Glossary from Bright's Anglo-Saxon Reader

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Page 241


(, oo) adv aye, ever, always

f law

[Ger Ehe]

abbod m abbot

[Lat abbtem]

abbudisse f abbess

[Lat abbtissa]

-bodan (principal parts: pret sg:-bad pret pl:-budon pp:-boden ) 2 enjoin, announce

-beran (principal parts: pret sg:-bær pret pl:-bron pp:-boren ) 4 bear, endure

-bdan (principal parts: pret sg:-bad pret pl:-bidon pp:-biden ) 1 abide, remain

-bisgian (-bysgian) WII engage, occupy


-bisgung f occupation

blenden WI make blind, darken

[Ger blenden]

-blinnan (principal parts: pret sg:-blann pret pl:-blunnon pp:-blunnen ) 3 cease

[<be-linnan cf. le]

brecan (principal parts: pret sg:-bræc pret pl:-brcon pp:-brocen ) 4 break down, destroy

-bregdan (principal parts: pret sg:-brægd pret pl:-brugdon pp:-brogden ) 3

  1. smite (intr)
  2. withdraw (trans)
    • imp 2 sg bregd

-broan (principal parts: pret sg:-bra pret pl:-bruon pp:-broen ) 2 frustrate, ruin (trans)

-bwan WI prepare, equip, adorn


ac (ah) conj but

cennan WI beget, bring forth

Achia f Achaia

-clian WII become cool

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csian (hsian, xian, scian) WII ask

-cweccan WI shake (trans and intr)

-cwelan (principal parts: pret sg:-cwæl pret pl:-cwlon pp:-cwolen ) 4 die

-cwellan WI kill


-cwean (principal parts: pret sg:-cwæ pret pl:-cwdon pp:-cweden ) 5 speak

-can WI reveal, proclaim


d m fire, funeral pile

[OHG eit, Gr ]

d-lg m flame of the pyre

-dlegian (-dlegian) WII blot out, obliterate

[Ger tilgen]

dl f (n) disease

dlig adj diseased, sick

-drfan WI drive away, expel

dre adv forthwith, quickly

-drogan (principal parts: pret sg:-drah pret pl:-drugon pp:-drogen ) 2 endure, experience, practice

-drfan (principal parts: pret sg:-drf pret pl:-drifon pp:-drifen ) 1 drive away

-dwscan WI quench, extinguish

-ddan WI put to death


-dlegian see:-dlegian

-ebbian WII ebb away, recede

fandian WII make trial of, experience

-faran (principal parts: pret sg:-fr pret pl:-fron pp:-faren ) 6 go, march

-fran WI make afraid, terrify

-fæstnes f piety

-feallan (principal parts: pret sg:-foll pret pl:-follon pp:-feallen ) R fall

-fdan WI feed, sustain

fen n evening

fen-giefl n evening repast, supper

æfest (æfst) f n disfavor, envy, malice

[æf-st, OHG abunst]

-fest see:w-fæst

-festnes see:-fæstnes

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-flon (principal parts: pret sg:-flah pret pl:-flugon pp:-flogen ) 2

  1. fly (intr)
  2. fly from (trans)
    • 3 sg flh

-flgan WI put to flight


-flman WI cause to flee, drive out


-forhtian WII frighten

fre adv ever

æftan adv from behind, behind

æfter prep (w dat)

  1. after (time and place)
    • æfter issum after this (adv)
    • æfter æm thereafter (adv)
  2. along (place)
  3. according to
  4. adv afterwards

æfter-fyligan WIII follow after

æfter-genga m successor

-fyllan WI fill: inf


-fyllan WI cause to fall, destroy


-fyrhtan WI frighten

-fyrran WI remove, take away


-fsan WI

  1. hasten forth (intr)
  2. incite to go (trans)
    • pp fsed

g n egg

gan PP possess

[Mod own]

-gn (principal parts: pret sg:-ode pp:-gn ) go

agn see:ongan

gen (pp) adj own


-gotan (principal parts: pret sg:-gat pret pl:-guton pp:-goten ) 2 pour, shed

[Ger giessen]

-gtan WI injure, kill: pp gted

-gifan (-giefan -gyfan) (principal parts: pret sg:-geaf pret pl:-gafon pp:-gifen ) 5 give, relinquish, return

g-hw pron each, every

g-hwr adv everywhere

g-hwæer (ger, er)

  1. pron, each (one of two or more)
    • ns ger
    • gs gres
    • ds grum
    • as gerne
  2. conj
    • g-hwæer ge ... ge both ... and
    • ger ge ... ge both ... and
    • er oe oe either ... or

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g-hwilc pron each

g-hwonan adv from all sides, on all sides

glca (glca) m monster, fiend

[Goth aglaiti]

gnian WII possess, assume as one's own


ger see:g-hwæer

-gyldan (-gieldan) (principal parts: pret sg:-geald pret pl:-guldon pp:-golden ) 3

  1. repay, requite
  2. punish

-gyltan WI offend, sin

ah (ac) conj but

-hebbad see:-ebbian

-hebban (principal parts: pret sg:-hf pret pl:-hfon pp:-hafen ) 6 heave, life, raise, exalt

-hn (principal parts: pret sg:-hng pret pl:-hngon pp:-hangen ) R hang (trans)

-hreddan WI save, deliver, rescue

-hrosan (principal parts: pret sg:-hras pret pl:-hruron pp:-hroren ) 2 fall

hsian see:csian

ht f possession, property


ht-ge-stron n possession, riches

-hdan WI hide

-dligan WI profane

-ldan WI

  1. lead, conduct
    • 3 sg lde; læt
    • imp 2 sg ld
    • pp ldd
    • np ldde
  2. proceed, grow
    • pret opt 3 sg lde

lan WI trans and intrans kindle, burn

lc pron subst and adj each, any

ælde (ielde, ylde) m pl men


aldor see:ealdor

aldor-monn (ealdor-) m chief, magistrate

-lecgan WI lay down, allay, overcome, refute


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led m fire

-lfan see:-lfan

-logan (principal parts: pret sg:-lah pret pl:-lugon pp:-logen ) 2 lie, deny (w dat of pers and acc of thing)

æl-fremed see:el-fremed

æl-gylden adj of pure gold

all see:eall

ælmes-georn adj liberal of alms, charitable

ælmesse f alms

[(Gr) Lat elemosyna]

æl-mihtig adj almighty

æl-odig see:el-odig

æl-odisc see:el-odisc

-lybban WIII live

lfan (-lfan) WI allow, permit, grant (w dat of pers and acc of thing)

-lsan WI loosen, release, ransom

amang see:on-ge-mong

ambor m measure

[Ger Eimer]

ambyre adj favorable


-merian WI free from dross, purify, refine

-metan 5 measure, estimate

-myrran WI mar, destroy, hinder

an see:unnan

n num adj

  1. one, certain one (indef art), a, an
    • ns n
    • ds num, nre [???]
    • as nne, nne, n
    • gp nra
    • on n right on, continuously
    • nra gehwæs of each one
  2. alone
    • ns na
    • as nne
    • ap na, n
    • æt n only that

an-be-stingan 3 thrust in, insert

an-bdan see:on-bdan

and (ond) conj and

anda m zeal, indignation, malice, injury

[Ger ahnden]

and-bidian WII wait

an-dfn f fitting amount, proportion


andetnis f confession

andettan (ondettan) WI confess, acknowledge


and-fenge adj acceptable


and-giet (-git) n intelligence, reason, sense, meaning

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and-gitfull adj intelligent

and-gitfullce adv intelligibly

and-lang adj continuous, entire

and-leofen f living, food, sustenance

an-drden see:on-drden

Andred m the 'Weald' (the great forest in Kent and Sussex)

and-swarian see:ond-swarian

and-swaru (ond-) f answer

and-weard adj present

and-wlita m countenance, appearance

[wltan; Ger Antlitz]

and-wyrdan WI answer

n-faldnes adj unity, simplicity

n-feald adj one-fold, single, unmixed, superior

n-fealdlche adv in the singular number

n-for-ltan (principal parts: pret sg:-lt pret pl:-lton pp:-lten ) R leave, abandon

Angel n Anglen (Denmark)

