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744 ÞRÁÐR -- ÞRESKJÖLDR.

B. [A.S. þreâ or þreow, in lic-þrowere = a leper; cp. A.S. þrower, a martyr], rottenness, decay; in iík-þrá, 'body-decay,' leprosy.

ÞRÁÐR, m., gen. þráðar, dat. þræði, pl. þræðir, þræðr, Sks. l.c., Pr. 411; acc. þráðu: [A.S. þræd; Engl. thread; Germ. draht; Dutch draad; Dan. traad: the root verb is in A.S. þrawan; O.H.G. drabjan; Engl. throw in throwster; Germ. drehen; Lat. torquere] :-- a thread, end; rauðr þráðr, Fms. v. 319; landit skalf sem á þræði léki, Fas. i. 424; var þráðr bundinn við sporðinn, Fms. vi. 296; öðrum þræði batt hann fyrir framan ..., Bs. i. 644; nál ok þræðr, Pr. 411; þráðrinn, Rb. 472; hör-þráðr, silki-þráðr, Bs. i. 644, O.H.L. 73; örlags-þráðuna, Al. 79; þráðar-endi, a thread's end; þráðar-spotti. 2. naut. term, the brails of a sail(?); nálar margar ok ærna þræðr eða sviptingar, Sks. 30 B; þráða-riða; eyrir við líksíma hvert, eyri fyrir þráða-riðu hverja, eyri fyrir hanka hvern, N.G.L. i. 101.

þrái, a, m. staleness. II. obstinacy = þrá, n.

Þráinn, m., dat. Þráni, a pr. name, Landn., Nj.

þráliga, adv. obstinately, Fb. ii. 50, Fms. ii. 167, x. 277. 2. frequently, incessantly, Stj. 157, Fb. ii. 50.

þráligr, adj. very frequent, Stj. 80.

þrána, að, to become decomposed (þrár).

Þrándr, m., Þránd-heimr, Drondheim, see Þróndr, Þróndheimr.

ÞRÁR, þrá, þrátt, adj. stubborn, obstinate, mostly in a bad sense; þráir ok kappsamir, Ísl. ii. 368; miklu er hann ráðgari ok þrárri á þat sem hann vill fram fara, Fms. vi. 382; en þeir er þrástir vóru á sitt mál vildu berjask, viii. 411, freq. in mod. usage. 2. neut. þrátt as adv., frequently; hvat vit munum tala svá þrátt á kveldum, Fms. vi. 394, viii. 436; finnask þar þrátt rauðir gimsteinar, Stj. 72; þrátt-nefndr, often named, Jb. 446; þrátt ok iðugliga, D.N. i. 195.

B. COMPDS, constantly: þrá-beiting, f. a beating-up to the wind, a naut. term; ef menn beita þrábeiting, Jb. 399. þrá-bænn, adj. begging hard, Stj. 206, Post. þrá-fylginn, adj. persevering, Fas. iii. 195. þrá-girni, f. a contentions spirit, obstinacy, Hým., Fb. iii. 246, Blas. 49, Fms. v. 239, Hkr. ii. 237. þrá-gjarn, adj. obstinate, Akv. 43. þrá-gjarnliga, adv. repeatedly, over and over again, Gkv. 2. 17, 31. þrá-halda, hélt, to hold fast, stick to, Fb. i. 228. þrá-haldr, adj. obstinate, stubborn, Fms. i. 305, Orkn. 34. þrá-kelkinn, adj. (-kelkni, f.), dogged, obstinate, pig-headed. þrá-látr, adj. stubborn, Stj. 449, Fb. ii. 261. þrá-leikr, m. perseverance in, Al. 119. þrá-liga (q.v.), adv. frequently. þrá-ligr (q.v.), adj. frequent, incessant, þrá-lífr, adj. tenacious of life, Ýt. þrá-lyndi, f. stubbornness, Fms. vii. 21, viii. 436, x. 292, 306, Glúm. 358, Fs. 36, 49, Bret. þrá-lyndr, adj. obstinate, stubborn, Finnb. 348, Fms. x. 177, 292, Fs. 166, Stj. 230. þrá-læti, n. = þrályndi, Karl. 540. þrá-mæli, n. a bandying of words, Am. 103. þrá-reip, n. tight, strong ropes, Sól. 77. þrá-rækiligr, adj. obstinate, Róm. 336. þrá-samliga, adv. very frequent, Ísl. ii. 363, Fms. x. 507. þrá-seta, u, f. sitting one out, Fms. viii. 441, Jb. 278. þrá-viðri, n. a constant adverse wind, Norske Saml. v. 159. þrá-yrði, n. = þrámæli, Barl. 125.

