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728 ÎR -- Z.

turn, Fms. x. 2, 6; ílaug hann á ýmsi lönd, Hkr. i. 24; herja á ýmsi

lend, Fms. xi. 76, 89; hann falar til ýmissa vista, en ræðr enga, Lv. 57;

þeir höfðu þar dvalizk í ýmsum höfnum, Eg. 93; hann seldi ymsum

mönnum landnám sitt, Landn. 135; til ymsa ( = ýmissa) skalda, Þorst.

Síðu 11. 172; með ýmsum píslum (v. 1. ýmissum), Post. (Unger) 33;

Símon, ... hafði ýmsa m. inna álit, 656 C. 26. II. various;

ganga þar ýmissar sagnir frá, Fms. ii. 105; fara ... til ýmissa landa, i.

II, 77, Fb. i. 525; Orkn. 42; kvikenda líki ýmissa, fugla eða orma,

Clern. 133; fann hann til þess ymissa hluti, Fms. ii. 295; í ýmissum

stöðum, Stj. 113. III. with another pronom. adj.; einn ok ýiniss,

one and another, etc.; um eina staði ok ymissa, Stj. 247; af einum ok

ýmissim ágætum steinum, 204; unna einum nú ýmissum, Skv. 3. 39;

komu siðan upp í einum ok ýmsum stöðum ok löndum, Stj.; margir ór

ýmissum áttum, Orkn. (in a verse); af þeim báðum ok ýmissimi, Stj.

15; allir ok þú y'nisir, all and sundry, i.e. each in turn, Skv. 3.

41. IV. proverbs; ýmsir eiga högg í annars garð, a saying,

of dealing mutual blows; verða ýmsir brögðum fegnir, Fms. ix. 494 (in

a verse); ýmsar verðr sá er margar ferr, Eg. (a saying). V.

neut. as adv.; ýmist hon hugði, Skv. 3. 14; er ýmist sagt hvárr

Tarquinius cða son hans færi um nótt, Róm. 386; hann spurði, hví

hafa munkar lága skúa ok rauðar hosur? -- þeir svöruðu, ýmist tíðisk

nú, Fms. viii. 358; hann görði ýmist, hjó eða lagði, thrust and smote

altcrnately, or, now he thrust, now he smote, Nj. 8; Bolli var ýmist í

Tungu eða at Helgafelli, Ld. 300; ýmist augum lítandi aptr cða fram,

Mar.; into smáhringum ýmist hvítum eða svörtum, Stj. 80; ýmist Skota

eðr Bretzkar aldir, Orkn. 90 (in a verse); ymist út eða niðr, Nj. 104;

kallaðr ýmist Dofrafóstri cða Lúfa, Fs. 16; hann rennir ýmist upp eða

ofan, Fb. iii. 408; hann var ýmist at Borg eðr at Gilsbakka, Ísl. ii. 209.

ýr or yr, prep. = ór (q.v.), a freq. spelling in vellums; slík duga bctr

en springi yr, Skálda (Thorodd).

ÝR, m., gen. ýs, acc. dat. ý; [A. S, eow and iw; Engl. yew; O. H. G.

íwa; Germ. eibe] :-- the yew-tree; menn kalla ý einn við, Skálda 171;

ýs angr, the yew's bale, i.e. fire, Ó.H. (in a verse). The 'yew' has,

strange enough, been omitted from the list of trees in Edda ii. 482,

483. 2. the name of the Rune Y, see introduction. 3. metaph.

[cp. Gr. GREEK = a yew and GREEK = a bow], a bow; yew-wood making

good bows, hence the Old Engl. custom of planting yew-trees in church-

yards to furnish bows for the parish; sveigja ý, to bend a bow, Hofuðl.;

ýr dregsk, the bow is bent, Edda (lit.); ý bendum skutu, the shot from

the bent bow, Hallgr.; ýs bifvangr, the bow's shivering mansion, i. e. the

hand, Kormak: as also ý-setr and ý-stétt, the bow-seat -- the hand:

ý-skelflr, the bow-shaker, i. e. an archer, Lex. Poët.: ý-glöð, f. the

'yew-glad,' poét, the shaft, Edda ii. 494: ý-bogi (q. v.), a yew-bow:

ý-dróg, the bow-string, poët.: ý-drótt (q. v.), archers: Ý-dalir, in. pl.

Yew-dales, the home of the god Ullr, the great archer, Gm.

ýr, f. = úr, a drizzling rain: a pr. name of a woman, Landn.

ýra, ð, [úr, n.], to drizzle; ýrðisk dögg á reifit, Stj. 397; það ýrir úr

honum, it drizzles, rains: the phrase, ýra e-u úr sér, to dole out; or,

það ýrir í e-t, to glitter, like drops of dew; ýranda full, a brimful beaker,

Ad. 6: of the glittering particles in iron or other ore, ýrt járn, corned

iron; in the saying, 'ýrt járn kvað kerling, átti kníf deigan.

