This is page 604 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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604 SUMARAUKI -- SUNDRINGUM.

summer-day, falls on Thursday the 25th of April; Auka-nætr from the 24th to the 27th of July; Mið-sumar on the 28th of July; Sumar-dagr síðasti, or the last day of summer, on the 25th of October; cp. sumar-nátt siðasta, Gísl. 67. In mod. usage the time from April to October is counted by the summer weeks, the first, second, ... twentieth ... week of the summer, and in Icel. Almanacks every Thursday during summer is marked by the running number of the week. The ancients, too, counted the summer by weeks, but only down to midsummer, thus, tíu vikur skulu vera af sumri er menn koma til alþingis, K.Þ.K. 166; but in the latter part of the summer they counted either by the weeks from midsummer or by the weeks still left of the summer, thus, hálfum mánaði eptir mitt sumar, Nj. 4; er átta vikur lifa sumars, Grág. i. 122; frá miðju sumri til vetrar, 147; er átta vikur eru til vetrar, Nj. 192; er tveir mánaðir vóru til vetrar, 195; líðr á sumarit til átta vikna, 93; ellipt., var Rútr heima til sex vikna (viz. sumars), 10.

C. COMPDS: sumar-auki, a, m. 'summer-eke,' the intercalary week, an Icel. calendar-term; the ancient heathen year consisted of 364 days, or twelve months of thirty days each, plus four days, which were the auka-nætr or 'eke-nights' (see above); the remaining day and a fraction was gathered up into an intercalary week, called 'Summer-eke' or 'Eke-week,' which in ancient times was inserted every sixth or seventh year at the end of summer, which in such years was 191 days long; the 'Summer-eke' was introduced by Thorstein Surt (Thorstein the Wise) in the middle of the 10th century, see Íb. ch. 4, and is still observed in Icel.; now that the Gregorian style is in use in Icel. the intercalary week is inserted every fifth or sixth year; thus the year 1872 is marked as the 'first year after sumarauki,' (the years 1860, 1866, and 1871 being years 'with sumarauki'); 1872 sem er 'fyrsta ár eptir Sumarauka,' Icel. Almanack, 1872; the years 1864 and 187O were 'fjórða ár eptir sumarauka;' thus in 1871 the summer had twenty-seven weeks, the eke-week being the 21st to the 27th of October. sumar-ávöxtr, m. the summer produce, Fms. x. 337. sumar-björg, f. support during the summer, Sturl. i. 136. sumar-bók, f. a summer-book (missal for the summer), Vm. 52, Pm. 86. sumar-bú, n. summer-stock, Sturl. ii. 65. sumar-bær, adj. calving in the summer. sumar-dagr, m. a summer day, N.G.L. i. 348; cp. Sumardagr inn fyrsti, Fms. ix. 511, Jb. 204; inn fimmti dagr viku skal vera fyrstr í sumri, K.Þ.K. ch. 45; þá var svá fram komit ári, at Páska-aptan var sumardagr inn fyrsti, en þetta var Laugar-dagr í Páska-viku, Fms. ix. 511 (of the year 1241). sumar-fang, n. a summer-catch, Krók. 38, Bs. i. 335. sumar-fullr, adj. full as in summer, Karl. 134. sumar-gamall, adj. a summer old, Fms. vi. 368. sumar-gjöf, f. a summer-gift, a present on the first day of summer, which in Icel. is observed as a feast day. sumar-hagi, a, m. summer pasture, Grág. ii. 313, Jb. 298. sumar-herbergi, n. = sumarhöll, Stj. 383. sumar-hiti, a, m. summer heat. sumar-hluti, a, m. a part of summer, Vm. 81. sumar-hold, m. pl. summer flesh on cattle, Eb. sumar-höll, f. a summer palace, Fms. ix. 372, x. 162. sumar-kaup, n. summer wages, Ísl. ii. 124. sumar-langt,? n. adj. the summer long, Ld. 72, Ísl. ii. 240, Fms. x. 456, xi. 59, sumar-liði, a, m. a 'summer-slider,' a sailor, mariner; the Saxon Chron. s. a. 871 says there arrived a 'mycil sumar-liða,' i.e. a great fleet of Vikings, as has been explained by Prof. Munch. Sumarliði as a pr. name is freq. in Icel., Landn.: cp. vetrliði. sumar-ligr, adj. summery, Sks. 48. sumar-magn, -megin, n.; at sumar-magni, in the height of summer. Fas. ii. 210, iii. 145, 187. sumar-mál, n. the 'summer-meal;' the last days of winter and the first of summer are thus called, e.g. in the Icel. Almanack for 1872 'sumar-mál' is on the 20th of April and the following days: in sing., N.G.L. i. 240: plur., at sumarmálum, Grág. i. 140, 198, Gþl. 422, Rb. 42, Fms. ii. 99; sumarmála dagr = sumar-dagr fyrsti, Fb. i. 132; sumarmála-helgr, the Sunday that falls in the beginning of the summer, Sturl. ii. 235 C. sumar-nátt, f. a summer-night; sumarnátt siðasta, Gísl. 67. sumar-nætr, f. pl. = sumarmál, Gþl. 422, v.l.; cp. vetrnætr. Sumar-Páskar, m. pl. 'Summer-Easter;' whenever Easter falls between the 22nd and 25th of April inclusively, the first summer day will fall on the preceding Thursday, so that Easter Sunday falls on the first Sunday in summer; this is in Icel. called Sumar-Páskar. sumar-setr, m. a summer abode, Gþl. 454. sumar-skeið, n. the summer-season, Fms. viii. 55. sumar-stefna, u, f. a market, D.N. sumar-söngr, m. summer service, Pm. 90. sumar-tíð, f., sumar-tími, a, m. summer-time, Bær. 17, Fms. xi. 441. sumar-tungl, n. the 'summer-moon,' i.e. the moon at the time when summer begins. In popular belief one ought to notice when he first sees the summer-moon, and then mark the first word spoken by the first person he meets, for it is prophetic; this is called 'svara einum í sumartunglið,' 'to address one at the summer-moon,' see Ísl. Þjóðs.; in the Icel. Almanack for 1872 the 7th of April is marked as the 'sumar-tungl.' sumar-verk, n. summer-work, Bs. i. 336. sumar-viðr, m. wood for charcoal to be gathered in summer, opp. to fuel in winter, Hrafn. 6, Vm. 164.

