This is page 736 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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736 ÞILJA -- ÞINGA.

þilja, u, f. a deal, plank, planking, esp. on a ship; þilja Hrungnis ilja, Edda. (Ht.); en er hann kom fram um siglu, þá skautzt niðr þilja undir fótum honum, Fms. viii. 74; þiljo eða þópto, Grág. ii. 171; brjóta árar eða þiljur, 356; sess-þiljur, 'seat-deals,' the thwarts or benches in a boat or galley, Hornklofi. 2. pl. the deck; undir þiljur niðr, Ó.H. 225, Fms. vi. 446; þá var Þyri dróttning leidd upp undan þiljum, iii. 11; far þú undir þiljur niðr ok ligg eigi hér fyrir fótum mönnum, Orkn. 148; hann bjó á þiljum frammi, Eb. 196; valr lá þröngt á þiljum, Sighvat.

þil-tré, n., better þvertré, Sturl. ii. 109.

ÞIND, f., not þynd, as it is sometimes spelt by modern writers, the i is determined by the old rhyme vindr í sal þindar, Edda l.c.; [from þenja, prop. what is stretched out; Lat. tent-orium, although different in sense, seems really to be the same word] :-- the diaphragm; the word is very freq. in mod. usage, although not recorded in old writers except in this sole instance; salr þindar, the breast, Edda ii. 363 (in a verse), þindar-lauss, adj. without a diaphragm, one who is never out of breath in running, esp. used as an epithet of the fox.

ÞING, n. [no Goth. þigg is recorded; A.S. and Hel. þing; Engl. thing; O.H.G., Germ., and Dutch ding; Dan.-Swed. ting]

A. A thing, Lat. res. In the Icel. this sense of the word is almost unknown, although in full use in mod. Dan.-Swed. ting, where it may come from a later Germ. influence. II. in plur. articles, objects, things, esp. with the notion of costly articles: þeir rannsaka allan hans reiðing ok allan hans klæðnað ok þing, articles, Sturl. iii. 295; þau þing (articles, inventories) er hann keypti kirkjunni innan sik, Vm. 20; þessi þing gaf Herra Vilkin kirkjunni í Klofa, -- messu-klæði, kaleik, etc., 26. 2. valuables, jewels (esp. of a married lady), the law often speaks of the 'þing' and the 'heimanfylgja;' ef maðr fær konu at lands-lögum réttum ... þá skulu lúkask henni þing sín ok heimanfylgja, Gþl. 231; hann hafði ór undir-heimum þau þing at eigi munu slík í Noregi, Fms. iii. 178; siðan tók hón þing sín, 195; eptir samkvámu (marriage) þeirra þá veitti Sveinn konungr áhald þingum þeim er ját vóru ok skilat með systur hans, x. 394; maðr skal skilja þing með frændkonu sinni ok svá heiman-fylgju, N.G.L. ii; skal Ólafr lúka Geirlaugu þing sín, svá mikil sem hón fær löglig vitni til, D.N. i. 108; þinga-veð, a security for a lady's paraphernalia, D.N. passim.

