This is page 766 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.

Click here to go to the main page about Cleasby/Vigfusson. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.

This page was generated on 27 May 2017. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.

The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.

766 ÖRVARBOÐ -- ÖRK.

eða maðr stefni honum þing, 42: also of a warrant (cp. Germ. steck-brief), summoning a person to appear; the law phrases are, leggja örvar á e-n, to lay an arrow upon, i.e. to summon by a warrant; fylgja örum, to follow the arrow, i.e. to answer a summons; sá skal örum fylgja er fyrstr var á lagðr, N.G.L. i. 60; örvar þrjár ... ein ör at dauðum manni, önnur at sárum ..., allir skulu þeir örvar bera en engi fella, ... sá skal örum fylgja er á eru lagðar ... nú ef örvar taka hann ok sækir eigi þing, þá berr hann á baki sök, 270. II. in poët, compds, ör-bragð, ör-drif, ör-veðr, = a shower of shafts; ör-sæti = a shield; ör-rjóðr, ör-slöngvir, = a warrior.

B. COMPDS: örvar-boð, n. an 'arrow-summons,' 'arrow-message,' a message or summons by an arrow, Fms. i. 209. örva-drífa, u, f. an 'arrow-drift,' shower of arrows, Fms. viii. 222. örva-flug, n. a flight of arrows, Fms. iii. 32. örvar-húnn, m. the tip of an arrow, N.G.L. i. 59. örva-malr, m. a quiver, Fas. ii. 541, Al. 121; usually called örva-mælir, m., Fms. iii. 223. örvar-oddr, m. an arrow-point. Fms. vii. 142, Gþl. 460: a nickname = Odd the archer, Fas. ii. örvar-skapt, n. an arrow-shaft, Fas. iii. 331. örvar-skot = örskot, Grág. i. 123. örvar-skurðr, m. an 'arrow-cutting,' i.e. despatching an arrow-message, Fms. x. 412, Gþl. 81. örvar-þing, n. an assembly summoned by an arrow, an extraordinary meeting called together on an emergency, Ó.H. 139, Fms. ii. 104, Gþl. 152.

ÖR- (i.e. ør-), a prefixed particle, altered from us-; the s remains in usall = vesall, see p. 699, col. 2; also spelt er-, er-vita, Hkv.; or eyr-, eyr-grynni, Ó.H. 106; evr-lygi, Eg. (in a verse): [Ulf. us-; O.H.G. ur-; when uncompounded, see ór, mod. úr, p. 472; as a prefix to nouns, ör- or ör-, for which see p. 469, col. 2. Indeed, there is a strong probability that the negative prefix ó- is a contraction, not of un-, but of or-, so that ó-bættr is from or-bættr, ó-verðr from or-verðr, by agglutination of r, whereby the vowel becomes long (as the O.H.G. prefix ar- in A.S. appears â-): this would account for the fact, that in the very oldest and best vellums there is hardly a single instance of ú- for ó-, and this is the sole modern form not only all over Iceland, but also in most popular idioms of Norway and Sweden; a farther proof is that in many words or-, the ancient form, is preserved in a few vellums, especially of the Norse laws, in such rare forms as ör-sekr, ör-bætiligr, ör-vænt, and ó-vænt, where the current form is ó-sekr, etc.; so also, ör-keypis and ó-keypis, ör-grynni and ó-grynni, ör-hóf and ó-hóf. Therefore or-, not un-, is, we believe, the phonetical parent of the later Scandinavian negative prefix ó-. The extensive use of ör- and the utter absence of ú- or un- may be explained by the supposition that, for the sake of uniformity, all words beginning with ör- and un- gradually took the same form; for though in ancient days ör- was more extensively used than it is at present, it can hardly have been the sole form in all words now beginning with ó-] :-- ör- is used as denoting a negative, as ör-grynni, a being bottomless; or lack or loss of, as ör-sekr, out of being sekr; ör-verðr. 2. special usages are, what is of yore, as in ör-lög (cp. Germ. ur-, as in ur-theil, Engl. or-deal), ör-nefni, ör-gelmir, ör-vasi. 3. in mod. usage ör- is prefixed to adjectives, = utterly, but only in instances denoting 'smallness,' or something negative, e.g. ör-grannr, ör-stuttr, ör-skammr, ör-grunnr, ör-mjör, ör-fátækr, ör-snauðr, ör-eyða, ör-taka, ör-reyta, qq.v.

ör-birgð, f. = Lat. inopia, lack of means, destitution.