sumbl, n. [A.S. symbel; O.H.G. sumbal; prob. a compd from sam and öl)] :-- a banquet, symposium; á þat sumbl at sjá, Ls. 2: at sumbli, 8, 10; gamban-s., 8; göra s., 65; segja frá sumbli, to tell the news from the banquet, Kormak; nema sumbl = göra sumbl, Hým. 1; Jólna-s. the banquet of the gods, Ht.; kalla s. Suttungs synir, Alm. 35; Suttung svikinn hann lét sumbli frá, Hm. 110. COMPDS: sumbl-ekla, u, f. lack of drink at a banquet, Eg. (in a verse). sumbl-samr, adi. banqueting, Hým. 1.

sumla, að, to be flooded; sumlaðisk konungrinn ok sópaðisk, he was overwhelmed and swept away, Stj. 287.

SUMR, adj. [Ulf. sums = GREEK; common to all Teut. languages, but mostly with o; Dan. somme; Engl. some] :-- some; þá fell áin sum (some part of the river) í landsuðr, Nj. 263; hann rænti fólk, en drap sumt, sumt hertók hann, Fms. i. 28; Anakol ok sum sveitin var eptir, Orkn.; yðr þykkir sumt ofjarl en sumt ekki at manna, Fms. vi. 53. 2. plur., sumra presta, H.E. i. 513; sumir ... guldu fé, sumir ..., Hkr. i. 89; Hvat görðu húskarlar Njáls? Eigi veit ek hvat sumir görðu, einn ók skarni á hóla, Nj. 66. COMPDS: sums-kostar, adv. partly, Fms. v. 69, ix. 379. sum-staðar, adv. in some places, Eg. 41, Hkr. ii. 93, passim.

sumr, m. (qs. svumr), [sund, svimma], the sea, Edda (Gl.)

sumra, að, to become summer, Fms, i. 32, vii. 304.

sumrungr, in. an animal a summer old, Grág. i. 501. 2. hann var s. einn, Sturl. i. 88 C(?).