Angel-cynne (Ongel) n Angle kin, English people, England

an-ge-weald (=an-weald) power, dominion

an-ginn see:on-ginn

Angle m pl the Angles, Anglicans, English

an-grslc adj grisly, hideous, horrible

n-grsenlce (-grsenlce) adv hideously

n-haga (-hoga) m solitary, recluse, wanderer

anhangen see:on-hn

nig adj only

nig pron adj any

an-lc see:on-lc

n-lc adj unique, peerless, excellent

n-lcnes see:on-lcnes

n-lpig (n-lpig n-lpe) adj single, individual

n-mdla (on-) m arrogance


n-mdlce adv unanimously

n-mdnes f unanimity

n-nis f unity

n-rd (on-) adj resolute

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n-rdnis f constancy

an-settan WI put upon, impose

n-streces (gen) adv continuously

an-sund see:on-sund

an-sundnis see:on-sundnis

an-sn see:on-sen

Ante-crst m Antichrist

an-rce see:on-rce

n-weald see:on-weald

apostol m apostle

apostolc adj apostolic

æppel m apple

æpplian WII make into the form of apples, emboss

Apulder m Appledore

r m

  1. honor, favor, mercy
    • gs re
  2. property, possessions
    • as re
[Ger Ehre]

r m messenger

[Goth airus]

r f oar

r comp adj former, preceding


  1. comp adv earlier, formerly, before
    • comp ror
    • supl rest
  2. conj ere, before that (usually followed by the opt)
  3. prep (w dat) before (time)

-rd adj inexorable

-rdan WI read

-rfnan (-refnan) WI perform, endure

-ræfnian WII endure

-rman WI arise

-rran WI raise, erect, build


ærce-bisceop (arce-) m archbishop

r-dæg m former day

-reccean WI expound, translate, recount

-redian WII arrange

ren adj made of brass, brazen

[r, Goth ais]

rende n errand, message

rend-fæst adj bound on an errand

rend-ge-writ n message, letter

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rend-raca (-wreca) m messenger

r-fæst honorable, virtuous, merciful

r-fæastnis f virtue

r-hwæt adj eager for glory

rian WII

  1. honor, show favor
    • 3 sg ra
  2. desist, cease
    • imp 2 sg ra

-rsan (principal parts: pret sg:-rs pret pl:-rison pp:-risen ) 1 arise

rst m f n resurrection

r-las adj dishonorable, wicked

arn see:yrnan

ærnan WI cause to run; ride, gallop


rne-merigen m early morning

rodlce adv quickly, vigourously

r-wacol adj early awake

r-wur (-weor) worthy of honor, venerable

r-wurian (-weorian) WII honor

r-wurlce adv honorable, reverentially

r-wurnis f reverence, honor

s n food, prey, carrion

[Ger Aas]

-swan R sow

æsc m

  1. ash, spear
    • gp asca
  2. boat, ship (of Danish ships)
    • ap æscas

asce (axe) f ashes

-sceacan (principal parts: pret sg:-scc,-scoc pret pl:-sccon,-scocon pp:-sceacen ) 6 shake

æsc-here m (ash-) spear-army, ship-army

æsc-holt n spear-shaft

scian see:csian

-scnan (principal parts: pret sg:-scn pret pl:-scinon pp:-scinen ) 1 shine

-scfan (principal parts: pret sg:-scaf pret pl:-scufon pp:-scofen ) 2 shove, push

-scran WI make clear, transparent


-secgan WIII say, relate

-sendan WI send

-settan WI set, place, transport oneself, go


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-singan 3 sing

-sittan (principal parts: pret sg:-sæt pret pl:-ston pp:-seten ) 5 sit fast, ground (of ships)

-slan 6 strike, cut off

-smian WII forge, work

-spendan WI spend, expend

-spring n spring of water, fountain

-springan 3 spring up, spread

-standan 6 stand

æstel m book-mark

[Lat hastula]

-stellan WI set up, restore, establish

-sterian see:-styrian

-stgan (principal parts: pret sg:-stg,-sth pret pl:-stigon pp:-stigen ) 1 ascend, mount (trans and intr), spring up, enter or leave a ship, go

-stingan 3 pierce

-streccan WI stretch, extend, prostrate

-styrian (-sterian) WI stir, agitate, move (trans)

-sundrian WII separate (trans)

a-sundron (-sundran) adv asunder, apart, privately

-swebban WI put to sleep, quiet


-syndrode see:-sundrian

æt pret w dat

  1. at, in (time, place, circumstance)
  2. of, from (w verbs of asking, receiving, taking, buying)

t m f

  1. anything to be eaten, food
    • gs tes
  2. the act of eating
    • ds te

æt-bregdan (principal parts: pret sg:-brægd,-brd pret pl:-brugdon,-brdon pp:-brogden,-broden ) 3 take away, deprive, release

æt-awed see:æt-owian

-tellan WI tell, relate

-ton (principal parts: pret sg:-tah pret pl:-tugon pp:-togen ) 2 draw

-torian WII become exhausted, fail

æt-owian WII appear (intr), show, manifest (trans)

[Goth at-augjan]

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æt-foran prep (w dat) before

æt-gædere adv together

æt-ltian WII lurk out of sight, hide

[cf Mod loiter]

-tredan 5 tread

æt-somne adv together

æt-standan 6 stand, remain

ttor (tor) n poison

[Ger Eiter]

ttor-bre adj poisonous

ttren (tren) adj poisonous

æt-wtan (o) (principal parts: pret sg:-wt pret pl:-witon pp:-witen ) 1 twit, reproach (w dat)

[cf. ed-wt]

æt-wan (-wan) WI [cf. æt-owian] appear (intr), show, manifest (trans)

m oath

[Ger Eid]

æel-boren (pp) adj of noble birth

æel-borennis f nobleness of birth

æele adj noble, excellent

[Ger edel]

æele adv nobly

æeling m noble, prince

æellce adv nobly

æelnes f nobility

æelo f nobility

æel-stenc m excellent fragrance

æel-tungol n m noble star

-enian WII; [S 400 n 2] stretch out

[Ger dehnen]

er see:g-hwæer

-indan (principal parts: pret sg:-ond pret pl:-undon pp:-unden ) 3 swell, puff up

-strian WII become dark, obscured


Aulfing (= Æelwulfing) m son of Æthelwulf

-wan 6 wash

w see:

-wæcnan [S 392 n 1] awake (intr)

-wgan WI annul

-weccan WI awake, arouse, incite

-wdan WI rage


a-weg see:weg

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-wegan 5 carry

-wendan WI turn, direct, change, translate

-weorpan (-wurpan) (principal parts: pret sg:-wearp pret pl:-wurpon pp:-worpen ) 3 cast, overthrow, reject

-wstan WI lay waste, destroy

w-fæst (-fæst) adj law-observing, pious

-wiht pron aught, anything

wisc-md adj ashamed, abashed

[Goth aiwiski]

-wc see:-wæcnan

-wreht see:-weccan

-wrtan (principal parts: pret sg:-wrt pret pl:-writon pp:-writen ) 1 write, compose

-wunian WII abide, continue

-wyrdan WI destroy

-wyrgan WI curse


xian see:scian

-dlian WII annul



bæc n back

bæc-bord n left side of a ship, larboard

[Ger Backbord, Fr babord]

bl n fire, funeral pyre

[ON bl]

bl-fr n bale-fire, funeral or sacrificial fire

bl-racu f violence of fire

bm see:bgen

bn n bone

bana m murderer

[Mod bane]

bn-fæt n (bone-vessel) body

br f bier


Bardan-g f Bardney (Lincolnshire)

bærnan WI burn (trans)

Basingas pl m Basing (Hants)

basu adj purple (crimson)

btan WI bridle

n bath, font

baian WII bathe

be (b, big) prep w dat inst; adv

  1. (nearness) by, near, along, on
    • be asten w dat east of
    • be westan w dat west of
    • be noran w dat north of
  2. (metaph. proximity) by, with, according to, concerning
    • b wrte copy
    • be m by that
    • by by that
    • be fullan fully, perfectly
    • be m concerning this
    • b s ilcan