ör-birgr, adj. destitute.

ör-bjarga, adj. helpless, Bs. i. 873.

ör-boð, n. = örvarboð, an arrow-summons, Hkr. i. 250.

ör-boða, u, f. the name of a giantess, Hdl., Edda.

ör-bætiligr, adj. [cp. orbotamal = óbótamal, Schlyter], irreparable, Stj. 8, l. 1; whence mod. ó-bætil.

ÖRÐ, f., gen. arðar, [erja, arði], a crop, produce; örð sér (sows) Yrsu burðar, the crop of the son of Yrsa, i.e. gold, Edda (in a verse); þá á leiguliði einnar arðar mála, ... þá á leiguliði tvegeja mála atða, þá örð (not jörð) eina er lands-dróttinn andask á ok aðra næstu eptir, N.G.L. i. 233, Gþl. 329; þat eru þrjár arðir, 314; nú verðr maðr útlagr á jörðu manns. þá skal hann leigu hafa ef úreidd var, ok örð alla rótfasta, N.G.L. i. 40. COMPDS: arðar leiga, u, f. rent for one year's crop, Gpl. 330. arðar-máli, a, m. (and -mál, n.), a contract, agreement for one year, Gþl. 314, 329, 336.

ör-deyða, u, f. utter death, a fishing term used when fish will not bite; komi þá enginn kolmúligr úr kafi, þá mun ördeyða á öllu Norðr-hafi, Ísl. Þjóðs.

örðga, að, [örðigr], to raise, lift up, erect; Drottinn örðgar upp bundna, ok leysir fjötraða, 655 xiii. A. 3; konungr leit yfir lýðinn, örðgaði augum, lifting the eyes, with the notion of a fierce look, Fms. vii. 156 (aurgaði v.l., arþgaði, Mork. 190, l.c.); örðgask upp sem leo, to rise to one's feet like a lion, Stj. 337.

ÖRÐIGR or örðugr, adj. [Lat. arduus, but not borrowed from that word] :-- erect, upright, rising on end, breasting; ríss hestrinn örðigr (rears) undir honum. Fms. xi. 280; selrinn ríss upp örðigr, Bs. i. 335; liggja örðigr við hægindit í sænginni, to lie leaning high against the pillow in the bed, Bs. ii. 320; reisa kistuna örðiga til hálfs, Pr. 413; Höskuldr sneri at Odda örðigum, H. turned breasting O. boldly, Lv. 82; Bersi ferr örðigr ok leggsk hart, B. rose to breast the waves bravely, of a swimmer, Korm. 116: of a ship cutting the waves, Edda (in a verse): of a steep brink, örðugt upp á-móti, hard to breast. II. metaph. difficult, arduous; en örðgu boðorð laginna, Greg. 9; hitt mun mér örðgara (örðigra, Fb. l.c.) þykkja, at lúta til Selþóris, Ó.H. 112: very freq. in mod. usage, það er örðugt. 2. harsh; sumt þykkir heldr örðigt í orðum konungs, Fms. vii. 221. 3. stalwart, brisk; örðigr ok sterkr, Mar.; orðigr ok allra manna bezt vígr, Fs. 129. 4. a nickname, Ása hin örðiga, Gullþ.

örðig-skeggi or örðum-skeggi, a nickname (cp. bratt-skeggr), Landn., Nj.

ör-drag, n. an arrow-shot, range, of distance; þrjú ördrög, Flóv. 40; látum milli ördrag eða lengra, Fms. viii. 382, Grág. ii. 19.

örðug-leiki, a, m. a difficulty.

ör-eiða, adj. the forsworn(?) a nickname, Sturl., Ann.

ör-eigð, f. utter poverty, destitution, Fms. vi. 60, Hom. (St.); ef þau æxla fé ór öreigð, Grág. i. 335.

ör-eigi and ör-eiga, adj. also used as a noun, want, destitution. 2. 'out of owning,' poor, destitute, Al. 5; ef sá maðr er ö. er þá kirkju á, N.G.L. i. 388; ef sá maðr andask er öreigi er, ok er engi maðr skyldr at gjalda skuldir hans, Grág. i. 408; öreigi ok féþurfi, Fms. ii. 80; ef þeir menn eru á skipinu er búa ómegðar-búi, ok sé menn öreiga, K.Þ.K. 90; tólf aura öreiga-mund, N.G.L. i. 27, 54, see mundr.

ör-eign, f. = öreigð, Stj. 156, Hsm. 13. 3.

