This is page 672 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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672 ÚTMERKI -- V.

út-merki, n. a locality; ok kveða ú rétt ok útmerki, and name the dock and the place, of a summons for launching a ship, Grág. ii. 400.

út-messa, u, f. service in the afternoon, opp. to high mass, Fms. x. 163.

út-mokstr, m. a shovelling out, Bs. i. 315.

út-nes, n. an outlying ness, Fms. x. 185; til ílls fóru vér um góð héruð, er vér skulum byggja útnes þetta, Landn. 37.

út-norðan, adv. from the north-west.

út-norðr, n. 'out-north,' north-west, K.Þ.K. (Kb.) 36, Hb. 415. 12, Rb. 92, Sd. 156, Fs. 143, passim; opp. to landnorðr.

út-nyrðingr, m. a north-west wind, Ld. 42, Lv. 99, Sks. 40; út-nyrðingi steinóðum, 656 C. 21.

út-rás, f. an outlet, Barl. 64.

út-reið, f. a riding out, an expedition, El. 2: the phrase, fá ílla útreið, to meet with ill-treatment.

út-róðr, m. an outrowing, rowing out to sea, of fishermen; ef menn fá veðráttu til útróðrar, K.Á. 176, Dipl. iv. 15, freq. in mod. usage; hann lét þaðan sækja útróðra, Eg. 135, Fs. 174; þeir höfðu veiðar af megin-landinu, eggver ok útróðra af sjónum, Þorf. Karl. 416. útróðrar-maðr, m. an outpost fisherman who lies at a distant fishing-place during the fishing season, Fs. 143, Gpl. 425.

út-rýma, d, to turn out.

út-ræði, n. = útróðr, K.Þ.K. 84.

út-ræna, u, f. a breeze from seawards, an onshore wind.

út-röst, f. [Ivar Aasen ut-rast], the outer march or boundary; báðar jarðirnar eru jamstórar til alla útrastar ok útbúða, D.N. ii. 784, v. 435; þá er jarla bági vildi byggja útröst, when the king wished to remove to the ú., Ht. (Edda 55); opp. to heimröst.

út-saumr, m. an 'out-seam,' embroidery, brocade.

út-selr, m. a kind of seal, Vm. 165.

út-sending, f. exclusion, Hom. 139.

út-setning, f. excommunication, H.E. i. 414, B.K. 107.

út-sigling, f. a sailing out to Iceland, Nj. 9, 47, passim; see út.

út-sjár (út-sjór, út-sær), m. the outer sea, ocean, Hkr. i. 5, Stj. 74.

út-skagi, a, m. = útnes, Fms. xi, 252, Stj. 377, 406, Bs. i. 724.

út-skeifr, adj. 'out-footed,' bandy-legged, Lat. varus, Fms. x. 151, v.l.

út-sker, n. an 'out-skerry,' distant skerry, Grág. ii. 131, Edda (Ht.) 131, Hkr. i. 98; ú. verða af bárum þvegin, Mkv.

út-skript, f. a transcript, D.N. i. 164, ii. 205: inscription, Pass. 35. 1.

út-skúfa, að, to repudiate.

út-skyld, f. a tax, D.N. iii. 132.

út-skýra, ð, to explain, H.E. i. 501.

út-skýring, f. a commentary.

út-skækill, m. an outskirt.

út-slátta, u, f. exposure, = útburðr, N.G.L. i. 131.

út-sog, n. the receding of the surf, Sturl. i. 120 C.

út-sótt, f. a breaking-out on the skin, eruption, Stj. 141, 436.

út-stafr, m. a post outside a wall, Fms. v. 338.

út-strönd, f. the outer strand, Fms. vi. 148, Stj. 70.

út-suðr, n. the south-west, Fms. i. 131, x. 272, Rb. 97, 476, Sks. 174; útsuðrs-ætt, K.Á. 152, K.Þ.K. 92, MS. 4. 11.

út-sunnan, adv. from the south-west, Eg. 195, v.l.

