This is page 541 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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SKAUTI -- SKÁLI. 541

skauti, a, m. a kercbief used as a purse by knitting all four corners together so as to make a bag (see knýti-skauti), Háv. 43, Bs. i. 337, 340. 2. the square piece of wood fastened on an oar where it moves in the rowlock so as to keep the oar from rubbing is in western Icel. called skauti; það er einn skautinn af árinni.

skaut-kistill, m. a chest to keep kerchiefs in, D.N. v. 69.

skaut-konungr, m. 'sheet-king,' the nickname of the Swedish king Olave who was an orphan child and was carried about by the Swedes, as the tale is told in Fas. i. 511, cp. Ó.H. ch. 15; but may not the name be derived from his having been an adopted son of the old king? See the references s.v. skaut (3).

skaut-reip, n. the 'sheet-rope,' of a sail; við s. hvárt-tveggja, N.G.L. i. 199, Edda (Gl.)

skaut-toga, að, to tug at the skirt of one's cloak, to handle roughly, Fms. vi. 203, Edda (Gl.)

skaut-vanr, adj. 'sheet-fitted,' an epithet of a ship, Lex. Poët.

ská, adv. [cp. Dan. skraa; Germ. schräge], askew, askance; and á ská, id.; hence ská-hallr, adj. sloping.

skáðr, part. askew, Lat. obliquus; á skáðum veg til suðrs, Sks. 50 new Ed., for 427; see skjáðr.

skái, a, m. relief, of pain; ok þótti henni nekkverr skái verða á hverju dægri á sínum mætti, Bs. i. 352; varð engi skái á hans meini, 336; var fyrst með ská (= skáa acc.), it was at first with some relief, Þiðr. 248; cp. skána, skárri.

skák, f. [of Persian origin], chess, Vm. 177; tefla skák, Gsp. COMPDS: skák-borð, n. a chess-board. skák-maðr, m. a chess-man, Skíða R. 164: a chess-player. 2. [O.H.G. scâb-man; Germ. schächer], a robber, highwayman, Þiðr. 100 (v.l.), 125 (v.l. 14), 353. skák-tafl, n. a game of chess, Ó.H. 167, Fas. i. 523, Fms. xi. 366 (year 1155), Bs. i. 635 (year 1238), ii. 186, D.N. (in deeds of the 14th century). There is no authentic record of chess in Scandin. before the 12th century, for Fas. l.c. is mythical, and as to Ó.H. 167 see remarks s.v. hnefi. In Icel. there is still played a peculiar kind of chess, called vald-skák, where no piece, if guarded, can be taken or exchanged. II. metaph. a seat, bench; in the popular phrase, tyltu þér á skákina, take a seat!

skáka, að, to check. Fms. iv. 366, v.l. (skekði, Ó.H. l.c.), freq. in mod. usage :-- the metaph. phrase, skáka í því skjóli, to check one in that shelter, i.e. to take advantage of (unduly).

SKÁL, f., pl. skálir and skálar, Vkv. 24, 35 (Bugge), and so in mod. usage; [Germ. schale; Dan. -Swed. skål] :-- a bowl; skál fulla vatns, Stj. 392; skál full mjaðar, Fms. vi. 52; þær skálir er Þórr var vanr at drekka, Edda 57. 2. a hollow, whence as a local name, Landn. II. [Engl. scale], scales, 643 B; eyri fyrir bein hvert er ór leysir, ef skellr í skálum, N.G.L. i. 67; taka skálir ok vega gullit, Fms. vii. 145; skálir góðar, xi. 128; leggja í skálir, Fb. ii. 79; vega í skálum með metum, Gþl. 523; skálir ok met, Fms. vi. 183; þá verðu vit at leita at skálum ok vega hringinn, 249. 2. metaph. phrase, stóð sú ógn af honum, at engi lagði í aðra skál enn hann vildi, Ó.H. 111; engir menn gátu nær í aðra skál lagt enn þeir vildu, þar sem þeir stóðu einn veg at málum, Bs. i. 716; þorðu þeir ekki orð í aðra skál at leggja enn konungr vildi, Fb. i. 549: gull-skálir, Bret. 59; meta-skalir, q.v. COMPDS: skála-glam, a nickname, see Jómsv. S. ch. 42; whence Skál-eyjar, Landn. skála-mark, -merki, n. the sign Libra, Rb. skála-pund, n. a weight, Dan. skaal-pund, Rétt. skála-veginn, part. weighed in scales, D.N.