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bacen n beacon (the sun)

bacnian WII typify, indicate, show

beadu f battle

[ON bo bovar]

beadu-cræftig adj valiant

beadu-rs m rush of battle, onslaught

beadu-weorc n work of battle

be-æftan (bæftan) prep adv (w dat) behind

bag (bah) m ring, bracelet, collar, crown


bah-gifa (bag-) m ring-giver, lord, king

bealcettan WI belch, send forth, utter

beald (bald) adj bold

bealdlce (bald-) adv boldly

bealo (bealu) n bale, evil, mischief

bealo-sorg f baleful sorrow

bam m tree

Bam-flot m Benfleet (Essex)

bearn n child, son


bearo m grove, wood

batan (principal parts: pret sg:bot pret pl:boton pp:baten ) R beat

be-baian (bi-) WII bathe

Bebban-burg f Bamborough (Northumbria)

be-bodan (principal parts: pret sg:-bad pret pl:-budon pp:-boden ) 2

  1. command, bid (w dat)
    • 1 sg -bode
  2. offer, commit, entrust
    • ptc bebodende

be-bod n command


be-byrgan WI bury

Page 253

be-capian WII sell

be-cierran (-cirran -cyrran) WI turn (trans)

be-clyppan (bi-) WI embrace, seize

[Mod clip]

be-clsan WI inclose, shut in, imprison

[clse; Lat clausus]

be-cuman 4 come, arrive

be-dlan (bi-) separate, deprive of

bedd n bed

be-dglian (-dglian -dglian) WII obscure, bedim, conceal, keep secret


be-ebbian WII leave aground by the ebb, strand

be-fæstan WI fasten, fix, put in safe keeping, entrust

be-feallan R fall

be-folan 3 apply oneself (w dat)

[Ger befehlen]

be-fn (bi-) R surround, envelop, clothe, cover

be-foran prep (w dat) before

be-foran adv before

be-frn see:be-frignan

be-frignan 3 ask

be-gn irreg

  1. practice, perform, serve, occupy oneself with
    • opt 3 sg beg (w reflex acc)
    • pret 1 sg beode
    • pl -odon, -odan
    • 3 pl biodon
  2. surround

be-gang m undertaking, business

bgen (bggen) num adj both

be-geondan (-giondan) prep (w dat) beyond

be-gietan (-gitan, -gytan) 5 get, obtain, find

be-ginnan 3 begin

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be-gyrdan WI begird, surround

be-ht n promise

be-htan R promise

be-healdan (bi-) R

  1. hold, occupy, guard, protect
    • 3 sg bi-healde
  2. behold, look, observe
    • inf bi-
    • imp 2 sg beheald
    • pret 3 sg -hold
    • 3 pl -on

be-helan (bi-) 4 conceal

[Ger hehlen]

be-heonan (-hionan) prep (w dat) on this side of

be-hindan adv behind

be-hindan prep (w dat) behind

be-hfian WII behoove, require

be-hrosan (bi-) (principal parts: pret sg:-hras pret pl:-hruron pp:-hroren ) 2 (fall upon) cover

be-hrowsian WII rue, repent of

be-hrowsung f repentance

be-hwyrfan WI change, convert

be-hdan (bi-) hide, conceal

be-limpan 3 concern, pertain, belong (intr)

be-lcan 2 lock, lock up, shut in

bn f prayer, petition

[cf Mod boon]

benc f bench

bend m f n bond, fetter

be-niman (bi-) 4 rob, deprive of (w acc of pers and gen or inst of thing)

benn f wound


bodan (principal parts: pret sg:bad pret pl:budon pp:boden ) 2 offer, announce, command

bon (bon, wesan) irreg be, exist, become

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beorg (beorh) m hill, mountain

beorgan (byrgan) WI taste, partake of

beorgan (principal parts: pret sg:bearg pret pl:burgon pp:borgen ) 3 protect, preserve (w dat)

[Ger bergen]

beorh-stede m mound

beorht (biorht) adj bright, shining, glorious

beorhte (biorhte) adv brightly

beorhtnis f brightness

Beormas m pl Permians

beorn m man, retainer, hero, chief

beornan (born barn) (principal parts: pret sg:bearn pret pl:burnon pp:bornen ) 3 burn (intr)

bot (<*b-ht) n boast

botian WII boast

be-pcan WI deceive, entice


beran (principal parts: pret sg:bær pret pl:bron pp:boren ) 4 bear

be-rafian WII bereave, rob, despoil, dispossess (w acc of pers and gen of thing)

beren adj of a bear

be-rdan 1 pursue, surround, overtake

be-rwan R row past or round (trans)

berstan (principal parts: pret sg:bærst pret pl:burston pp:borsten ) 3 burst

be-rpan WI despoil of, plunder (w acc of pers and gen of thing)

bescfan 2 shove, push

be-son (-son) 5 see, look (intr)

be-settan (bi-) WI beset, occupy, surround, adorn

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be-sittan (principal parts: pret sg:-sæt pret pl:-ston pp:-seten ) 5 besiege

be-slan 6 strike, cut off, deprive

be-smitennis f defilement

be-standan 6 stand round, surround, beset

be-swcan (bi-) (principal parts: pret sg:-swc pret pl:-swicon pp:-swicen ) 1 deceive, betray, offend, overcome

be-swcian WII evade, escape

be-tcan WI commit, commend, entrust

btan WI amend


be-teldan (bi-) (principal parts: pret sg:teald pret pl:tuldon pp:tolden ) 3 cover, hem in, surround

[cf Mod tilt; Ger Zelt]

betera see:gd

be-tweoh (-twih -twuh -tuh -tweohx -twux -tux) prep (w dat) between, among

be-twonum (-twonon -twnum -twnan) prep (w dat) between, among

be-tnan (bi-) WI close, end, enclose, imprison


be-eccan (bi-) WI cover

[Ger decken]

be-ingan (bi-) 3 beset, encircle

[Ger dringen]

be-urne see:be-yrnan

be-wwan (principal parts: pret sg:-wow pret pl:-wowon pp:-wwen ) R blow upon

[Ger wehen]

be-weaxan (bi-) R over-grow

be-wpan R weep over, bewail

be-windan (bi-) 3 encircle, surround

be-witan PP oversee, have charge of, administer

be-witigan (-witian) WII observe

be-wltan 1 look

be-yrnan (principal parts: pret sg:-arn pret pl:-urnon pp:-urnen ) 3 run

bi-, b see:be-, be

bdan (principal parts: pret sg:bd pret pl:bidon pp:biden ) 1

  1. abide, remain
    • 3 sg bde
  2. await, expect (w gen)

biddan (byddan) (principal parts: pret sg:bæd pret pl:bdon pp:beden ) 5 ask, request (acc of pers and gen of thing)

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bi-drosan (principal parts: pret sg:-dras pret pl:-druron pp:-droren ) 2 (cause to fall away) deprive (w instr)

[cf Mod dross, dreary]

bifian (beofian) WII waver, tremble

[Ger beben]

big- see:b-

bgan (began bgan) WI bend


b-genga m inhabitant

b-gong (b-gang big-geng) m worship

b-leofa (big-) m sustenance, food


bile-wit (bil-) adj innocent, pure, simple

[cf Ger billig]

bile-witnes f innocence, purity

bill n sword

[Ger bille]

bill-gesliht n clashing of swords

bindan (principal parts: pret sg:bond pret pl:bundon pp:bunden ) 3 bind

binnan (binnon) prep adv (w dat) within (time and place)

bisceop (biscop biscep) m bishop

[Lat episcopus]

bisceop-sel (-setl) n episcopal residence

bisceop-stl m episcopal seat, bishopric

bismer (bismor bysmer) n m mockery, derision, insult

bismerian WII mock, deride

bi-sorgian WII care for, fear

b-spell (big-) n parable, example, proverb

[Ger Beispiel]

biter (bitter) adj bitter, severe, disastrous, fierce

biternes f bitterness, grief

b-wist (big-) f sustenance


bi-wron (principal parts: pret sg:-wrh,-wrah pret pl:-wrigon,-wrugon pp:wrigen,wrogen ) 1 cover, enwrap

Page 258

blc adj shining, bright


blcung f turning pale, pallor

blde (bld) f blossom, fruit


bld m blast, breath, inspiration, prosperity, riches, glory, honor


bld-dæg m prosperous day

blanden-feax adj grizzly-haired


blæst m blaze, flame

blstan WI blow (?)