út-synningr, m. a south-westerly gale, Sks. 40, Eg. 195, 600, Ld. 56; útsynnings byrr, -stormr, Fb. i. 431, Bs. i. 282.

út-taka, u, f. = úttekt, D.N. ii. 263.

út-tekt, f. a valuation, of an estate, when passing from one tenant to another.

út-valinn, part. elected.

út-valning, f. an election.

út-vé, n. = útröst, útgarðr, Þd. (see vé).

út-vega, að, to procure, Fas. iii. 417.

út-veggr, m. an outer wall, Fms. ix. 41.

út-vegr, m. a way out, device, expedient; atdrættir ok útvegar, Fms. xi. 423; eiga öngan útveg, útveg til undan-kvámu, i. 136, vii. 261, ix. 478; leita allra útvega, vii. 140; at ek göra fyrir þín orð nökkurn útveg þann er þér líkar, Finnb. 272; segir hann konungi allan útveg þann sem á var, state of affairs, id.; þegar Einarr hafði innt ok mælt allan þenna útveg, Fms. iv. 283. 2. = útröst, D.N. passim.

út-ver, n. an outlying place, for fishing, taking eggs, or the like, Eg. 369, Hkr. i. 185, Fms. iv. 330, D.N. ii. 233; í útverjum, Ld. 38.

út-vinna, u, f. service at sea; róðr ok reiði ok allar útvinnur þær er konungr á at hafa, Fms. viii. 173; þeir héldu leiðöngrum fyrir hánum ok oðrum útvinnum, ix. 247, v.l.

út-vígi, n. an out-work, Karl. 324.

út-vík, f. an outlying creek, Fms. ix.

út-vörðr, m. an out-post, Hkr. i. 244, Fms. viii. 90.

út-þanning, f. [þenja], out-stretching, Skálda.

Út-Þrœndir, m. pl. the Outer-Thronds, opp. to Inn-Þrændir, Fms. Út-Þrœnzkr, adj., N.G.L. i. 173.

út-þýðing, f. a commentary, interpretation, Hkr. iii. 255.

ú-vægr, adj., qs. of-ægr, furious; þeir hlaupa í mót honum úvægir ok berjask, Ísl. ii. (Heiðarv. S.) 367.

V

V (vaff), the twenty-second letter of the alphabet, was by the ancients called vend, q.v. = A.S. wen, whence Icel. vindandi, q.v.; like u, it is represented by RUNE in the Runes; in old vellums by RUNE, a form borrowed from the A.S.; later by v or u, according to the Latin usage. The Icel. v answers etymologically to Engl. and Germ. w (not v), but the form w is little used, though not quite unknown in Icel. vellums.

