This is page 694 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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694 VENJA -- VERA.

iþróttir, ættvísi ok vígfimi, taught him, trained him in, Bárð. 164. 2. in phrases, kostgæfði hann af þeim at venja öll úkynni, to unteach them all bad manners, Bs. i. 687; hann venr kvámur sínar til Ormhildar, Nj. 107; venja leiðir sínar til e-s staðar, to haunt a place, Fb. i. 303; síðan venr hann fé sitt í akra hennar, Fms. vii. 357: to train, tame, bjarndýri vel vanið, vi. 298, Fagrsk. ch. 21: to educate, engi börn vóru svá vel vanin, sem þeirra börn, Bs. i. 129; barn var ek ok ílla vanit, Karl. 197. II. reflex. to be wont, accustomed to do a thing; vanðisk fjósa-kona ein at þerra fætr sína á þúfu þeirri, er ..., Landn. 51, v.l.; síðan vanðisk Einarr optliga at ganga til tals vid Egil, Eg. 686; á hverri ártíð hans venjask menn at göra þá minning hans, Blas. 51; vöndusk margir at fara til hans, Hkr. iii. 249. 2. with dat.; vanðisk hann því þegar á unga aldri at ræna ok at drepa menn, Ó.H. 212; at þat venisk vápnfimi, to be trained in arms, Al. 4; nú mun ek verða at venjask hestinum um hríð, Fms. ix. 56: venjask af e-u, sem hugr várr vensk meirr af himneskum sætleik, Greg. 28; Daríus hafði af vanizk styrjöld ok úfriði, Al. 17.

venja, u, f. = vani, a custom, habit, MS. 4. 7, 10; gjörn er hönd á venju, a saying (see hönd); at venju, as usual, Ver. 24; varga venja, Hom. 38. COMPDS: venju-bragð, n. a habit, Bs. i. 781. venju-liga, adv. usually, Str. 68. venju-ligr, adj. usual, Mar., Bs. i. 822; venju-ligra, more usual, Fs. 52.

venzl, n. pl. [vandi], relationship (ties of blood or affinity); fyrir venzla sakir, Nj. 79; er hann þó í venzlum við oss bundinn, Boll. 354; fyrir frændsemis sökum ok margra annarra venzla, Orkn. 452; at ek sé þar í meirum venzlum enn aðrir menn, Lv. 78; at hann mundi allítils virða við Sverri venzl né vígslur, Fms. viii. 266; ek vil biðja hennar mér til eigin-konu, ok staðfesta svá við yðr venzl með vináttu, Fas. iii. 59; þeim mönnum er minni venzl mundi á, Ó.T. 7. COMPDS: venzla-lauss, adj. bound by no ties, a stranger; úskyldar konur ok venzla-lausar, Stj. 179, Fb. ii. 415; síðan venzlalausir menn eru í mót, Orkn. 104, = vandalauss. venzla-maðr, m. a person bound by ties, a kinsman, relation; vinir ok venzlamenn, Bs. i. 21; yðr venzlamönnum Þóris, Gullþ. 20; Kolbeini ok hans venzlamönnum, Sturl. ii. 1, Bs. i. 489, 494.

venzlaðr, part. related.

véorr, véoðr, contr. veiðr (Haustl.), only used as a name of Thor, Hým., Vsp., Edda (Gl.), meaning either the holy, a priest (= Goth. weiha), or from vé, n., referring to Thor 'as the defender of hearth and home'.

veptr, f. [vefa], the woof, Fbr. 31, 33 new Ed.

VER, n. a case; undir úlfalda verjum, Stj. 181; beðr með þýðeskt ver, D.N. iv. 218; verit var af pelli, Karl. 495; kodda-ver, a pillow-case; sængr-ver, a bed-case.