C. Þrár, þrá, þrátt, decomposed, stale; þrátt kjöt, þrár fiskr, stale fish; lík-þrár, 'flesh-rotten,' leprous.

þrátta, að, = þrætta, q.v.; [Germ. dratzen, whence later trotzen] :-- to quarrel, dispute; eg vil nú ekki þar um þrátta, Grönd.

þráttan, f. a dispute, difference.

ÞREF, n. a kind of upper floor where corn is stored (see þrefi); stofunni með kofum ok þrefinu sem þar er viðr fast, austasta búðinni undir stofunni, D.N. iv. 520; þrefit yfir forstofunni, i. 275, v. 342, vi. 84. 2. in the metaph. phrase, koma á þref, to come on the floor, to come in; kemr nú á þref um draumana þegar er lengir nóttina, when the night grew long, the (dismal) dreams came again, Gísl. 44. II. mod. a wrangle, dispute; mál-þref.

þrefa, að, to wrangle, dispute; hvað ertu' að þrefa!

Þre-falda, að, to triple, Alg., Sks. 675.

þre-faldan, f. a making threefold, Alg.

þrefaldliga, adv. trebly, Post. 645. 68.

þrefaldr, adj. threefold, Ísl. ii. 104, Anecd. 30, Sks. 182, 449, 458.

þref-búð, f. = þref, D.N. vi. 291.

þrefi, a, m. [A.S. þraf; Engl. thrave = number of two dozen, Johnson] :-- a number of sheaves, a thrave, Edda ii. 491; cp. Dan. 'en trave korn;' in the phrase, raunlítið kemst opt á þrefa, small efforts soon make a shock, i.e. small matters soon grow into a quarrel, Mkv.; or is the metaphor from þref? cp. Gísl. 44 (above s.v. þref).

ÞREIFA, að, [þrífa], to touch, feel with the hand; far þú hingat ok vil ek þ. um þik, Ísl. ii. 342, 343 (of a blind woman); fóstra Helga var því vön at þ. um menn áðr enn til vígs færi, Korm. 4; hann þreifaði þar niðr ok tók þar á sverðs-hjöltum, Ld. 204; myrkr þat at þ. má um, Eluc.; þ. í hönd e-m, to shake one's hands, Ísl. ii. 207; hann þreifaði um hendr þeim ok strauk um lófana, Fms. vi. 73. II. reflex., þreifast fyrir, to feel for oneself, to grope along, Fms. v. 95.

þreifanligr, adj. tangible, Mar.

ÞREK, n., in poets þrekr, m.; meiri varð þinn þrekr en þeira, ... sinn þrek, ... þú hefir vandan þik dýrum þrek, ... minna þrek (dat.), Ó.H. (in a verse, see Lex. Poët.); slíkan þrek, Jd. 11; jöfnum þrek, Fms. vi. 423; þann muntú þrek drýgja, Hbl.; eljun, þrekr, nenning, Edda 109; mikill þrekr ok afl, Sks. 159 new Ed. :-- pith, strength, courage, fortitude, eigi höfum vér þrek til at berjask við Þorstein, Korm. 236; um röskvan mann þann er vel væri at þreki búinn, Fms. vii. 227 (here it is evidently neut., for if masc. it would drop the i); ef þú hefir eigi þrek til, courage, Nj. 31; hafa þrek ok hugborð til e-s, Fms. vii. 143; hafa þrek við e-m, to be a match for, Fs. 125, Fbr. 111 new Ed. COMPDS: þrek-förlaðr, part. with failing courage, Jd. þrek-lauss, adj. pithless, Sd. 151, Fbr. 212. þrek-leysi, n. pithlessness, lack of fortitude, Ó.H. þrek-liga, adv. strongly, stoutly. Sks. 631. 633. þrek-ligr, adj. strong, stout of frame, Fms. ii. 84, vii. 19, 63, Ó.H. 139, Ld. 16, 120. þrek-lyndr, adj. strong-minded. þrek-maðr, m. a stout, strong man, Niðrst. 6. þrek-mikill, adj. strong, valiant, Fbr. 212 (in mod. usage of character). þrek-nenninn, adj. valiant, Hallfred. þrek-ramr, adj. strong, powerful, Geisli. þrek-samr, adj. bold, Geisli. þrek-stjarna, u, f. a star of might, Rb. 110. þrek-stórr = þrekmikill, Lex. Poët. þrek-virki, n. a deed of derring-do, Fær. 49, Nj. 183, Grett. 116.

þrekaðr, part. worn, exhausted by over-exertion or from being tossed by wind, waves, fire, or the like, Fms. ii. 87, vi. 325; þeir vóru þrekaðir mjök af eldi, Orkn. 318, passim: in Stj. 387, for 'þreka,' read breka(?).

þrekinn, adj. enduring; þrekinn við vás ok vökur, Róm. 330. 2. in mod. usage, stout of frame.

þrekkóttr, adj. dirty, Fs. 158, Fms. v. 230.