B. PRONUNCIATION, CHANGES. -- The v is now sounded in Icel. as in English, by a slight touch of the lip and teeth (not like the South German, with both lips). It is said (Rietz) that a w or double v is still sounded in a remote Swedish county (Dalarne), and the opinion of English phonetic philologists is that the English w represents the old Teutonic value of that letter, which has since been lost all over the Continent, as well as in Iceland. The Icelandic formation of words goes far to prove that the old Scandinavian v was a semi-vowel, and not a full consonant as it is now: 1. traces are found of v alliterating with a vowel; on an old Runic stone (of the 10th century?) in the island Öland (off the coast of Schonen) we read -- Vandils jörmungrundar, ur-grandari (v, i, and u making the three staves). In verses which have passed through Icelandic oral tradition, alliteration like this could hardly have survived, except in a very few cases (there are, however, some such, svaf vætr Freyja átta nóttum, Þkv. 28; Óðinn á jarla þá er í val falla, Hbl. 24; ónu verr, Ls. 36, cp. Hm. 22); but on the Runic stone, the words still remain as they were first engraved. 2. the frequent 'vocalisations' involving the loss of v, which is indeed the most mutable of all letters: α. ve, vi change into y, vá into ó: a v cannot be sounded before a u-vowel, viz. before o, ó, u, ú, y, ý, œ, ø; countless instances of this are to be found under the heads of v-, dv-, hv-, kv-, sv-, tv-, þv-; cp. as specimens the tenses of verbs, vaða, valda, vaxa, vefa, sofa, koma, vinna, vinda, svimma, svella, vella, velta, verpa, verða, hverfa, svelta, svella, sverfa, þverra, svelgja, þvá, sverja; and also hváll and hóll, hvat and hót, ván and ón, váru and óru, kvef and kóf kaf kœfa, svartr and sorti surtr syrta, verk and yrkja orka. β. more rarely, before other vowels, as, þeita for þveita, silungr for svilungr, hika for hvika, skak for skvak, þi and því. γ v and j interchange, as in hjól for hvel, sjót for sveit, skjal for skval, jurt for vurt, jartegn for vartegn, hvern for hjarni; in verbal inflexions, -va into -ja, as byggva into byggja, syngva into syngja. δ. in a few words the v has been saved by a change in the following vowel, as in verk, cp. A.S. weorc, virkr for vyrkr; virgull (a halter, Goth. wurgils), væðr and œðr, Svænskr Sœnskr. ε. for the loss of v before a u-vowel see the introduction to the letters Ó, U, Y, Æ, Ö; so in parts of England and in Scotland at the present day men say ool for wool. ζ. in a few other words initial v is dropped when in compds, vegr in Nor-egr, einn-ig, hinn-ig, þann-ig, hvern-ig; vangr in kaup-angr, Harð-angr; völlr in þreskj-öldr; valdr in Arn-aldr, Har-aldr; verðr in dög-urðr; vindr in Ön-undr; vin in Björg-yn; vé or veig in Þyri, qs. Þór-vé, and in Dan. Odens-e. η. again u has changed into v in várr qs. úrr, órr, A.S. ûre, Engl. our, and in vesall qs. usall (see várr and vesall). II. changes of later date, in the 14th and 15th centuries, or somewhat earlier, -- old Icel. was turned into vó, and at last into vo; svá, svó, svo; vár, vór, vor; tvá, tvó, tvo; ván, vón, von; vápn, vópn, vopn; vátr, vótr, votr; váði, vóði, voði; kváma, kvóma, koma: the old is proved by rhymes, as vátr and gráta, svá and á; that this did not change immediately into the present vo, but passed through an intermediate vo, is shewn by rhymes in poems of the 14th and 15th centuries; e.g. rr and Þórr, Skíða R. 47, 70, 119, 181; stór, vór, 69; vóðinn, Óðinn, 109; vótt (testem), vórt, 122; góma, kvóma, Völs. R. 199; vórr, stórr, 212; stórr, hvórr, 248: the still remains in vóru (erant), although short o in voru is rapidly displacing the old long vowel. This later change of into vó, compared with the old dropping of the v whenever it came in contact with a u or o, shews that at the time when it took place (the 14th century), v cannot any longer have had the same sound as it had five or six centuries before, when the great and systematic vocalisation of it took place. In mod. Icel. v has even reappeared in a few, especially verbal, forms (where people are still conscious of the lost v), so that Icel. now say hvurfu, hvorfinn, hvyrfi (from hverfa); so also, but esp. in later vellums, less in speech, the forms vurðu, vorðinn, vultu, vundu, vorpið, etc., from verða, velta, vinda, verpa; cp. also the mod. sound of the word Guð: again, in words like ull, úlfr, orð, una, etc., a restoration was impossible, all remembrance of the v having been lost for a thousand years: but phonetically, since v became a labial consonant, an Icelander might and could say vull, vúlfr, vorka, vorð, etc., just as well as von, vor, votr. III. for the dropping of v before r (and l) see the introduction to the letter R (as in rangr = Engl. wrong): it is doubtful whether Icel. vág-rek (= a wreck, flotsom) bears any relation to vágr (a wave): the v may here have been saved by means of a false etymology, vagrek for vrak. 2. in a few cases an aspirate (h) has been substituted for an original w, e.g, Icel. hreiðr (a nest), cp.