VER, n. [akin to vörr; A.S. wær; cp. Engl. weir, usually sounded ware about Oxford still] :-- the sea, only used in poets; vestr fór ek of ver, of a journey to England, Höfuðl. 1; fyrir vestan ver (prose, fyrir vestan haf), beyond the 'western weir,' i.e. in the British Isles, Hkv. 2. 7; fyrir handan ver, Gkv. 2. 7; fyrir austan ver, east of the sea, i.e. in Norway, Edda (Ht.); um ver, across the sea, Fms. vii. 329 (in a verse): in poët. compds, ver-bál, ver-glóð, 'sea-fire,' i.e. gold; ver-fákr, a sea-steed, i.e. a ship. II. a fishing-place, station, for fishing, taking eggs, catching seals, herrings: farmers in Icel. at certain seasons of the year (spring, winter, and autumn) send some of their labourers to out-lying fishing-places (called göra mann út and út-görð); here people meet for fishing from all parts of the island; these fishing-places are called 'ver;' maðr hét Glúmr, hann var til vers, he was in a fishing-place, Korm. 142; þar sem menn rjúfa skipan í veri, Jb. 440; they are called ver-menn, m. pl. fishermen; and ver-tíð, f. the fishing season; vor-vertíð, haust-vertíð, vetrar-vertíð, see Icel. Almanack: the phrases, fara í verið, vera í veri; so also the compds, egg-ver, síld-ver, sel-ver, álpta-ver, fisk-ver, the taking eggs, catching herrings, seals, swans, fish, as also of the places where these things are caught; út-ver, an outlying ver: in local names, Álpta-ver, in southern Icel.

vér, pers. pron., [Goth. weis; A.S. we; O.H.G. wir; Dan. vi] :-- we, passim; see also the forms vær and mér.

ver, m. a husband; see verr.

VERA, older form vesa, the verb substantive; pres. em, ert, er, pl. erum, eruð, eru: pret. var, vart (mod. varst), var, pl. váru or vóru; a obsolete óru occurs, Sæm. (once), Orkn. 426. l. 11, Nj. 81, Thom. 28, 90, 102, 116, 150, 196, Ísl. ii. 482: pres. subj. sé, sér (Vþm. 4, 7), sé; the older form is sjá, en ek sjá, Clem. 138. l. 14; at ek sjá, ... ok sé mér eigi reiðr, 145, Fms. viii. 299, x. 384, xi. 124, Eg. 127; for the forms sják, sjákk, see below: the mod. forms are sé, sért, sér (eg sé, þú sért; sert and ert make a rhyme in Pass. 34. 5): imperat. ver, vertú; see Gramm. p. xxiii: there also occurs a subj. pres. verir, veri, Sdm. 22, Ls. 54; þatz án veri, Am. 36; skósmiðr þú verir, Hm. 126, but rarely.