Blcinga-g f Blekingen

bld see:bld

blo-brygd n (?) combination of colors

[bregdan; Mod blee]

bltsian WII bless


bltsung f blessing

blcan (principal parts: pret sg:blc pret pl:blicon pp:blicen ) 1 glitter, shine

[Mod blink; Ger bleichen]

blind adj blind

bliss f bliss, joy


blissian (blissigan) WII rejoice

ble adj blithe, glad, friendly

ble-md adj blithe of mood, friendly

bld n blood

bldig adj bloody

blondan R blend, mix, mingle

blstma (blstm) m blossom, bloom, fruit

bltan (principal parts: pret sg:blot pret pl:bloton pp:blten ) R sacrifice

blwan (principal parts: pret sg:blow pret pl:blowon pp:blwen ) R bloom, flourish

bc f book

bcere m learned man, scholar, scribe

bclc adj relating to books

boda m messenger

[Ger Bote]

bodian WII proclaim, announce, preach

Page 259

bodung f preaching

bg (bh) m (arm, shoulder) bough, branch

boga m bow

bolster m n bolster, pillow

bord n (board) shield

bord-weall m wall of shields, testudo, phalanx

bsm m bosom

bt f boot, advantage, reparation, remedy

brd adj broad

brd f (?) young bird (?)


brdan WI extend, spread


brastlian WII crackle

[Ger prasseln]

breahtm m noise, revelry, music

[Ger Pracht]

brecan (principal parts: pret sg:bræc pret pl:brcon pp:brocen ) 4 break, destroy, break forth

bregd n (?) trick, fraud, deceit


bregdan (principal parts: pret sg:brægd,brd pret pl:brugdon,brdon pp:brogden,bregden ) 3

  1. brandish, draw
    • opt 2 pl bregde g
    • pret 3 sg brd
  2. braid, weave
    • pp bregden, brogden

brego (breogo) m chief, leader, lord, king

brember m bramble

brengan [(cf bringan)] WI bring

brost n breast

brost-cofa m breast-chamber, heart, mind

brost-sefa m mind, heart

Bret-wlas m pl the Britons of Wales

brice (bryce) m fragment


bricg-weard (brycg) m bridge-guard

bridd m young bird

brim n ocean

brim-cald (-ceald) adj ocean-cold

brim-fugol m sea-bird

brim-lend m sea-farer, pirate

brim-monn m sea-man, pirate

bringan [(cf brengan)] WI bring

Page 260

broc n injury, affliction, disease


brocian WII oppress, injure, afflict

brhte see:bringan

brond m brand, burning, fire

brosnian WII crumble, waste away, wither, decay

[cf Ger Brosam]

brosnung f decay

bror (brur) m brother

brcan (principal parts: pret sg:brac pret pl:brucon pp:brocen ) 2 brook, use, enjoy, possess (w gen)

brn adj brown

Brunan-burh f Brunanburh (Durham ?)

brn-ecg adj brown edged (of a sword)

bryeg (brieg) f bridge

brd f bride

bryhtm m glance, twinkling

[cf breahtm]

bryne m burning, fire, flame

bryne-gield n burnt offering, sacrifice

Bryten f Britain

brytta m distributor, dispenser


Bryttas (Brittas) pl m Britons

bryttigan (bryttian) WII divide, share

Bryttisc (Brittisc) adj British

b see:bgen

ban (bgan) irreg

  1. dwell (intr)
    • 3 pl bgea
    • pret 3 sg bd
    • ptc dp bgigendum inhabitants
  2. occupy, cultivate (trans)
    • 3 pl bga
    • pp sg bne, bnum, gebn, gebd

bufon (bufan; < be-ufan) prep

  1. (w dat) above
  2. (w acc) on, upon

bgan (principal parts: pret sg:bag pret pl:bugon pp:bogen ) 2 bow, bend, turn

bune f cup

Bunne f Bononia, now Boulogne (France)

br m bower, chamber


burg (burh) f fort, borough, city

Burgenda gp m Burgundians, Burgenda land, Bornholm

Page 261

burg-lode (burh-) pl m burghers, citizens

burg-ware (burh-) pl m inhabitants of a 'burg', burghers, citizens

burna (burne, f) m bourn, stream, fountain

br-n (-egn) m chamberlain

bte conj but

bton (btan) prep (w dat)

  1. except
  2. without
  3. outside

bton (btan) conj

  1. (w opt) unless
  2. (w indic) except, except that, but only

bton adv outside

Butting-tn m Buttington

bt se bgen

bycgan (bicgan) WI buy

bydel m beadle, proclaimer, herald, minister


byden f measure, bushel

[L L *butna < Gr ]

byldan WI encourage


bme f trumpet

bne see:ban

byrde adj of high birth, rank

byre m favorable opportunity

byre m child, son, descendant


byrgan WI taste, eat

byrgan WI bury

byrgen f grave, tomb

byrne f byrnie, corslet, coat of mail

[Ger Brünne]

byrn-sweord n flaming sword

byrn-wiga m mailed warrior

byren f burden

bsen (bsen) f example

[Goth -bsns]

bysgian WII busy, occupy, disturb, oppress

bysig adj busy

bysigo f business, concern, occupation

bsnian (bsnian) WII set an example for, instruct by example

Page 262


cf adj bold, brave

[ON -kafr]

cflce adv boldly

camp m fight, battle

[Ger Kampf]

camp-stede m battle-field

candel (condel) f candle

candel-stæf m (candle-staff) candlestick

canon m sacred canon

[Lat canon, Gr ]

Cantwara-burg f Canterbury

carc-ern (cearc-ern, cf cweart-ern) n prison

[Lat carcer + ærn]

car-full (cear-) adj careful

carian (cearian) WII care, be concerned for

carte f chart, card (for writing upon)

[Lat charta]

csere m emperor

[Lat Caesar]

ceald (cald) adj cold

ceallian WII call

cap m cattle

[cf Mod cheap]

cap-stw f market-place

cearu (cearo, caru) f care

ceaster f fort, town, city

[Lat castrum]

ceaster-ge-ware m (pl tant) citizen

cellod adj curved, hollow, embossed

[Lat celatus]

cempa m warrior


cne adj keen, bold

cnlce adv boldly

cennan WI beget, bring forth

Cent f Kent

ceorl m (churl) freeman (of the common class), man

ccsan (principal parts: pret sg:cas pret pl:curon pp:coren ) 2 choose

cpan WI avail oneself of, take to (w gen)

cdan WI chide, reproach (w dat)

cgan (cegan, cgan) WI cry out, call

cild n child

cild-hd m childhood

cirice (cyrice, cyrce) f church

cirlisc adj 'churlish', rustic


Page 263

cirm see:cyrm

cirr (cierr, cyrr) m turn, time, occasion

[Mod char]

Cisse-ceaster f 'Cissa's fort', Chichester

clm see:cla

clne adj clean, pure

clne adv entirely

clnnes f cleanness, purity, chastity

clnsung f cleansing, chastening

cl n cloth

cla (cleo) f claw

clofan (principal parts: pret sg:claf pret pl:clufon pp:clofen ) 2 cleave, split (trans)

cleopian see:clipian

clowen n (clew), ball, globular mass

[Ger Knäuel]

clipian (clypian, cleopian) WII

  1. cry out, exclaim
    • 3 sg clypa
    • pret 3 sg clypode, cleopode
  2. cry unto, implore (w dat)
    • ptc dp clypigendum
    • pl cleopia
    • imp 2 sg clypa
    • 2 pl clypia
    • pret 3 sg clipode
[Mod obs clepe, yclept]

cldig adj rocky

[cf Mod cloud]

clypian see:clipian

clyppan WI embrace, accept

[Mod clip]

cnapa m boy, youth

[Ger Knabe]

cnearr m ship, galley

[ON knorr]

cno (cnow) n knee

cno-mg m kinsman

cnoriss f generation, family, tribe, people

cniht m boy, youth, young warrior, knight, attendant, disciple

cnyssan WI beat (trans)

