix); the classical passages for these spell-Runes are, Hm. 133 sqq.,Sdm. 5 sqq., Skm. 29, 36, Eg. ch. 44, 61, 75, Yngl. S. ch. 7, Grett. ch. 85, N.G.L. iii. 286, 300, Vsp. 59; cp. also the phrase, rísta trénið,Grág., Fs. 56. The phrase in the old Danish Ballads, kaste runer, to throw Rúnes, i.e. chips (see hlaut, hlautviðr), may be compared to the Lat. sortes, Mommsen's Hist, of Rome, vol. i. p. 187, foot-note (Engl. Ed.), or the Sibylline leaves in the Aeneid. 2. Runes as writing;the word was first applied to the original Northern alphabet, which at an early time was derived from the common Phœnician, probably through Greek or Roman coins in the first centuries of our era. From these Runes were subsequently formed two alphabets, the old Scandinavian (whence again the Anglo-Saxon), as found on the Golden horn and the stone in Tune, and the later Scandinavian, in which the inscriptions in the greater number of the Swedish and Danish stone monuments are written, most being of the 10th (9th?) and following centuries. -- A curious instance of the employment of Runes is their being written on a kefli (a round piece of wood) as messages (cp. the Gr. GREEK), as is freq. recorded in the Sagas, e.g. Gísl. 45, 67, Fms. ix. 390, 490, Grett. 154 new Ed., Fb. i. 251 (of the deaf and dumb Oddny). It is doubtful whether poems were ever written in this way, for almost the only authority for such a statement is Eg. 605, where we read that the Sonatorrek was taken down on a Runic stick, the other instances being mostly from romances or fabulous Sagas, Grett. 144, Örvar Odds S.(fine). This writing on a kefli is mentioned in the Latin line, Barbara 'fraxineis' sculpatur runa 'tabellis,' Capella (5th century). In later times (from the 13th century) Runic writing was practised as a sort of curiosity; thus calendars used to be written on sticks, of which there is a specimen in the Bodl. Library in Oxford; they were also used for inscriptions on tombstones, spoons, chairs, and the like: there even exists in the Arna-Magn. Library a Runic MS. of an old Danish law, and there is a Runic letter in Sturl. (of the year 1241); Runes carved on an oar occur in Fs. 177: a hidden treasure in a chest is labelled with Runes, Fms. vi. 271, Sd. 146, cp. also the interesting record in Bs. i. 435 (sex manna bein vóru þar hjá honum ok vax ok rúnar þær er sögðu atburð lifláts þeirra). 3. the word rún is also, though rarely, applied to the Latin alphabet; ef hann er á þingi þá skal hann rísta nafn hans ef hann kann rúnar, N.G.L. i. 171; or generally, ræki ek eigi hvárt þú rítr ô UNCERTAIN þitt eðr o, (O?) UNCERTAIN eða a, (z?) UNCERTAIN eða e, y eða u, en ek svara svá, eigi er þat rúnanna kostr þó at þú lesir vel eða ráðir vel at líkindum, þar sem rúnar visa óskírt, heldr er þat þinn kostr, Thorodd 162; þessi er upphaf allra hátta svá sem málrúnar eru fyrir öðrum minum, Edda (Ht.) 121. III. in pr. names, Rún-ólfr: as the latter part in pr. names of women, Guð-rún, Sig-rún, Öl-rún, Landn., Nj., Bs., Sturl., Sæm. COMPDS: rúna-kefli, n., see above, Sd. 142, Fms. ix. 390, 490, Grett. 154 new Ed., Eg. rúna-mál, n. pl. the Runic alphabet, Skfálda 176. Rúna-meistari, a, m. a 'Rune-master,' grammarian, the soubriquet of Thorodd, Skálda 160. rúna-stafr, m. a Runic letter, Skálda 177.
rúna, u, f. a friend who knows one's secrets; kona er rúna bónda síns, Edda ii. 602; Kolbeins rúna, K.'s wife, Gd. 18; eyra-rúna, q.v.
rún-henda, u, f., or rún-hending, f., is the name of the metre with end-rhymes, consecutive, not alternate; the word is now obsolete, and in ancient writers it only occurs in two places, the Ht. R. verse 24 and in Edda (Ht.), where the Cod. Reg. gives rún-, Edda i. 696 sqq. (the foot-notes); but one is tempted to suspect that this is corrupt, and that the true form was rim-, as im and un can hardly be distinguishedin MSS.; rím- would yield good sense, whereas rúm- is meaningless. The metre itself is evidently of foreign origin, borrowed from the A.S.: the first poem in this metre was the Höfuðl. of Egil, who had lived in England; it was little used throughout the 10th and the following centuries, and the few poems and fragments composed in it can be traced to Egil's poem as their prototype. The single verse in Eg. ch. 27 is prob. a later composition.
rún-hendr, adj. in the metre rúnhenda, Edda (Ht.); see above.
rúni, a, m. a counsellor, friend, Edda (Gl.); Sifjar-rúni, the husband of Sif = Thor, Edda (in a verse); jarlar ok hersar heita ... konungs rúnar, eða málar eða sessar, 94; rekka rúni, the ruler of men, Ó.H. (in a verse); Vagna rúni = Odin, Stor.; Þórs ot rúni, Haustl.
rún-ketill, m., Grett. (in a verse), read rúm-ketill(?); regns r., the large rain-kettle, i.e. the mountain cave.
rúsína, u, f. resin, (mod.)
Rússar, m. pl. the Russians, Ann. 1348. Ruci-land (mod. Rússland), Bær. 16, Flóv. 36.
RÚST, f. [akin to ruð, qs. ruðst?], a ruin, freq. in mod. usage; er hann hljóp yfir garðs rúst lága, Sturl. ii. 227; miklar rústir, bæjar-rúst, tóptar-rúst.
rútr, m., in drykkju-rútr, a drunkard.
RYÐ, n. (ryðr, m., Sks. 442 (v.l.), Fas. i. 514, Al. 132) :-- rust,from the red colour, Stj. 344, Ld. 114, Hom. 15, Matth. vi. 19, 20, passim. COMPDS: ryð-frakki, a, m. a rusty old weapon., Háv. 47; see frakka. ryð-genginn, part. rusty, Eg. 183. ryð-skálm, f. = ryðfrakki, Fas. iii. 606. ryð-skóf, f. a rusty old knife used for scraping.
ryðga, að, to become rusty, Fas. iii. 240; ryðgaðr, Pm. 114.
RYÐJA, ryð, ruddi, rutt, [this word has lost the initial h (qs. hryðja), being derived from hrjóða, denoting 'to clear, rid of,' cp. also hroði, hryðja, sweepings, offal; and is altogether different from rjóða = to redden; the h remains in hruðning, q.v.; see hrjóða; Engl. rid; Scot. red or redde; Dan. rydde. J
B. To clear; taka at ryðja mörkina ok brenna, ok byggja síðan ... en er spurðisk til Ólafs at hann ryðr markir, kölluðu þeir hann Trételgju, Hkr. i. 55; hann ruddi lönd í Haukadal, Landn. 103; Önundr konungr lagði á þat kapp mikit ok kostnað at ryðja markir ok byggja eptir ruðin, Hkr. i. 45; sumir konungar ruddu marklönd stór ok bygðu þar, 48; þeir ruddu markir ok bygðu stór héruð, 137; sú bygð var