B. As a law phrase [see Þingvöllr]: I. an assembly, meeting, a general term for any public meeting, esp. for purposes of legislation, a parliament, including courts of law; in this sense þing is a standard word throughout all Scandinavian countries (cp. the Tyn-wald, or meeting-place of the Manx parliament): technical phrases, blása til þings, kveðja þings, stefna þing, setja þing, kenna þing (N.G.L. i. 63); helga þing, heyja þing, eiga þing; slíta þingi, segja þing laust, to dissolve a meeting, see the verbs: so also a þing 'er fast' when sitting, 'er laust' when dissolved (fastr I. γ, lauss II. 7); Dróttins-dag hinn fyrra í þingi, ríða af þingi, ríða á þing, til þings, vera um nótt af þingi, öndvert þing, ofanvert þing, Grág. i. 24, 25; nú eru þar þing (parliaments) tvau á einum þingvelli, ok skulu þeir þá fara um þau þing bæði (in local sense), 127; um várit tóku bændr af þingit ok vildu eigi hafa, Vápn. 22; hann hafði tekit af Vöðla-þing, skyldi þar eigi sóknar-þing heita, Sturl. i. 141: in countless instances in the Sagas and the Grág., esp. the Nj. passim, Íb. ch. 7, Gísl. 54-57, Glúm. ch. 24, 27, Eb. ch. 9, 10, 56, Lv. ch. 4, 15-17: other kinds of assemblies in Icel. were Leiðar-þing, also called Þriðja-þing, Grág. i. 148; or Leið, q.v.; hreppstjórnar-þing (see p. 284); manntals-þing; in Norway, bygða-þing, D.N. ii. 330; hús-þing, vápna-þing, refsi-þing, v. sub vocc. :-- eccl. a council, H.E. i. 457, Ann. 1274; þing í Nicea, 415. 14. 2. a parish (opp. to a benefice); in Iceland this word is still used of those parishes whose priest does not reside by the church, no manse being appointed as his fixed residence; such a parish is called þing or þinga-brauð (and he is called þinga-prestr, q.v.), as opp. to a 'beneficium,' Grág. i. 471, K.Þ.K. 30, 70, K.Á. passim; bóndi er skyldr at ala presti hest til allra nauðsynja í þingin, Vm. 73; tíundir af hverjum bónda í þingunum, 96, Bs. i. 330, H.E. ii. 48, 85, 128. 3. an interview, of lovers, H.E. i. 244; þat var talat at Þorbjörn væri í þingum við Þórdísi, Gísl. 5; nær þú á þingi mant nenna Njarðar syni, Skm. 38; man-þing, laun-þing. II. loc. a district, county, shire, a þing-community, like lög (sec p. 369, col. 2, B. II); a 'þing' was the political division of a country; hence the law phrase, vera í þingi með goða, to be in the district of such and such a godi, to be his liegeman, cp. þingfesti; or, segjask or þingi, see the Grág., Nj., and Sagas, passim; full goðorð ok forn þing, Grág. i. 15; í því þingi eðr um þau þing, 85. In later times Icel. was politically divided into twelve or thirteen counties. In old days every community or 'law' had its own assembly or parliament, whence the double sense of 'lög' as well as of 'þing.'

C. HISTORICAL REMARKS. -- In Norway the later political division and constitution of the country dates from king Hacon the Good and his counsellors Thorleif the Wise and earl Sigurd. As king Harold Fairhair was the conqueror of Norway, so was his son Hacon her legislator as also the founder of her constitution, and of her political division into 'þings;' for this is the true meaning of the classical passage, -- hann (king Hacon) lasgði mikinn hug á laga-setning í Noregi, hann setti Gulaþings-lög ok Frostaþings-lög, ok Heiðsævis-lög fyrst at upphafi, en áðr höfðu sér hverir fylkis-menn lög, Ó.H. 9; in Hkr. l.c. the passage runs thus -- hann setti Gulaþings-lög með ráði Þorleifs spaka, ok hann setti Frostaþings-lög með ráði Sigurðar jarls ok annara Þrænda þeirra er vitrastir vóru, en Heiðsævis-lög hafði sett Hálfdan svarti, sem fyrr er ritað, Hkr. 349 new Ed.; the account in Eg. ch. 57, therefore, although no doubt true in substance, is, as is so often the case in the Sagas, an anachronism; for in the reign of Eric 'Bloodaxe,' there were only isolated fylkis-þing, and no Gula-þing. In later times St. Olave added a fourth þing, Borgar-þing, to the three old ones of king Hacon (those of Gula, Frosta, and Heiðsævi); and as he became a saint, he got the name of legislator in the popular tradition, the credit of it was taken from Hacon, the right man; yet Sighvat the poet speaks, in his Bersöglis-vísur, of the laws of king Hacon the foster-son of Athelstan. Distinction is therefore to be made between the ancient 'county' þing and the later 'united' þing, called lög-þing (Maurer's 'ding-bund'); also almennilegt þing or almanna-þing, D.N. ii. 265, iii. 277; fjórðunga þing, ii. 282; alþingi, alls-herjar-þing. The former in Norway was called fylkis-þing, or county þing; in Icel. vár-þing, héraðs-þing, fjórðungs-þing (cp. A.S. scîrgemot, a shiremote). Many of the old pre-Haconian fylkis-þing or shiremotes seem to have continued long afterwards, at least in name, although their importance was much reduced; such we believe were the Hauga-þing (the old fylkis-þing of the county Westfold), Fms. viii. 245, Fb. ii. 446, iii. 24; as also Þróndarness-þing, Arnarheims-þing, Kefleyjar-þing, Mork. 179. II. in Iceland the united þing or parliament was called Al-þingi; for its connection with the legislation of king Hacon, see Íb. ch. 2-5 (the chronology seems to be confused): again, the earlier Icel. spring þings (vár-þing), also called héraðs-þing (county þing) or fjórðunga-þing (quarter þing), answer to the Norse fylkis-þing; such were the Þórness-þing, Eb., Landn., Gísl., Sturl.; Kjalarness-þing, Landn. (App.); Þverár-þing, Íb.; also called Þingness-þing, Sturl. ii. 94; Húnavatns-þing, Vd.; Vöðla-þing, Lv., Band.; Skaptafells-þing, Nj.; Árness-þing, Flóam. S.; þingskála-þing, Nj.; Hegraness-þing, Glúm., Lv., Grett.; Múla-þing (two of that name), Jb. (begin.), cp. Grág. i. 127; Þorskafjarðar-þing, Gísl., Landn.; Þingeyjar-þing, Jb.; further, Krakalækjar-þing, Dropl. (vellum, see Ny Fél. xxi. 125); Sunnudals-þing, Vápn.; þing við Vallna-laug, Lv.; þing í Straumfirði, Eb.; Hvalseyrar-þing, Gísl.; or þing í Dýrafirði, Sturl.; Fjósatungu-þing, Lv. III. in Sweden the chief þings named were Uppsala-þing, Ó.H.; and Mora-þing (wrongly called Múla-þing, Ó.H. l.c., in all the numerous vellum MSS. of this Saga; the Icelandic chronicler or the transcriber probably had in mind the Icel. þing of that name). IV. in Denmark, Vebjarga-þing, Knytl. S.; Íseyrar-þing, Jómsv. S. V. in the Faroe Islands, the þing in Þórshöfn, Fær.: in Greenland, the þing in Garðar, Fbr. VI. freq. in Icel. local names, Þing-völlr, Þing-vellir (plur.) = Tingwall, in Shetland; Þing-nes, Þing-eyrar, Þing-ey, Þing-eyri (sing.); Þing-múli, Þing-skálar, etc., Landn., map of Icel.; Þing-holt (near Reykjavik).