[cf Ger Knorre]

clian WII cool

collen-fer (-ferh) adj proud-minded, fierce


Coln f the river Colne (Essex)

corn n corn, grain

coror n troop, flock, company

costian (costigan, costnian) WII tempt try, prove

[Ger kosten]

costnian see:costian

costnung f temptation

cou f disease

cræft m strength, might, virtue, craft, skill, art, pursuit, knowledge

Page 264

cræftiga (cræftega) m craftsman, workman, artificer

cræt n cart, chariot

Crcas (Cracas) m pl the Greeks

crodon (crdan) (principal parts: pret sg:crad pret pl:crudon pp:croden ) 2 crowd, press, hasten

cringan (principal parts: pret sg:-crong,-cronc pret pl:-crungon,-cruncon pp:-crungen ) 3 cringe, yield, fall, die

Crst m Christ

crsten adj Christian

crsten-dm m christianity

cucu see:cwic

cumbol-gehnst (gehnd) n conflict of banners

cum-pæder m godfather in his relation to the father

[Lat compater]

cuman (principal parts: pret sg:c(w)m pret pl:c(w)mon pp:cumen ) 4 come

cunnen PP can, be able, know, understand (trans and intr)

cunnian WII prove try, examine, experience (w acc or gen)


c adj known, familiar, manifest

[pp < cunnan; Ger kund]

clic adj known, certain

clice adv openly, clearly, certainly

cwacian WII quake

cwalu f killing, murder, death


Cwt-bryeg f Bridgenorth (Salop)

cwealm m n death, destruction, pestilence

[Mod qualm]

Page 265

cwealm-bre adj deadly

cweart-ern [(cf carc-ern)] n prison

cwelan (principal parts: pret sg:cwæl pret pl:cwlon pp:cwolen ) 4 die

cwellan WI kill

[cwelan; Mod quell]

cwellere m executioner

cwman WI please (w dat)


cwn f queen

Cwnas m pl a tribe of the Fins

cweorn f quern, mill

[Goth qairnus]

cwean (principal parts: pret sg:cwæ pret pl:cwdon pp:cweden ) 5 say, speak

[Mod quoth]

cwic (cwicu, cucu) adj 'quick', alive

cwic-ssl (cwyc-) n hell-torment

cwide (cwyde) m saying, utterance


cwide-giedd n word, utterance

cwild (cwyld) m f n destruction, pestilence, murrain


cwan WI bewail (trans)

cwyc-ssl see:cwic-ssl

cf f vessel

[Ger Kübel]

cyle (ciele) m chill, cold

cyle-gicel m icicle

cyme m coming


cyne-dm m government, kingdom

cyne-gold n regal gold, diadem, crown

cyne-hlford m royal lord

cynelc adj royal

cyne-rce n kingdom

cyne-rymm m kingly majesty

cyng (cing) m king

cyning m king

Page 266

cynn n kin, race, family, kind

cpe-cniht m boy for sale as a slave

cp(e)-monn m chapman, merchant

cyrice, cyrce see:cirice

cyrm (cierm, cirm) m cry, alarm

cyrran (cierran, cirran) WI turn, go, return

[Ger kehren]

cyrtel m kirtle, coat, tunic

cyssan WI kiss

cystig adj virtuous, charitable

can WI make known


cu (c) f kith, kinship, home, country


dd f deed, action

dd-btan WI make amends, repent

dd-bt f repentance

dæg m day

dæg-hwmlc (-hwmlic) adj daily

dæg-hwmlce (-hwmlce) adv daily

dæg-rd n dawn

dægerlc adj daily, present

dæg-weorc n work of the day

dæl n dale

[Ger Thal]

dl m division, portion, part

dlan WI deal out, divide, separate, distribute

dl-neomende (dial) (ptc) m partaker

daro (dara) m dart, spear

Page 267

dad adj dead

dad-bre adj deadly

deall adj proud

dearr see:durran

da m death

da-denu f mortal vale

da-ræced (-reced) n house of death, grave

Defenas (Defnas) m pl the people of Devonshire, Devonshire

Defena-scr (Defna-) f Devonshire

delfan (principal parts: pret sg:dealf pret pl:dulfon pp:dolfen ) 3 delve, dig

dma m judge

dman WI deem, judge, determine

demm m judgment

Dene m pl Danes

Dene-mearc (Dena-; -mearce) f Denmark

Denisc adj Danish

dennian WII become slippery (?)

denu (dene) f valley

doflc adj devilish

dofol m n devil

dofol-gyld n idol

dofol-gylda m idolater

dofol-soc adj possessed of a devil

dofol-socnis f possession by a devil

dop n the deep, the sea

dop adj deep

dope adv deeply, profoundly

doplce adv deeply, profoundly

dopnis f depth, abyss

dor (dor) n wild beast or animal (of any sort)

deorc adj dark, gloomy, sad

dorling see:drling

dor-md adj bold of mind, brave

Deorwente f the Derwent

dor-wur (-wir, -weor) adj worthy of estimation, precious, honored

Page 268

Dre m pl the Deirians, inhabitants of Deira

derian WI injure (w dat)


dacon-hd (dacon-) m office of a deacon, deaconship

degol (dgol) adj secret

dimm (dymm) adj dim, dark, gloomy

dimnis (dymnis) f dimness, gloom

Dinges (mere) proper name a proper name, or the sea of dashing and noise

dor see:dor

disc m dish

discipul m disciple

dgor n day

dgor-rm n numbering of the days, time

dohtor f daughter

dm m

  1. doom, judgment, decree, decision, choice
    • gs dmes
    • ds dme
    • as dm (stipulation)
    • is dme
  2. renown, glory

dm-ern n judgment-hall

dm-georn adj eager for renown

dmlc adj famous, glorious

dn irreg do, act, cause, put, place

Dorce-ceaster (Dorcan-) f Dorchester

draca m dragon

dram m joy, mirth

[Mod dream]

dreccan WI vex, trouble, afflict

drenc m drink

dreng m warrior

[ON drengr]

drogan (principal parts: pret sg:drag pret pl:drugon pp:drogen ) 2 endure, perform, fulfil

dror m blood


drorig adj dreary, sad


Page 269

drorig-hlor adj with sad face

drorignis f sadness

drosan (principal parts: pret sg:dras pret pl:druron pp:droren ) 2 fall, perish

[cf Mod dross]

drihten see:dryhten

drinca m drink

drincan (principal parts: pret sg:dronc pret pl:druncon pp:druncen ) 3 drink

drohta m sojourn, life

drohtian see:drohtnian

drohtnian (drohtian) WII lead one's life, live


drohtnung (drohtung) f conduct, condition, life

drohtung see:drohtnung

drsan (drsian W II) WI droop, drowse, become feeble


dr m wizard, sorcerer

[Celt dri]

drge (drge) adj dry

dryht f body of retainers, host, people


dryhten (drihten) m lord, prince, ruler, king

drman WI rejoice


dryre m fall, deposit


dugan PP avail

[Ger taugen]

dugu (dugo) f

  1. body of retainers, host
    • ds dugue
    • gp dugua
    • dugua wyn the flower, the chief of retainers
  2. benefit, honor, riches
    • ds dugue
    • gp dugea
[dugan; Ger Tugend]

dn f down, hill, mountain

[Celt dnum]

dn-scræf n hill-cave

durran PP dare

duru f door

dst n dust

dst-scawung f contemplation of the dust

Page 270

dwscan WI extinguish, blot out

[dws: dysig]

dwelian (dwellan) WI lead into folly, deceive; be led astray, err

[cf Mod dull]

Dyflin (Dyflen, Difelin) Dublin

dym-hof n place of concealment

dre (dere, dore) adj dear, costly

drling (dorling) m darling, favorite

dyrstignes f boldness, audacity, arrogance

dysig adj foolish

[Mod dizzy]

dysig n folly

dysignes f folly

dyslc (dysiglc) adj foolish



a f river

[Ger Au]

ac (c) conj adv also, moreover, likewise, even

[Ger auch]

ac prep in addition to, together with, besides (w dat)

aca m addition, increase

ad n possession, riches, happiness, bliss

[cf Mod allodium]

adig adj rich, blessed, happy

[Goth audags]

adignes f happiness, bliss

ad-md see:a-md

ad-wela m generous supply, riches

eafora (eafera) m son, heir

[cf Goth afar, prep 'after']

age n eye

ag-gebyrd f eyeball (?), pupil of the eye (?)

eahta num eight

a-l interj oh! alas!