SKÁLD, n., pl. skáld; the word is in poetry rhymed as skald (with a short vowel), skald and kalda, aldri and skaldi, Kormak, and so on; but the plural is always spelt skáld, not sköld; the mod. Dan. skjald is borrowed from the Icel.: [the etymology and origin of this word is contested; Prof. Bergmann, in Message de Skirnir, Strasburg, 1871, p. 54, derives it from the Slavonic skladi = composition, skladacz = compositeur; but the earliest usages point to a Teutonic and a different root. In the ancient law skáldskapr meant a libel in verse, and was synonymous with flimt, danz, níð, q.v.; the compds skáld-fífl, leir-skáld (q.v.) also point to the bad sense as the original one, which is still noticeable in popular Icel. usages and phrases such as skálda (the verb), skáldi, skældinn (libellous), see also skáldmær below. On the other hand, skálda, Germ. schalte, means a pole (sec skálda, skáld-stöng below); libels and imprecations were in the ancient heathen age scratched on poles, see the remarks s.v. níð, níðstöng. The word is therefore, we believe, to be traced back to the old libel-pole, 'scald-pole;' if so, Engl. scold = to abuse, Germ. schelten, may be kindred words; the old Lat. phrase (of Mart. Capella) barbara fraxineis sculpatur runa tabellis may even refer to this scratching of imprecations on pieces of wood.]

B. A poet, in countless instances; þeir vóru skáld Haralds komings ok kappar, Fas. i. 379; forn-skáld, þjóð-skáld, níð-skáld, hirð-skáld, leir-skáld, krapta-skáld, ákvæða-skáld, as also sálma-skáld, rímna-skáld; in nicknames, Skáld-Helgi, Skáld-Hrafn, Skáld-Refr, Landn., names given to those who composed libellous love-songs(?); Svarta-skáld, Hvíta-skúld. Some of the classical passages in the Sagas referring to poets, esp. to the hirð-skáld, are Har. S. hárf. ch. 39, Hák. S. Góða ch. 32, Eg. ch. 8, Gunnl. S. ch. 9, Ó.H. ch. 52-54, 128, 203, 205, O.H.L. ch. 57, 58, 60-62, Har. S. harðr. (Fms. vi.) ch. 24, 101, 108, 110. The Egils S., Korm. S., Hallfred. S., Gunnl. S. are lives of poets; there are also the chapters and episodes referring to the life of the poet Sighvat, esp. in the Fb., cp. also Sturl. 1. ch. 13, 9. ch. 16; for imprecations or libels in verse see níð. COMPDS: skálda-gemlur, f. pl., see Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 557. skálda-spillir, m. 'skald-spoiler,' the nickname of the poet Eyvind; the name was, we believe, a bye-word, a 'poetaster,' 'plagiarist;' we believe that this nickname was given to this poet because two of his chief poems were modelled after other works of contemporary poets, the Háleygja-tal after the Ynglinga-tal, and the Hákonar-mál after the Eiriks-mál; (as to the latter poem this is even expressly stated in Fagrsk. 22); the word would thus be the same as íll-skælda, a word applied to a poet for having borrowed the refrain of his poem, Fms. iii. 65. Skálda-tal, n. a List of Poets, a short treatise affixed to. the Cod. Ups. of the Edda and the Cod. Acad. primus of the Heimskringla.

skálda, u, f. [O.H.G. scalta; mid. H.G. schalte], a pole or staff, whence a flute, pipe; skálda með tönn, a flute made of walrus tusk, D.N. iv. 359. 2. [mid. H.G. schalte], a kind of boat, Edda (Gl.) II. Skálda, a contr. form of Skáldskapar-mál (List of Authors C.I), but usually applied to the old collection of Philological Treatises affixed to the Edda, (List of Authors H.I.)

skálda, að, to make verses, but in rather a bad sense.

skálda, að, [cp. Engl. scall or scald], to rot, fall off, of hair; skáldaðr.

skáld-eik, f. [Germ. schalt-eiche], the holm-oak, ilex, Þd. (the MS. has skal-eik).

