This is page 723 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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VÖRR -- YFIR, 723

40: the word is freq. in mod. usage (at least in western Icel.), of a small inlet or creek where boats land, lenda í vörinni, fara ofan í vör, ýtta eg knör úr Arnar-vör hann Úlfar téði, Úlf. 6. 23: hence mod. vara-söngr = the prayer said by fishermen when launching, Bjorn. vara-seiði, n. small fry, small fish, from being caught in creeks near the shore.

VÖRR, m., gen. varrar, dat. verri, pl. verrir, acc. vörru; [different from the preceding word] :-- a pull of the oar; er þeir höfðu fá vörru róit frá landi, Fms. viii. 217; í einum verri brýtr hann sundr báðar árarnar ok keipana, Þiðr. 313; slíta rœði ór verri, to pull the oar briskly, Fms. vi. (in a verse); halda sjau tigum ára til varra, to pull with seventy oars, Hkr. iii. 120 (in a verse); þeysa vörru (acc. pl.), to pull so as to splash, Hornklofi: in poetry a ship is called lung, málfeti varra, the steed pulled by oars, Lex. Poët.; varr-sími, the wake left by the oars; varr-nagli, q.v.; varrar eldr = gold; varrar skíð, poët. = the oar (the oar of Odin being the sword), Glúm, (in a verse).

Vörsar, m. pl. the men from Vörs, a county in Norway, Landn. Vosse-vangen, Fms. viii. 51; Vígfúss hersir á Vörs, Glúm.: hence Vörsa-bær, later Ossa-bær, a local name in the south of Icel., Landn. Nj.: Vörsa-krákr, m. a nickname, Orkn.: Vörskr, adj. from Vörs Landn. 263.

vöru-, in compds, see vara.

vörun, f., see varnan; við-vörun.

vörzlu-, in compds, see varzla.

vötnun, f. = vatnan, q.v.

VÖTTR, m., gen. vattar, dat. vetti, pl. vettir, acc. vöttu; contr. for vantr: [Fr. gant, whence Engl. gauntlet; Dan. vatner] :-- a glove; hafði maðr vöttu á höndum, Lv. 100; staf ok vöttum, Fms. iii. 176; hann dró þar á sik vöttu sína, Grett. 160 new Ed., and passim in mod. usage; the dimin. vetlingr has displaced the old word. 2. a pillow; vöttu dúns fulla, Hornklofi. II. a pr. name, Fas. 2. in local names, Vattar-nes, -tunga, -fjörðr, Landn., map of Icel.; Band-vettir, the name of horses, Gísl.

VÖXTR, m., gen. vaxtar, dat. vexti, pl. vextir, acc. vöxtu, mod. vexti; [Ulf. wahstus = GREEK; Dan. væxt; from vaxa, q.v.]:-- 'waxing,' size, stature; mikil vexti, Bs. i. 646, Nj. 2; bergrísi at afli ok vexti, Eg. 22; menn litlir vexti, 25; vöxt ok afl, 29; göra klæði við vöxt e-s, 516: of size, öll skip sem vöxtr var at, Sturl. ii. 177; skip vel haffærandi at vexti, Fms. iv. 255; þat skip var gört eptir vexti Orms ins Skamma, vi. 308; þat vatn er vel mikit at vexti, Sks. 90; heimsins vöxt, 195; at mikilleik ok vexti, Ó.H. 235; lítils vaxtar, of small size, Mar. 2. growth, increase; or tungl hefir þrjár nætr vaxtar síns, Rb. 452; vera með vexti, to be increasing, Barl. 169; ganga í vöxt, to increase, Bs. i. 802; fara í vöxt, to increase, Fms. ix. 430; færa í vöxt, to exaggerate, vi. 14: increase, interest, heimta fulgurnar með vöxtum, Grág. i. 270; taka vöxtu á fé sínu, 180; taka fé til vaxta, 183; á-vöxtr, q.v. 3. way of growth, shape; ritinn með lykkju á's en með öllum vexti és, Skúlda; líkr e-m á vöxt ok viðbragð, Fms. vi. 12. 4. growth, produce; skóg með tupt ok vexti, crop, Vm. 114; á-vöxtr, q.v. II. metaph. standing, state, the circumstance of a case, esp. in plur.; eigi er svá við vöxt, it does not stand so, Fb. iii. 333; sjám hverir vextir á eru, ii. 313, v. 20; hann sagði honum alla vöxtu sem á vóru um þeirra eyrendi, Ld. 46, Karl. 391: the phrase, svá er mál með vexti, at ..., the case stands so, that ..., Lv. 43. vaxta-lauss, adj. without increate or interest, Grág. i. 251.