eald (ald) adj old

Page 271

Ealdan-mynster n Old-Minster

eald-cu (-c) f old, former home

eald-fæder m forefather

eald-fond m old foe, arch fiend, devil

ealdian WII become old

ealdor (aldor) m prince, chief, lord

ealdor-bisceop m chief bishop

ealdor-dm m lordship, sovereignty

ealdor-lang adj life-long, lasting

ealdor-monn m alderman, chief, ruler, magistrate, chief officer of the shire

ealgian WII defend

eall (all) adj all

eallinga see:eallunga

eallunga (eallinga) adv altogether, entirely

Eall wealdend m Ruler of all

ealu (ealu) n ale

a-lond n island

am m uncle

[Ger Oheim]

ar n ear (of corn)

earc f ark

eard m dwelling, home, country


eard-geard m dwelling-place, earth

eardian WII dwell

earding (eardung) f habitation

Page 272

eard-stapa m land-stepper, wanderer

eard-stede m dwelling-place

eard-wc n dwelling

earfo (earfe) n difficulty, toil, hardship, torture, torment

[Ger Arbeit]

earfoe adj difficult

earfolc adj difficult, full of hardship

earfones f hardship, torture

ar-gebland n wave-mingling, ocean

earh (earg) adj cowardly

[Ger arg]

earm m arm

earm adj poor, pitiable, wretched, despicable

[Ger arm]

earm-cearig adj wretched, full of care

earming m poor wretch

earmlc adj miserable, wretched

earn m eagle

[Ger Aar]

earnian WII earn (w gen)

eart see:bon

ast adv east, in an easterly direction

astan (stan) adv from the east

a-stæ n river-bank

ast-dl m eastern quarter, the east

ast-ende m east-end

ast-engle m pl East-Angles, East-Anglia

aster-dæg (astor-) m Easter Day

ast-healf f east side

ast-lang adj extending east

ast-rce n eastern kingdom

astro (astru, astre, astron) pl tant f n Easter

ast-ryhte adv eastward

ast-seaxe (-seaxan) m pl East-Saxons

ast(e)-weard (-werd) adj eastward, easterly

ast-weg m east-way, path in the east

ae adv easily

Page 273

a-md (ad-) adj humble-minded, humble

a-mdlce (ad-) adv humbly

a-mdnes (ad-) f humility, meekness, condescension

aw-fæst (w-, -) religious, pious

eax f axis, axle tree

ebba m ebb

Ebras m pl Hebrews

Ebrisc adj Hebrew

ce (ca, cea) adj eternal, everlasting

eced m n vinegar

[Lat actum; Ger Essig]

celce adv eternally

ecg f edge, sword

cnes f eternity

ed-geong (-giong) adj becoming (or being) young again

ed-lan n reward

ed-nwe (-nowe) adj renewed, restored

ed-nwinga adv anew

edor (eodor) m enclosure, dwelling

ed-wenden f overturning, change

efen-h (-nh) f neighboring plain


efen-hloor n equal, united harmony

efes f eaves, border, side (of a forest)

efne [(cf emne)] adv even, only, just

efn-ce adv co-eternally

efstan WI hasten (intr)


eft adv again, back, afterwards

ege m fear, terror

[Goth agis]

egesa m terror, fear

egeslc adj terrible, horrible

egeslce adv horribly

htan WI pursue, persecute (w gen)


htere m persecutor

htnis f persecution

Page 274

elcor (ælcor) adv otherwise

eldan (ieldan, yldan) delay, hesitate


ele m oil

[Lat oleum]

el-fremed (æl-) (pp) adj separated, released, extraneous

ellen n strength, courage, fortitude, zeal

[Goth aljan]

ellen-wdnis f zeal, fervor

elles adv else

eln f ell (measure)

el-odig (æl-) adj of another nation, foreign, strange

el-odisc (æl-) adj foreign, strange

embe see:ymbe

emb-gangan R compass (trans)

emne (emn, cf efne) adv equally

emn-lang (efn-lang) adj equally long

ende m end

ende-byrdlce adv in an orderly manner

ende-byrdnes f order

endemes (endemest) adv equally, in like manner

endian WII end, bring to an end

endlyfta num eleventh

enge adj narrow, oppressive, cruel

engel m angel

[Lat angelus]

Engla-feld m Englefield (Berkshire)

Engla-land n country of the Angles, England

Englisc adj English

Englisc-ge-reord n English language

eno see:ono

ent m giant

ode, odon see:gn

eodorcan [(cf ed-rocian, ed-recan, roccettan)] ruminate

[Ger räuspern]

Eofer-wc (Efer-) n York

[cf Ger Eber]

Eofer-wc-ceaster f York

eoh m n horse

[Goth aihwa]

eom see:bon

eorcnan-stn (eorclan-) m precious stone

[Goth -airkns]

ored (orod) n company, troop, host


Page 275

ored-ciest (-cyst) f company, troop, host

eorl m

  1. earl (a Danish title corresponding to the native ealdorman)
    • np eorlas
    • gp eorla
  2. Applied to an ealdorman
    • ds eorle
  3. warrior

eornoste adv earnestly, fiercely

eornostlce adv earnestly, indeed

eor-bend m earth-dweller

eore f earth

eorlc adj earthly, worldly

eor-scræf n earth-cave, grave

eor-weg m earth-way

ow (ower, owic) see:

ower (ower) poss pron your

ow-land n Öland (island in the Baltic Sea)

erce-bisceop m archbishop

erce-hd m archiepiscopal dignitary

erian WI ear, plough

erm see:yrm

esne m servant, man

[Goth asneis]

esal (eosol) m ass

[Goth asilus]

st f favor, grace

[Ger Gunst]

st-full adj devout

Est-land n country of the Estas (on the eastern coast of the Baltic sea)

Est-mere m Frische Haff

Estum dp m the people of Est-land

esul-cweorn f millstone

etan (principal parts: pret sg:t pret pl:ton pp:eten ) 5 eat

ettan WI graze

el m landed property, home, native country, territory

[cf Mod allodial]

el-lond n native land

el-turf f native turf, country

Exan-ceaster (-cester) f Exeter

exl (eaxl) f shoulder

[cf Mod axle]

Page 276


fæc n division, space, interval, portion of time

[Ger Fach]

fcen (fcn) n deceit, treachery, wickedness

fcne adj guileful

fæder m father

fæderlc adj fatherly, paternal

fg (fh) adj colored, variegated

[Goth -faihs]

fge adj fated, doomed to death

[Ger feige]

fægen adj fain, glad, rejoicing (w gen)

fæger adj fair, beautiful, pleasant

fægere (fægre) adv beautifully, well

fægernes f fairness, beauty

fægnian WII rejoice (w gen)

fh (fg) adj hostile

[gef 'foe']

fh f feud

[Ger Fehde]

Falster prop noun Falster (island in the Baltic Sea)

fandian WII try, tempt, test, examine, seek to know


fandung f temptation, test, usage

fær n journey, expedition

faran (principal parts: pret sg:fr pret pl:fron pp:faren ) 6 go, proceed, travel, march

færelt (færeld) m n going, motion, journey

fringa adv suddenly

[fr 'fear']

frlc adj sudden

frlce adv suddenly

fær-sceat m passage-money, fare

[cf Mod scot-free]

fr-sceaa m sudden or dangerous enemy

faru f journey

fæst adj fast, firm, secure

Page 277

fæste adv fast, firmly, securely

fæsten n

  1. fort, fortress, fastness
    • ds fæstenne
    • as fæsten
  2. fast (abstinence from food)
    • ds fæstene

fæst-hafol adj retentive

fæstlce adv firmly, securely, resolutely, bravely

fæstnian WII fasten, confirm

fæstnung f security, safety

fæt n vessel

[Mod vat]

ftels m n vessel

m m f embrace, grasp

m-rm n (fathom-number) fathom measure

feallan (principal parts: pret sg:foll pret pl:follon pp:feallen ) R fall

feallenlc (feallendlc) adj unstable

fealo-hilte adj fallow-hilted

fealu (fealo) adj fallow, pale, yellow, dusky, dark

Fearn-hamm m Farnham (Surrey)

fawe (fa; fawa, due to assoc w fela) adj pl tant few

feccan (fecgan fetian) WIII fetch

fela (feola feala fæla) n [(sometimes as adj; rarely inflected)] much, many (w gen)