ör-endi, n. an errand, message; see eyrendi. II. loss of breath; er hann þraut eyrendit ... sem honum vannsk til eyrendi, Edda 32; þá var þrotið ørendi hans, his breath was gone, of a person drowning under water, Bs. i. 335: see eyrendi 4.

örend-laust, örend-reki, see eyrendlaust, eyrendreki.

ör-endr, also spelt eyrendr, erendr, adj. = Lat. exanimis, 'out of breath' i.e. dead, having breathed one's last; hón hné í fang bonda sínum ok var þá eyrend. Ísl. ii. 275; steypir honum örendum til jarðar, Al. 38; þrælar konungs vildu draga klæði af Sigurði, var hann eigi eyrindr, Fms. vii. 298; Þorleifr var eigi eyrendr, Fb. i. 414; drepa hann, ok var hann erendr er þeir Hlenni kómu, Glúm. 370; feilr konungrinn þegar á jörð niðr örendr, Fms. xi. 64; fann þá báða örenda, Landn. 235; örendr af sárum, 287; kómu þá upp hjá honum menninir flestir allir örendir, Bs. i. 355; vóiu þeir þá fallnir en ekki erendir, Fbr. 6l, 62 new Ed.

ör-eyða, u, f. to make desolate.

ör-fátækr, adj. utterly poor, = öreigi, freq. in mod. usage.

ör-ferð, f. doom, fate, = örlög; þeirra örnefni eða örferðir vitum vér eigi, Fms. x. 397 (Ágrip).

örfi or örvi, f. [örr, adj.], liberality; ágætr af örfi sinni ok atgervi, Þórð. (1860) 95.

ör-firi, n., or ör-fjara, u, f. an out-going, ebbing: Örfiris-ey is the pr. name for islands which, at low-water, are joined to the mainland by a reef which is covered at high-water; one such island is near Reykjavik; another at Skard in western Iceland, now called Öffirs-ey; so also Ör-fjara, u, f. = the island Orfir in the Orkneys, Orkn. 182.

örfuni, a, m. [A.S. yrfa], a bull, head of cattle, Edda (Gl.)

ör-fyrndr, part. quite worn out, dilapidated, H.E. i. 489.

örga, að, = örðga (q.v.), Hkr. 687 new Ed.; hence prob. per metathesis the mod. ögra, q.v.

ör-gáti, a, m. cheer, fare (see aurgáti), Fms. xi. 341, Mar.

ör-gelmir, m. the name of an old giant (cp. Germ. ur-alt), Vþm., Edda.

ör-glasir, m. a mythical name, Fsm.

örglask, að, qs. örðglast, [örðigr], to rise to one's feet (= örðgast), Fms. iv. 58, Fas. ii. 331, iii. 574, Fb. i. 543, Karl. 191.

ör-goði, a, m. a nickname, Landn.

ör-grandari (urgrandari), m. the desolator, Runic stone.

ör-grannr, adj. very slim; örgrant, quite small, minute; in the saying, örgranns eru vér lengst á leit, looking for a small thing takes the longest time, cp. Engl. proverbial phrase 'to look for a needle in a bottle of hay,' Mkv.

ör-grimnir, m. the name of a giant, Edda.

ör-grunnr, adj. quite shallow.

ör-grynni, n. a countless multitude; örgrynni vista, Ó.H. 187; ö. fjár, Hom. 111 (ógrynni, Ó.H. 241, l.c.); ö. sauðfjár, Eg. 741; ö. liðs, O.H.L. 23, 49; eyrgrynni liðs, Ó.H. . 106.

ör-hilpr, adj. helpless, Barl. 100.

ör-hjarta, adj. out of heart, having lost heart, Hom. (St.), Fas. ii. (in a verse).

ör-hjartaðr, part. = örhjarta, Fas. ii. (in a verse).

ör-hóf, ör-hæfi, see öróf, öræfi; hann hefir örhóf manna, Mork. 173.

ör-ísa, adj. free from ice, opp. to ice-bound.

ÖRK, f., gen. arkar and erkr, pl. arkir; [A.S. earc, arc; Engl. and Dan. ark]:-- an ark, chest; örk ein mikil ok fornlig stóð í elda-húsinu, ... örkina, ... örkinni, Fær. 186, Eb. ch. 50; örku-fótr, Ó.H. 152; gengr Vígdís inn til erkr þeirrar er Þórðr átti, Ld. 48. 2. a sarcophagus,