skáld-fé, n. a 'skald-fee' reward for a poem, Ad.

skáld-fífl, n. a poetaster (perh. originally a libeller), Edda 49.

skáldi, a, m. a poetaster, a nickname given in Icel. to vagrant, extemporising verse-makers; thus in this century Páll skáldi (a vagrant priest and verse-maker); and in the 16th century Bjarni skáldi; the word is never applied to really good poets. 2. as a nickname, Baut. (on Runic stones).

skáld-kona, u, f. a 'skald-quean,' a poetess, a nickname of a woman, for which the reason given is this; hann átti Þórhildi skáldkonu, 'hón var orðgífr mikit ok fór með flimtan,' she was a 'word-witch,' and made libels, Nj. 49.

skáld-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), poetical, Fms. ii. 50.

skáld-maðr, m. a poet; skáldmenn miklir, Ísl. ii. 191.

skáld-mær, adj. a 'skald-maid,' poetess, a nickname of the poetess Jórunn, Fms. i. 13; the name of her poem Sendi-bít looks as if it had been of a 'biting' libellous kind.

skáld-pípa, u, f. a 'skald-pipe,' a flute(?), Clar. 135.

skáld-skapr, m. 'scaldship,' poetry: I. a libel in verse; eigi skal lýsa legorðs-sök um skáldskap, Grág. i. 351; ef maðr kveðr skáld-skap til háðungar manni, ... ok varðar þat skóggang, skal sækja sem annan skáldskap, ii. 151, see the whole chapter in Kb. ch. 238, inscribed, um Skáldskap, of Libels; the word is therefore used synonymously with danz and flimt, níð, q.v. II. poetry in a good sense, Edda passim; Sighvatr var ekki hrað-mæltr maðr í sundr-lausum orðum, en s. var honum svá tiltækr, at hann kvað af tungu fram svá sem hann mælti annat mál, Ó.H. 171; ok kom þar brátt talinu at þeir ræddu um skáldskap, þótti hvárum-tveggja þær ræður skemtiligar, Eg. 686; skáld-skapar grein, -háttr, poetical metre, Skálda 183, 210; skáldskapar laun = skáldfé, Eg. 152. Skáld-skapar-mál, n. pl. poetical diction, Edda 49, Skálda 195; hence the name of the second part of the Edda, the ancient Ars Poetica, containing the rules and laws of ancient poetry. &FINGER; Skáldskapr in old writers refers to the 'form' (metre, flow, diction), not to the contents; even in such phrases as, ekki var mikill skáldskapr í því kvæði, there was not much 'scaldship' in that poem, it was a bad composition, Fms. vii. 38.

skáld-stöng, f. a 'libel-pole,' a pole with imprecations or charms

scratched on it; ef maðr reisir stöng ok kallar s., þá hefir hann fyrir-gört

hverjum penningi fjár síns, N.G.L. i. 430.

skálgi, a, m. a fish of the carp kind(?), Edda (Gl.)

skál-hús, n. = skáli, 655 xxx. 9.

SKÁLI, a, m. [cp. Scot. shieling; Ivar Aasen skaale = shieling] :-- prop. a hut, shed, put up for temporary use; this is the earliest Norse sense, and it is still so used in Norway; þar sér enn skála-tópt þeirra ok svá hrófit, Landn. 30; skála vist at Rauðabjörgum, of a fisherman's hut, Vm. 147; skála búi, a hut dweller = a robber, Fs.; hence, leik-skálar, play-shielings, put up when people assembled for sports; gufu-skálar, 'steam-shieling' a local name, of bathing-sheds(?), Landn.; fiski-skálar, fishing shielings; it also remains in local names as Skála-holt. II. a hall (höll is only used of the king's hall), see Orkn. ch. 18, 70, 115, Gísl. 29, Dropl. 18, 28, Fms. i. 288-292, Korm. 58, Bs. i. 41, Fbr. ch. 13 new Ed, Nj. ch. 78, Gunnl. S. ch. 11; in Landn. 1. ch. 2, 2. ch. 13, the skáli is a detached building; drykkju-s., a drinking hall; svefn-s., a sleeping hall. In Grág. i. 459 distinction is made between eldhús and skáli; in the Sturl. skáli is distinguished from stofa; and it seems that the men were seated in the former, the women in