SUND, n. (qs. svumd), [from svimma, dropping the v and changing m into n] :-- a swimming; koma á sund, Gþl. 447; kasta sér á sund. Eg. 219; á sundi, swimming, 123, Ld. 130; með sundi, by way of swimming, Fms. i. 112, Eg. 261, passim, see Grett. ch. 40, 80, Fær. ch. 38, Kristni S. ch. 10, Ld. ch. 33, 40; cp. also the story of Heming. Swimming was a favourite sport, the antagonists trying to duck one another; 'sund' is one of the sports in king Harold's verses, -- hetik sund numit stundum, Fms. vi. 170.

B. COMPDS: sund-farar, f. pl. swimming, Fms. ii. 29. sund-fjöðr, f. a swimming feather, a fin, Sks. 133. sund-færi, n. a swimming apparatus, Sks. 179. sund-færr, adj. a good swimmer, Ld. 168, Fms. ii. 20, x. 295. sund-föt, n. pl. swimming clothes, Fas. ii. 545. sund-hreifi, a, m. a swimming paw, of a seal, Sks. 179. sund-íþróttir, f. pl. the art of swimming, Fms. ii. 27. sund-laug, f. a swimming-bath, Sturl. iii. 170. sund-leikar, m. pl. swimming sport, Fms. ii. 27. sund-læti, n. swimming movements. Fas. ii. 452. sund-magi, a, m., q.v. sund-móðr, adj. tired with swimming, Fær. 155.

SUND, n. [quite a different word from the preceding, derived from sundr] :-- prop. that which sunders, a sound, strait, narrow passage, channel, of water, Nj. 8, Fms. iv. 41; var þar sund í milli eyjanna, Eg. 218; í fjorðum eðr í sundum, Grág. ii. 385; Þuríðr sunda-fyllir, hóu seiddi til þess í hallæri á Hálogalandi at hvert sund var fullt af fiskum, Landn. 147: so in the saying, nú eru lokin sund öll, all passages were stopped, all hope gone, Hkr. i. 251: in local names, Eyrar-sund, Njörfa-s., Stokk-s., and in countless other compd names, Landn., Fms.: also a lane, alley, búðar-sund, the lane between two booths; bæjar-sund, the lane between two walls; í sundinu milli húsanna, in the lane between the houses, freq. in mod. usage: so also, flóa-sund, holta-sund, mýrar-sund, strips of fen between hillocks. 2. a defile, hence Mjó-syndi, q.v.; var sund breitt (a broad channel] miilum knarranna ok skeiðanna, Fms. v. 169. sunda-leið, f. the 'sound-passage,' the coarse through the islands along the coast of Norway, Eg. 476, Fms. viii. 334.

sundl, n. (or sunli, Fél, x. 43), [Germ. schwindel], a swimming in the head.

sundla, að, to be giddy: impers., mik sundlar, Fas. ii. 236.

sund-magi, a, m. 'swim-maw,' the bladder of a fish.

SUNDR, adv. [Goth. sundro; A.S. sundar; Dan. sönder; common to all Teut. languages] :-- asunder; skipta, deila, hluta s., Nj. 164; ganga, stökkva, rifa, bresta, brjóta, höggva, skera ... sundr, 19, passim; rekja sundr, Ld. 192; breiða s., Karl. 423; segja sundr, to declare at an end.

sundra, að, [Germ. sondern], to break asunder, Al. 32: to cut in pieces, cut up, of a killed beast; s. hjörtinn, Flóv. 27: s. fórnina, Stj. 430, 454: reflex. to be sundered, scattered, ef flokkr sundrask, Fms. ix. 36.

sundran, f. a sundering, separation, N.G.L. i. 155.

sundr-borinn, part. different in origin, opp. to samborinn, Fm. 13.

sundr-brotna, að, to throw asunder, break asunder, Fb. ii. 389.

sundr-dreifa, ð, to scatter, Barl. 161, Róm. 244.

sundr-grein, f. distinction, Skálda 177: discord, Sturl. iii. 276, Bs. ii. 44. sundrgreini-ligr, adj. different, Ísl. ii. 191.

sundr-greining, f. division, Stj.

sundr-görðir, f. pl. show in dress, fashion; s. útlenda siðu ok klæðasnið, Fms. vi. 440; prestar skolu eigi fara með s. þær er biskup bannar, K.Þ.K. sundrgörða-maðr, m. a showy person, in dress, Fb. i. 368, Eb. 242 :-- an ostentatious man, inn mesti kappi ok s., Ísl. ii. 367; s. í orðum, showy in one's speech, Fms. iii. 153, v. 69.

sundringum, adv. scatteredly, Fagrsk. ch. 279.