[Ger viel]

feld m field, battle-field

felg (felge) f felly


fell n fell, skin, hide

feng m grasp


feoh (fioh, fo) n

  1. cattle
  2. goods, property, money, riches
    • gs fos
    • ds fo
    • as feoh, fioh
[Mod fee]

Page 278

feoh-gfre adj greedy of possessions, avaricious

feoh-las adj without money

feohtan (principal parts: pret sg:feaht pret pl:fuhton pp:fohten ) 3 fight

feohte f fight, battle

folan (principal parts: pret sg:fealh pret pl:fulgon,flon pp:folen ) 3 reach, penetrate

[Goth filhan]

fol-heard adj hard as a file

fond m fiend, enemy

feorh (fiorh) m n life

feorh-geong adj young in life, youthful

feorh-hord n life-hoard, spirit

feorh-hs n life-house, body

feorm (fiorm) f

  1. food, provision, goods
  2. use, benefit
    • as fiorme
[Mod farm]

feormian WII consume

feorr (far, feor) adv supl firrest fyrrest

feorr adj far, far from (w dat)

feorran (fiorran) adv from afar

fora num adj fourth

fower num four

fower-tig num forty

fower-tne (-tene) num fourteen

fran WI go, travel

ferh (fer) m n mind, spirit, heart

ferian WI; W II carry, transport

fers n m verse

[Lat versus]

fersc adj fresh

fer-loca (ferh-) m (inclosure of the spirit), spirit, heart, mind

fetor (feotor) f fetter

fa m band of foot-soldiers, troop


feer f feather

Page 279

feer-homa m feather-garb, plumage

fc-trow n fig-tree

[Lat fcus]

fierd (fird, fyrd) f

  1. (military) expedition
    • ds fyrde
  2. (the national) army
    • ds fierde
    • as fierd

fierdian (fyrdian) WII be on a military expedition

fierd-las adj unprotected by the army

ff num five

ffta num adj fifth

fftig num fifty

ff-tne (-tne) num fifteen

findan (principal parts: pret sg:fond pret pl:fundon pp:funden ) 3 find, come upon, supply

Finnas pl m the Finns

finta m tail

fras pl m men

firgen-stram m mountain-stream, woodland-stream

[Goth fairguni]

fisca see:fiscna

fiscere m fisher

fiscna (fiscno fisca) m fishing

fieru pl n wings

fl (fln) f m arrow

flsc n flesh

flsc-homa m (covering of flesh) body

flsclc adj fleshly, corporeal, carnal

flam m flight

flogan (principal parts: pret sg:flag pret pl:flugon pp:flogen ) 2 fly (intr)

[cf flon]

flon (flon, flogan) (principal parts: pret sg:flah pret pl:flugon pp:flogen ) 2 flee, escape (trans and intr)

flotan (principal parts: pret sg:flat pret pl:fluton pp:floten ) 2 float

flett n floor of the hall

flocc m flock, company, troop

floc-rd f a riding company, troop

Page 280

fld m f n flood, wave, tide, stream

fldan see:Pryfet

fld-wylm (wielm) m f welling flood


flot n deep water, sea

[Mod afloat]

flota m sailor, seaman, pirate

flwan (principal parts: pret sg:flow pret pl:flowon pp:flwen ) R flow

flyht m flight, escape

flyht-hwæt adj bold or swift of flight

flma m fugitive


fnst m blowing, breath

fddor (fdor) n food

fdor-egu f partaking of food, repast


folc n folk, people, nation, army

folc-ge-feoht n general engagement, pitched battle

folcisc adj vulgar, popular

folc-stede m place of assembly, battle-field

fold-gend m (earth possessor) earth-dweller

folde f earth, land, country


fold-wæstm m fruit of the earth

fold-weg m way, path (on the earth)

folgian (fylgean) WII; W III follow, serve, observe, obey (w dat)

folgo m service, official dignity, office


folme (folm) f hand

[flan 'feel']

fn (principal parts: pret sg:fng pret pl:fngon pp:fongon ) R seize, grasp, capture, take, receive

for prep w dat instr and acc

  1. (w dat, instr) before (place)
  2. (w dat, instr) for, on account of, because of, owing to (cause, condition, remedy)
    • for m (m) conj; for, because, since
    • for on
    • for an
    • for m (m) e
    • for e
    • for on e
    • for an e
    • for for this, therefore
    • for
    • for ig
    • for on
    • for hwm wherefore
    • for hwig
    • for hwon
  3. (w acc) for, instead of

Page 281

for adv (intensive) very

for f journey


foran adv before, in front

for-bærnan WI cause to burn, to burn (trans)

for-bodan 2 forbid

for-beornan 3 burn (intr)

for-beran 4 suffer, permit

for-berstan 3 burst asunder, vanish, fail

for-bgan 2 avoid, escape

ford m ford

for-dn irreg destroy

fore prep (w acc) before (place)

for-ealdian WII become old

fore-bacen (-bacn) n fore-token

fore-genga m predecessor, ancestor

fore-gsel m preliminary hostage

[Ger Geisel]

fore-mihtig adj prepotent

fore-scawung f fore-sight, providence

fore-secgan WIII

  1. say beforehand
    • pret 1 pl -sdon
    • pl -sdan
    • pp sg -sde aforesaid
  2. foretell, predict
    • pret 1 sg -sde

fore-sprc f defence

fore-sprecan 5 speak or mention beforehand

fore-stæppan (-steppan) (principal parts: pret sg:-stp pret pl:-stpon pp:-stapen ) 6 precede (w dat)

fore-tiohhung f predestination

fore-ingian WII plead for one, defend

Page 282

fore-onc m forethought, foreknowledge

fore-witan pp foreknow

fore-wtegian WII prophesy

for-faran 6 get in front of, obstruct

for-giefan (-gifan, -gyfan) 5 give, grant; forgive

for-gifennis (-gyfennis) f forgiveness

fore-gongan R go before, precede

for-grindan (principal parts: pret sg:-grond pret pl:-grundon pp:-grunden ) 3 grind to pieces, destroy, consume

for-grpan 1 seize, snatch away

for-gyldan (-gieldan) 3 repay, requite, buy off

for-gytan (-gietan, -gitan) 5 forget

for-gytol adj forgetful

for-hæfednis f restraint, abstinence

for-heard adj very hard

for-hawan R hew, cut down

for-helan 4 conceal

for-hergian WII harry, devestate, lay waste

for-hogdnis f contempt

for-hogian WII despise

[cf. for-hycgan]

for-hradian WII hasten before, anticipate, prevent

forht adj afraid

forhtian WII fear, be afraid (intr)

forhtung f fear

for-hwæga (-hwega) adv at least, about

for-hycgan WIII despise

[cf. forhogian]

for-læ_tan (principal parts: pret sg:-lt pret pl:-lton pp:-læ_ten ) R leave, leave off, omit, abandon, neglect, lose

for-læ_tnes f remission

Page 283

for-losan (principal parts: pret sg:-las pret pl:-luron pp:-loren ) 2 lose, abandon, destroy

forma (fyrmest, firmest) supl adj first

for-niman 4 take off, destroy

for-rdan 1 intercept by riding before

for-rotian WII rot away, decay

for-sacan 6 oppose, refuse

[Mod forsake]

for-scrincan (principal parts: pret sg:-scronc pret pl:-scruncon pp:-scruncen ) 3 shrink, wither

for-scyldigan WII condemn

for-sarian WII sear, dry up, wither

for-son 5 overlook, despise, reject

for-sewennis f contempt

for-sittan 5 delay

for-spendan WI spend utterly, squander

for-spyllan (-spillan) WI spill, waste, lose, destroy

for-spyllednis f spilling, waste, destruction, perdition

forst frost

for-standan 6 understand

for-stelan 4 steal away (trans)

for-suwian (-sugian -swugian -swgian) WIII keep silent (trans)

for-swæ_lan (-swelan) WI burn, scorch (trans and intrans)

[swol; Ger schwül]

for-swelgan 3 swallow up

for-togean WII ordain

for-tredan (principal parts: pret sg:-træd pret pl:-træ_don pp:-treden ) 5 tread down

for adv forth, forwards, onwards, away; henceforth

for-fran WI depart, die

for-fr f departure, death

for-georn adj eager to advance

for-genge adj progressive, successful

for-olian WII go without, miss, lack (w dat)