A. CHANGES AND FORMS. -- Vera is an anomalous verb, which has undergone several changes: I. by changing s to r; of the older form there occur, the infin. vesa, pres. es, pret. vas, vast (vastu), vas; pres. subj. vesi; imperat. ves, MS. 623. 25. l. 14, 645. 6l. l. 33, 677. 40. l. 38; vestu, 623. 25, Post. (Unger) 129. l. 27, 229. l. 12; vesum, Hom. (Arna-Magn. 237) p. 214. l. 8; pres. indic. 2nd pers. est, Glúm. 372; 3rd pers. es: but no traces remain of the older form in pret. plur. indic. and subj. (váru væri, never vásu væsi). Rhymes in poets and the spelling of the oldest extant poems shew that the s form alone existed in Icel. down to about the end of the 12th century, the time of Snorri Sturluson, when the modern forms crept in probably from Norway, for there the change seems to have taken place a century or so earlier; the old Norse vellums (written in Norway or by Norsemen) are distinguished from the Icel. by their constant use of the r: the phrase 'at upp vesandi sólu', in N.G.L. i. 4, being the only instance of the s form in all the Norse vellums. The earliest instances extant of a rhyme to the r form are, the Ht. of Rögnvald, earl of the Orkneys; he was a native of Norway, born about A.D. 1100, and the poem was composed about A.D. 1145; another instance is 'vara, fara' in Fms. vii. 185, in a poem about A.D. 1140, written by an Icelander who had lived in Norway the greater part of his life, the rhyme is therefore a Norwegianism. The first instance in an Icel. poem is in the Ht. of Snorri, A.D. 1222. Instances from poets, Hallfred, Sighvat, Arnórr, and coeval poets; vesa, vísi; sás með Sygna ræsi; þági vas sem þessum; vask til Róms í háska; vastu, kosta; vas fyrir Mikkjals-messu; nú es um verk þau er vísi; bráskat þat dægr háski: from A.D. 1100-1150, Geisli, Pd., etc., svás, ræsir; esat, risnu; vasa, tysvar; vestu. freistni; vestu, traustla: on the other hand, in the poem of earl Rögvald, vera, skera; gera, vera; var, skar (twice): from later Icel. poems it is sufficient to note, erðu, fyrðum; ertú, hjarta; verðú, forðast, Leiðarv. etc. This may sometimes serve as a test, e.g. var ek nær viðr-eign þeirra, Grett., and skap-kers saman vera, Gísl., are impossible in the mouth of poets of the early Saga time; the verses of both these Sagas are a later composition. 2. as to the spelling of the MSS., -- the oldest (the Arna-Magn. 677, the Eluc. 674, the Íb. etc.) use the s throughout: vellums of the next period, about A.D. 1200 (e.g. Arna-Magn. 623 and 645), use the later form sparingly, even the second hand in the Reykholts máldagi gives 'es,' not 'er.' Again, in the vellums of the middle of the 13th century, such as the Cod. Reg. of the Sæm., the Grág., and the Mork., the mod. spelling has entirely got the better of the old, and an 'es' only creeps in, as if unawares, from an older copy. Of the poetical literature, the Pd. alone has been preserved in a copy old enough to retain the s; all the rest have the modernised spelling, even in the rhymed syllables quoted above; such too is the case with the Cod. Reg. of the Sæm. Edda; but had that vellum been but fifty or sixty years older, the forms vesa, es, vas, etc. would now be the established spelling in Editions of these poems. 3. on Danish and Swedish Runic stones, the 3rd pers. pret. sing. is a word of frequent occurrence; the best Danish monuments have vas, e.g. ias vas farinn vestr, Thorsen 93 and 101 (on a stone of the reign of Sweyn, died A.D. 1014). In Sweden the great majority present the later form: the so-called Ingvar stones are chronologically certain, being of the middle of the 11th century (Ingvar died A.D. 1039); there we read, 'vas' (twice), 'varinn' (once), 'var' (thrice, being twice spelt with RUNE, once with RUNE): this shews that about this time in Sweden the later or more modern form had begun to be used, but that the old was still remembered. II. suffixed personal pronoun or suffixed negation; em'k (tautologically ek em'k = I-am-I), emk, Ad. 1, Vþm. 8, Fms. xi. 91; ek emk, Mork. 89. l. 13, 104. l. 23, Clem. 136. l. 20, 138. l. 13; vask, I was, 133. l. 25, Mork. 89. l. 16; vark, Post. 225, v.l. 15; ek vark, Ls. 35; vestu, be thou, Clem. 129. l. 27; es þú, art thou, l. 30, 130. l. 11; sjá'k (may I be), ek sják, Mork. 134; at sják, 189. l. 29; ek sják, Hbl. 9, Hkv. 1. 20; at ek gjarn sják, Stor.; with double kk, þó at ek sjákk, Mork. 89. 2. a medial form, erumk, erumz, or apocopated erum, Stor. 1, Ad. 16, Hkv. 1. 25, Korm. ch. 5. 2, Ls. 35, Bragi (see senna); leið erum-k fjöll, Edda (in a verse); várumk, were to me, Am. 78. 3. suff. neg. eru-mk-a, it is not to me, Stor. 17, Eg. (in a verse); emkat-ek, am I not I, i.e. I am not, Hbl. 34, Skm. 18, Ó.H. 192 (in a verse): er-at, es-at, or er-a, es-a, is not, passim; eru-ð, are not, Skv. 1. 42; ert-attu, thou art not, Vtkv.; vart-attu, thou wast not, Gs., Eg. (in a verse); veri-a, be not, Mork. 37. l. 8. 4. sá's = sá es, that is, Hallfred (Fs. 95); svá's = svá es, so is, Fms. vii. (in a verse). III. the plur. eru when suffixed to words ending in r drops the initial e, and is suffixed; this spelling, which agrees with mod. Icel. pronunciation, was afterwards disused; þeir-ro, they are, Gm. 34; margir-ro, many are, Hkv. 2. 11; Æsir-ro, the Ases are, Vsp. 49; skildir-ro, shields are, 44; torogætir-ro, rare are, Korm. (in a verse); hverjar-ro, which are, Vþm. 48; langir-ro, long are, Gg.; tveir-ro, þrír-ro, fjórir-ro, two, three, four are, Edda 108; báðir-ro, both are, Mork. 169; hér-ro, here are, 234; þér-ro, ye are, MS. 686 B. 1; hryggvir-ro, id.; hver-ro, who are, Mork. 96; úvar-ro, wroth are, Gm. 53; værrom, vérrom, we are, Edda i. 526, Fms. x. 421; hverrtu [cp. North. E. wh'art'ou, lad] (hverrtú karl, who art thou, carle?), Frissb. 256. l. 8; ir-rot, ye are, Ó.H. 151. IV. the pres. 1st pers. em [Engl. am] has changed into er (eg er, þú ert, hann er), making the 1st and 3rd pers. uniform; this new form appears in vellums about the end of the 13th century, but the word being usually abbreviated