vöxtu-ligr, adj. big, of great size, Fas. iii. 627.

vözt, f., pl. vaztir (q.v.), the sing, being only used in Edda (Gl.)

X

X. (ex) commonly represents ks, gs (as in other languages), where both letters are radical, thus, ax, fax, lax, sax, öx, vax, vaxa, sex, uxi, vöxtr, fox, jaxl, öxl, qq.v.; but hugsa from hugr; lags from lag; loks from lok; oks (gen.) from ok (jugum); rakstr, bakstr, from raka, baka, etc. The vellums use x in other cases, e.g. sterxti = sterksti, the strongest, Clem. 146; tax (gen.) from tak, N.G.L. i. 47; dúx = dúks, Clem. 127, l. 8; lox = loks, 134; vitrleix = vitrleiks, 142; almattex = almáttigs, 133; víxla = vígsla, N.G.L. i. 9; fulltinx = fulltings, ÓH. 242; vaxcliga = vaskliga, Mork. 178; lyxc = lýksk, Íb. (fine); fexk = fékksk (from fá the verb), Bs. i. 351; ux = ups (q.v.), N.G.L. i. 368: or again, vegs = vex (the verb), Hm. 119; lags = lax (salmon), Sæm. 212, l. 20 (Bugge); dax = dags, N.G.L. i, 23; but on the whole the vellums distinguish gs, ks, and x, shewing the pronunciation in olden times to have been more distinct than it is now, when all three forms (gs, ks, x) represent the same sound, no matter whether the s be inflexive or not; thus in common modern spelling, both hugsa and huxa, dags and dax are used at random. In vellums x and r are very much alike: hence in the well-known passage in Vsp. the misreading of sarum (sordibus) for saxum (ensibus), in all Editions, until Prof, Bugge noticed the stroke underneath the line in Cod. Reg.

Y-Ý

Y is of later origin, and only found in derived words, being an 'umlaut' from u, (y from u, ý from ú); in the Runic alphabet it is placed at the end, and marked RUNE, see Skálda (ii. 72); it is there called ýr, a yew-tree, -- ýr er vetrgræast viða, 'ýr' is the 'winter-greenest' of trees, Runic poem.

B. The independent sound of y, ý is now lost in Icel., being replaced respectively by the sounds i, í, whereas in mod. Dan., Swed. and Norse the old sound has been preserved; the old Icel. MSS., as well as the rhymes in old poems, distinguish both, except in a few instances, see Gramm. p. xxxv, col. 2 (η). The change from y to i seems to have begun about the time of the Reformation, but in the first printed books, e.g. the N. T. of 1540 and the Bible of 1584, the distinction is still well kept, the remembrance of the old form and etymology being then still alive. Later, the writing became very confused. Some transcribers of the 17th century, e.g. Ketil Jörundsson, a noted copier of old vellums, took the better course, never writing y at all, but i throughout; the same may be observed in the handwriting of some Icelanders down to the present day. In printed books of the 17th and 18th centuries the confusion is great, till of late an accurate spelling has been re-established, though even this fails in a few words; e.g. the ancients spell þrysvar, gymbr, qq.v.; the mod. þrisvar, gimbr. The poets of the last three centuries make i and y, ei and ey rhyme indifferently, according to the usage of the living tongue. II. an initial v is dropped before y, as in yndi, yrði, yrkja, etc.

Y

ybbask, að, dep.; y. við e-t, to worry, = abbask, q.v.

ybbinn, adj. worrying.

yðar, gen. pl. of you = Goth. izwara -- GREEK; til yðar, to you, Fms. x. 387, and passim.