ýra, u, f. a squirt; Ílluga ýrur skella einatt framan í Svrini, a ditty,

Espól. 1758.

ýring, f. a drizzling, MS. II. 10; horna ýring, the rain of the horns,

i. e. mead, Eg. (in a verse).

ÝRINN, adj., contr. from yfrinn, q. v.; ýrinn yl, Sks. 17 new Ed.; mat

ok mungat ýrit, N. G. L. i. 386; ýrinn saum, 198; þá mun ek ýrna fá

aðra, Al. 51: skal smiða til krefja unz ýrnir eru, N. G. L. i. 101; hafa

þeir ýrit at vinna, Fm. s. xi. 105. 2. as a verb, ýrit stinnt, Hkr.

ii. 11 (cœrit, Ó.H. 20, 1. c.); see ærim.

ÝSA, u, f. [Ivar Aasen hysa; but the long vowel is attested by the

Icel. pronunciation, as also by the alliteration in Fms. vi, see below]:

-- a haddock, Edda (Gl.); ófúsa dró ek ýsu, átta ek föng við löngu,

Fms. vi. (in a verse); very freq. in mod. usage.

ýskja, t, = æksja, to wish, Al. 33.

ýskra, að, = öskra, eiskra, to groan from suppressed anger or fury.

ÝTA, t, [üt; Dan. yde = to give], to push out, launch; ok er hann

rétti hönd sína til var sem ýtt væri stokknum at honum, Mar.; sízt

honum var ytt af hlunni, Fms. vi. (in a verse); þrælarnir skolu róa

at veiði-fangi, en Þórarinn bryti skal yta ok vera síðan hjá Þóreyju, but

Th. shall help them to launch, but then remain with Th., Fs. 144 (ýta þeim,

1 76, 1. c.); var þá ýtt skipinu, Sturl. iii. 56; freq. in mod. usage. 2.

absol. to launch, start on a voyage; hvaðan ýttu þér (?), vér ýttum frá

Gásum, Fms. vi. 360; vér ýttum af Noregi, Ld. 80. II. metaph.,

yta gulli. to give gold, Edda (in a verse).

ýtar, m. pl., prop. 'mariners' (?), then men, poët., Edda (Gl.); ýta

synir, the sons of men, Hm. 28, 68, 167; ýta kyn, mankind, Skálda (in

a verse), Mkv.

ýti-blakkr, m. a 'launching horse,' i. e. a ship, Rekst. 16.

ýtir, m. [Dan. yder], a giver, poët., Lex. Poët.

ýtri, ýtstr, see ytri, yztr.

Z

Z (zet). The ancient language had two sibilant sounds, s and z; of

which the z never stands at the beginning of a word, but is merely an s

assimilated to a preceding dental, in the combinations ld, nd, nn, ll, rð,

gð, see Gramm. p. xxxvi, col. I. β: its use in ancient vellums is very

extensive: 1. in genitives; trollz, íllz (íllr), allz (allr), holtz,

Skm. 32; gullz, 22; ellz = elds, botz = botns, Gkv. 3. 9; vatz and vaz

= vatns; keyptz, Hm. 107; mótz, Knútz or Knúz = Knúts; vitz (vit);

orðz, sverðz, barðz, borðz, garðz, harðz, langbarz, Gkv. 2. 19; Hjörvarðz,

Hkv. Hjörv. 19; morðz, bragðz, flagðz, Frissb. 107, l. 19; or also orz,

Hm. 141, etc.; prestz, Christz, passim; tjallz, Edda ii. 314; landz or lanz,

passim; fjallz, Edda ii-339; but tjalldz, 527; elldz, vindz, 317, 318; gandz,

525; brandz, 529; valldz, 338; sverðz, borðz, 331; but borz, 462, 1. 20;

garz, 529; loptz, 341 (twice); but lopz, 317; netz, 327; gautz, 345;

hugskozins, Post. 251. 2. in special forms; stendz, Grág. i. 501 (from

standa); stennz, id., Ó. H. 143; bitzt from binda, Post. (Unger) 154; vizk,

vizt, vatzk from vinda (II), q. v.; but vinnz from vinna, q. v.; biz = biðsk

from biðja, Post. (Ungcr) 240: indeed bizt, bazt may be both from binda

and biðja: bleiza and blezza (to bless), höllzti, qq. v.; beztr or baztr, the

best; œztr = œðstr; þatz and þaz -- þat es, Sæm. passim; þatztu, Am. 87;

hvártz = hvárt es, Grág. (Kb.) i. 161: even mz (or mzt) for the older mk,

þóttumz, Gkv. 2. 37. 3. when the z is due to a t following it; in the

reflex, -sk is the oldest form, whence -z/, -z, -zs t; andask, audazt, andaz,

andazst: in the superl. zt, efztir, Frissb. 78, 1. 20; harðazta, l. 33; snarp-

azta, l. 16; ríkaztr, 207, l. 18; fríðuzt, l. 34; hagazt, Vkv. 18; grimmaztan,

Edda ii. 530; máttkaztr, 280; hvitaz, 267; but st is the usual form, thus,

sárastr, grimmastr, hvassastr, Gh. 17: in Ázt-ríðr = Ást-ríðr, Ó. H. 198,

l. 12. 4. in such words as veizla, gæzla, reizla, leizla, hræzla, gæzka,

lýzka, œzka, æzli, vitzka or vizka, hirzla, varzla, hanzki, = veitsla, ...