þrekkr, m. [Germ. dreck], filth, Lat. merda, Stj. 247, Mar., passim.

þrekkugr, adj. = þrekkóttr, Fas. iii. 583.

þremill, m., in swearing, hver þremillinn! see tramar, p. 639.

þremjar, f. pl. a part of the sword, but unknown what, Edda (Gl.); the sword is called þremja linnr, vöndr, svell, = the snake, wand, ice, of the þ., etc., Lex. Poët.

þrenning, f. a trinity, esp. in eccl. sense, the Trinity, Fms. i. 281, x. 171, Skálda, and in mod. usage, Vídal., Pass., etc. (Heilög Þrenning); Þrenningar-messa = Trinity-Sunday, Fms. ix. 372.

ÞRENNR, adj. (also þrinnr), triple, threefold (see tvennr); þrennr búningr, Dipl. iii. 4; einn Guð í þrenningu, þrennan í einingu, Fms. i. 281: plur. in distrib. sense, munnlaugar þrennar, Dipl. iii. 4; þrennar tylptir í fjórðungi hverjum, Nj. 150, Eg. 341; með þrennum greinum, Stj. 37; þessa ómaga þrenna, Grág. i. 275; þetta eru þrenn verð, thrice the prize. Ld. 30, 146, Hkr. iii. 408; þrenn mann-gjöld, Nj.; þrennar sátir, Orkn. 48; þrennar níundir, Hkv. Hjörv.; þrenni, indecl. (cp. tvenni), Anecd. 58; fjör þrenni, three lives, Rekst. COMPDS: þrenns-konar and þrenns-slags, of three kinds. þrennis-kyns, id., Barl. 131.

ÞREP, n. a ledge or shelf-like basis or footing, in a wall or pavement; skal hann (the wall) taka í öxl manni af þrepi, Grág. ii. 262; sjándi hvar fjándinn sitr á þrepi einu, Mar., and so in mod. usage: metaph., en þó var sem nökkut þrep kenndisk á leggnum, of a tumor, Bs. i. 376.

þrep-skjöldr, a false form for þreskölddr, q.v.

ÞRESKJA, t, þriskja and þryskva are less correct forms; [Ulf. þriskjan = GREEK; A.S. þerscan; Engl. thresh; O.H.G. drescan; Germ. dreschen; Swed. törska; Dan. tærska; Lat. tero; Gr. GREEK] :-- to thresh, D.N. vi. 196; þriskja (sic) korn, Fms. viii. 96 (þryskva, v.l.)

þreskjöldr, m. [this word is derived from þreskja and völlr, and prop. means a threshing-floor, because in ancient times the floor at the entrance was used for threshing, but it then came to mean the block of wood or stone beneath the door, doorsill or threshold; and that in ancient times it was so, is borne out by phrases as, Gríma sat á þreskeldi, Fbr.; or, stíga yfir þresköldinn, Eb. l.c.; or, þresköldrinn var hár fyrir durunum, O.H.L. 85; see the references. The latter part of the compd, -öldr, is from a time when the older ld had not as yet become assimilated into ll. The word is declined like völlr; nom. þreskjöldr, or, dropping the j, þresköldr: acc. þreskjöld or þresköld, Bs. i. 44, Fms. v. 140, Fbr. 14, Korm. 10, Eb. 220, Fs. 68, Edda ii. 122, Hkr. iii. 116, N.G.L. i. 18, 431: dat. þreskeldi, Fms. ii. 149, Fbr. 98 new Ed., N.G.L. i. 18, 431; in rhymes eldhúss þreskeldi, Kormak: nom. plur. þreskeldir, Bs. i. 736; acc. þresköldu, Stj. 436 (spelt þrescavlldo): examples are wanting of gen. sing. and plur. 2. but as the etymology was forgotten, the forms soon got confused, e.g. the curious various readings to N.G.L. ii. 110, þreskilldi, þreskjalda, þreskalda, þreskalla, þreskaldi, þreskolli, þreskæli, all dat.: acc. sing. changing ö into e, þreskelld, Stj. 436 (Cod. A): dat. changing e into i, þreskildi (as if from skjöldr), H.E. i. 496, N.G.L. ii. l.c. The form þrepskjöldr, found in mod. Icel. books, is a bad attempt at an etymology, as if it were derived from þrep and skjöldr. The form tréskjöldrinn, O.H.L. 85. l. 21, is prob. merely a scribe's error, 3. at last came the mod. form þröskuldr, declined as a regular substantive (like Höskulldr), Sturl. iii. 33; [A.S. þerscwold or þerscold; Engl. threshold; Dan. tærskel; O.H.G. dirscuwili.]

B. A threshold, passim, see above. 2. metaph. an isthmus or ridge flooded at high water, between the mainland and an island; þeir