D. COMPDS: þings-afglöpun, f. contempt of court, a law phrase, Grág. i. 5, Nj. 150. þings-boð, n. a summons to a þing, N.G.L. i. 55. þinga-brauð, n. a parish-vicarage, see B. I. 2. þinga-deild, f. litigation at a þing, Íb. 8. þinga-dómr, m. a court at a þing, a public court, Grág. i. 127. þinga-kvöð, f. a summoning persons to an assembly, to perform public duties there; vanda skal búa í þingakvöð, Grág. i. 142. þinga-prestr, m. a vicar of a parish (B. I. 2), Sturl. i. 125, H.E. ii. 215. þinga-saga, u, f. = þingaþáttr, Mork. 174. þinga-tollr, m. a church-toll, H.E. ii. 509, D.I. 276. þinga-þáttr, m. (Hkr. l.c.), the name of the interesting record in Mork. 174.

þinga, að, to hold a meeting; þinga um mál manna, Eg. 340; konungar tóku þar veizlur ok þinguðu við bændr, Fms. vi. 191; konungr ferr suðr með landi ok dvalðisk í hverju fylki ok þingaði við bændr, en á hverju þingi lét hann upp lesa Kristin lög, Ó.H. 46; Satan hefir þá þingat við djöfla helvítis ok mælt ..., Niðrst. 1; þat er siðr á Íslandi á haustum, at bændr þinga til fátækra manna (see hreppr), Fb. iii. 421. 2. metaph. to consult or parley about, consider; menn sögðu at þeir þinguðu öðrumegin árinnar, Fms. xi. 269; ekki veit ek hvat þeir þinga (what they are discussing), en þat hygg ek at þeir þræti um, hvárt Vésteinn hefði átt dætr einar, eða hefði hann átt son nokkurn, Gísl. 56; þeir þinguðu um hvat at skyldi göra, Fms. vi. 28; hví ætlar þú at Guðmundr þingi svá fast inn þetta, Lv. 51; var lengi þingat, ok at lyktum festu bændr í dóm Erlings, Fms. vii. 302.

þingaðr, m., only poët., in heim-þingaðr, q.v.

þinga-lið, n. = Þingamanna-lið; sá er vestr sat í Þinga-liði, Baut. 349.

Þinga-menn, m. pl. the name of the house-carles or body-guard of king Canute and his successors in England; it was a hired corps of soldiers, like the Wærings in Constantinople, Fb. i. 203, 205, Ó.H. 21, 25, Fms. vi. (in a verse). Þingamanna-lið, n. id., Valla L. 222, Orkn. 84 old Ed., Fb. i. l.c.

þingan, f. a debate, holding counsel, Bs. i. 350.

þingat, adv. thither; see þangat.

þing-á, f. = þinghá (q.v.), Fb. ii. 184, Fms. viii, 183, v.l. 4.