hirðsla, varðsla, handski, etc.: in reflex, neut. part., thus, hafa borizt,

komizt, farizt, tekizt, fundizt, glazt, sagzt, spurzt, kallazt, dæmzt, átzt,

... (from bera ... eiga): in reflex. 2nd pers. pl. pres. and pret., e. g. þér

segizt, þér sögðuzt, qs. segit-st, sögðut-st, so as to distinguish it from

the 3rd pers., þeir sögðust, qs. sögðu-st. 5. Gitzurr or Gizurr, þjazi,

Özurr; afraz-kollr, Ó. H. (pref.); huliz-hjálmr; Vitaz-gjafi, q. v.; but

alaðs-festr, Grág. (Kb.) i. 88; viz, see víðr II: in foreign names, Jariz-

leifr, Jariz-karr, Buriz-leifr, Gkv. 2. 19, Fms. vi. The etymology of

words may often be decided by this; e. g. in beisl, a bridle, beiskr, bitter,

the s of the vellums shews that neither word is derived from bíta;

beiskr is in fact akin to Engl. beestings, Ulf. beist = GREEK, A. S. beost:

geiska fullr, Hkv. 2. 35, is not from geit, but from geisa: laz or latz

(p. 376, col. 1) is from Fr. lace, not= Icel. láss: misseri (q. v.) is no relation

to miðr, etc.: at lesti, at last, being spelt with s, not z, is not related to

latr, but derived from leistr = a cobbler's last, at lesti = Lat. in calce, see Mr.

Sweet's Ed. of Gregory's Pastoral Care, p. 474: again, vaztir is akin to vatr

= vatn: exceptional cases, -- vissi, pret; from vita, and sess, a seat. II.

after a single dental (unless it be t) s, not z, is written; thus, gen. Guðs,

boðs, brauðs, auðs, góðs, óðs, vaðs, liðs, öls, fals, háls, frjáls, víns, eins, etc.,

passim: z is quite exceptional, e. g. liðz, Frissb. 106, ll. 16, 33 (but liðs,

Hbl. 33, Am. 43): so also after rn, rl, nl, rn, fn, gn, barns, Clem. 134;

karls, Hkv. 2.2 ; jarls, Hm. 97; hrafns, segls, regns, tungls (regn, Edda

ii. 340). The vellums are very irregular in the distinction of a single or

double consonant, but the sibilant used shews the true form of the word;

in 'Odz Colssonar,' Ö. H. (pref.) l. II, the z and s shew the names to be

Oddr and Kolr, not Oðr, Kollr; in a vellum els would be gen. of él, e;lz of

eldr; in grunz, Edda ii. 287; lunz, 317; hlunz, ranz, lanz, 333; elz,

Post, (Unger) 234; golz, 225, l. 23; odz, Ó. H. (pref.), l. II; alz, etc.,

the z shews that though there is only one n, l, etc. written, they were

actually sounded double, grunnz, hlunnz, rannz, landz, eldz, gollz, oddz,

allz. 2. the s docs not change into z if the word is a compd;

as, skáld-skapr, vind-svalr, út-suðr, passim; hirð-stjóri, Edda ii. 335,

shewing that in ancient times the pronunciation was more distinct than

at the present day; the z in orðztír (Edda ii. 344, orztír, 463) shews

that the word is qs. orðz-tírr; yet we lind such forms as innzigli, Post.

238; guðzspjall, 239; ástzamliga, 243; handzceld, Barl.; randzaka. Post.

134, l. 29; but rannsaka, l. 14; nauzyn = nauðsyn, Skálda 167. 21; nauzun,

Edda ii. 236; anzvara, annzkoti, = andsvara, andskoti, etc. III.

about the 15th century (or earlier) the z sound began to disappear, and s

took its place, being at present the only sibilant used in Icel. In later

vellums the z is therefore cither little used or is misapplied, as in the ad-

ditions by the third hand in the Flatey-book, or it is used to excess as

in modern Dutch. In modern spelling, including Editions of Sagas, the

z has been disused, except in the instances coming under the rule given

in I. 4: yet with exception of ðs, for the moderns write leiðsla, hræðsla,

beiðsla, náðst, old leizla, názt, except in reisla (i. e. reizla) from reiða;

hirzla qs. hirdsla. 2. zz is sounded as ss, blessa, Gissur, Össur; so

also vass, boss, = vatz, botz; even ris, gars, lans, sans, for orz, garz,

lanz, sanz (gen. of orð, garðr, land, sandr).