YDDA, d, [oddr], to shew the point on the other side, when a weapon is run through; gegnum skjöld ok brjóst svá at yddi um bakit, Eg. 380, Fms. viii. 332; laust undir kverkina, svá at yddi út um hnakkann, vii. 211; [róa] svá langt vestr sem yddir bænhuss-krossinn heima á Sævarlandi, to pull westwards till the point of the cross at home at S. is just seen, Dipl. iv. 9; það yddir á e-u, the point is seen, e.g. of a steeple or mountain seen at a distance.

YÐR, dat. and acc. plur., and yðar, gen. (the original form iðr); Goth. ïzwis = GREEK and GREEK and ïzwara = GREEK] :-- you; biðja yðr (acc.), segja yðr (dat.); but koma til yðar, in endless instances; as also when addressing a person of rank, the plur. is used; vil ek gjarna veita yðr þat, Fms. x. 387, passim: or even sing. and plur. promiscuously. 2. hverr er sá af yðr Íslendingum, of you Icelanders, Fms, i. 32.

yðvarr, possess. pron., from yður, n. yðvart, gen. yðvars, yðvarrar, yðvars; dat. yðrum, yðvarri, yðru; acc. yðvarn, yðra, yðvart; pl. yörir, yðrar, yður; gen. yðvarra; dat. yðrum; acc. yðra, yðrar, yður: the v is often dropped, thus, yðarr, yðarn, yðars, yðart: in mod. speech and partly in writing an indecl. yðar has been substituted: [Ulf. ïzwar = GREEK; A.S. eower; Engl. your; cp. provinc. Engl. yourn; Germ. euer; Dan. jer] :-- your; konungr yðarr ... yðarr kraptr, Fms. x. 17; yðarri brautferð, 289; yðarra manna, Al. 61; til þakka yðvarra. Eg. 63; höfðingja yðvars, Nj. 8; konungum yðrum, id.; yðvarr vegr, Eg. 423; fund yðvarn, 424; yður för, Nj. 90; yður tign, Fms. x. 367; yðvarri tign, vi. 72, x. 234; yðars ríkdóms, id.; yðvart ríki, með yðrum styrk, i. 87; eyrindi yðart, x. 218; konung yðarn, 11; yðarn Kristinndóm, Hom. 33; þræli yðrum, 623. 30; skipti yður, Eg. 424; yður salkynni, Skm. 2. hverr yðarr, who of you? Fms. ix. 330; tvá hesta skal hafa hverr yðarr, Nj. 32. 3. þá kallaði einn maðr, hví róa djöllar yðrir fyrir oss í alla nótt, ye devils (cp. þinn), Fms. ix. 50.

yfingr, m. a kind of bird, = úfr(?), Edda (Gl.)

YFIR, prep. with dat. and acc., also ellipt. or even as adv.; [in Goth. there are two forms, uf = Lat. sub, and ufar = Lat. super, which, as to the form, answer to Icel. 'of' and 'yfir;' but in reality 'of' is in the old vellums used indiscriminately, sometimes = um (q.v.), sometimes = yfir, see p. 462 and um (umb, of), p. 648 sqq.; 'of' as prep. is now obsolete, having been replaced, according to the sense, by um or yfir: Goth. ufar; A.S. ofer; Engl. over; O.H.G. ubar; Hel. ubar; Germ. über; Dan. over; Swed. öfver; Lat. super; Gr. GREEK] :-- over.

A. WITH DAT. over, above; hvers manns alvæpni hékk yfir rúmi hans, Eg. 88; þriðja stendr yfir Niflheimi ... brenn eldr yfir Bifröst, Edda 10; yfir lokhvílu sinni, Nj. 183; spretta skörum yfir sér, Fas. ii. 187; tjalda yfir skipi sínu. Eg. 373; jörð gróin yfir viði eðr beinum, Grág. ii. 354; sitja yfir borðum, matborði, dagverði, drykkju ..., to sit at table over one's meat, drink; Nj. 6, 68, Eg. 63, 407, 577, passim; sitja yfir