Page 284

for-rysmian WII choke, suffocate

[rosm, 'smoke, vapor']

for-s m departure, death

for-weard adj enduring

for-weg m way leading forth

for-ylman WI envelop, suffocate; consume

for-weard adj forward, fore

for-wegan 5 overcome, kill

for-weornian WII wither (intr)

for-weoran (-wuran) 3 come to grief, perish

for-wiernan (-wirnan, -wyrnan) WI prohibit, prevent, refuse (w gen)

for-wordenlc adj perishable


for-wundian WII wound seriously

for-wuran see:for-weoran

for-wyrcan WI barricade, obstruct

for-wyrd f n fate, destruction

for-wyrdan WI perish

ft m foot

ft-ml n foot-print, space of a foot

ft-swæ n foot-print

fracod (fraco, fracu) adj of bad repute, detestable, vile, wicked


fram see:from

franca m spear

Francan pl m the Franks

Franc-land n the country of the Franks

frætwe pl f ornaments, decorations, equipments


frætwian WII adorn

fra m lord

frcednis f danger, harm

frcennes f danger, harm

frcne adj dangerous, perilous

[cf Mod freak]

frcnes (frcnes) f danger, harm

frfran WI comfort, console, cheer

frfrend (ptc) m comforter

Page 285

fremde (freme) adj strange, foreign, alien

[from; Ger fremd]

fremian WII benefit, profit (w dat)

[from 'valiant'; Ger fromm]

frem-sumlce adv kindly

frem-sumnes f kindness, benefit

fro see:fro

frod f good-will, peace

frolce adv freely

fro-mg m free kinsman

frond m friend

frond-las adj friendless

frondlce adv in friendly manner

frorig adj cold, chill


freou see:fri

Frsisc adj Frisian

fretan (principal parts: pret sg:frt pret pl:frton pp:freten ) 5 devour, eat


frettan WI graze

fricgean 5 ask, inquire

[Ger fragen]

Fresa (Frsa, Frsa) (adj) m a Frisian

frignan (frnan) (principal parts: pret sg:fræn pret pl:frugnon pp:frugnen ) 3 ask, inquire

[Ger fragen]

frimdi (frindig) adj desirous, petitioning


fro (fro froh froh) free

fri m n [(freou f)] peace, security, protection

[Ger Friede]

frd adj wise, prudent, skilful, experienced, old

frfor (frfer) f comfort, consolation

from (fram) prep (w dat instr); adv

  1. from (origin, departure, separation, release, distance)
  2. by, on the part of (agency)
  3. adv from, away

fromlce adv strenuously, promptly

fruma m beginning, creation; author, creator, chief


frum-sceaft f creation

frym f m beginning, origin, creation


Page 286

fugelere m fowler

fugel-timber n (bird-structure), young-bird

fugol (fugel) m bird

[Mod fowl]

fl adj foul

ful-gn irreg perform, carry out, fulfil (w dat)

flian WII decompose


full (ful) adj full (w gen)

full (ful) adv fully, perfectly, very (intensive)

full-cræftig adj very efficient, virtuous (w gen)

full-fremedlce (ful-) adv perfectly

full-fremman WI do fully, fulfil, perfect

full-hlig adj very holy

fullian (fulwigan) WII baptize

fullce adv fully

fulluht (fulwiht) m f n baptism

[full; wh, 'sacred']

fultum m help


fultumian WII help (w dat)

fulwiht-hd m baptismal rank, or vow

ful-wyrcan WI complete

fundian WII strive after, intend, go


fur-lang n furlong

[furh, 'furrow']

furor (furur) adv further

furum (furon) adv even, just, quite

fs adj ready, eager

[Mod fuss]

fyll (fiell) m fall, destruction, death


fylstan WI assist, help (w dat)

[*full-lst, lstan]

fr n fire

fr-bæ n fire-bath

fyrd-rinc m warrior

fren adj of fire, fiery

Page 287

fyren-lust (firen-) m sinful lust

fyrhto f fright, terror

fyrlen (fierlen) adj distant


fyrmest see:forma

fyrn-dagas pl m days of long ago, ancient days

[Ger firn]

fyrn-gar pl n years of long ago, ancient years

fyrn-ge-sceap n ancient decree

fyrn-ge-set n former seat or habitation

fyrn-ge-weorc n ancient work

fyrst supl adj first, chief

fyrst (first, fierst) m division of time, time, period, respite

[Ger Frist]

fyrst-mearc f marked period of time, interval

fsan WI

  1. hasten (intr)
  2. send forth, impel (trans)
    • pret 3 sg fsde


gædrian (ge-gædrian, cf ge-gaderian) WII gather

gafol n tax, tribute, profit, interest

[cf Goth ga-baur]

glan WI delay, hinder

gamenian WII play, pun

[gamen 'game']

gamol-ferh adj aged


gn (principal parts: pret sg:ode pret pl:odon pp:gegn ) go, come, walk, advance

gr m spear

[Mod gore, gar-fish, etc.]

gr-berend m spear-bearer, warrior

gr-mitting f meeting of spears or javelins, contest

gr-rs m spear-encounter, battle

gærs n grass, blade

grsecg m sea, ocean

gst (gst) m spirit

gst-cyning m spiritual king

gstlc (gstlc) adj

  1. spiritual
    • gs gæslces (dial)
    • as gstlce
    • gp -lecena
    • ap -lecan
  2. ghastly, terrible
    • ns gstlc

Page 288

gstlce (gstlce) adv spiritually

gte-hr n hair of a goat

ge conj and

[cf ger]

g see:

geador adv together

geaful m

  1. fork
  2. in pl, jaws, bird's bill
    • np geaflas
[Ger Gabel]

ge-gan PP own, possess

ge-hnian (-gnian) WII claim as one's own, take possession of

gealla m gall

ge-met(t)igian WII free, disengage from (w acc of pers and gen of thing)


ge-an-bdian WII

  1. wait, remain (intr)
    • inf -bdian
    • imp 2 sg bda
  2. await (w gen)
    • inf -bdian

ge-and-wyrdan WI answer

ge-n-lcan WI unite

ge-an-lcian WII liken

gar (gr) n year

gearcian WII prepare


geard m enclosure, dwelling

gar-dæg m day of yore

geare (gearwe) adv readily, well

gearelce adv readily

ge-rian WII show mercy (w dat)

ge-ærnan WI run (or ride) for, gain by running (trans)


gearo-wita m intellect

gearu (gearo) adj yare, ready

[Ger gar]

gearwian WII prepare

ge-r-wurian WII honor

ge-scian (-xian) WII learn by inquiry, hear of, discover

ge-scung f inquiry

geat n gate

geat-weard m gate-ward, door-keeper

ge-æele adj befitting noble descent

ge-xian see:ge-scian

ge-bdan WI compel, force

ge-bre n gesture, behavior, cry


ge-bed n prayer

Page 289

ge-bodan 2 offer

ge-bor m (beer-companion), reveller

ge-beorg (-beorh) n protection, defence

ge-beorgan 3 protect, save

ge-borscipe m banquet, entertainment

gebtan WI

  1. make amends for, repent of (trans)
    • opt 3 sg gebte
    • 3 pl gebten
  2. repent (intr)

ge-bcnian [(cf bacnian)] II betoken, indicate

ge-bdan (principal parts: pret sg:-bd pret pl:-bidon pp:-biden ) 1

  1. await, look for (w gen)
    • 3 sg -bde
  2. endure, experience

ge-biddan 5

  1. pray (w reflex acc)
    • pret 3 sg gebæd
  2. pray (w reflex dat)

ge-began (-bgan -bgan) WI bow, bend, incline, convert (trans)


ge-bgan see:ge-began

ge-bilde adj bold, confident


ge-bind n combination, commingling

ge-bindan 3 bind

ge-bsnung f example

ge-blsian WII bless

ge-blissian (-blyssian) WII

  1. rejoice (intr)
    • inf -blyssian
    • ptc -blyssigende
  2. make happy (trans)
    • pp -blissad

ge-bod n command


ge-bræc n breaking, crashing


ge-brdan WI broaden, become extended

ge-bradian see:ge-brdian

ge-brdian (-bradian) WII (breed), regenerate, restore

ge-bregd n change, vicissitude


ge-browan (principal parts: pret sg:-braw pret pl:-bruwon pp:-browen ) 2 brew

ge-bringan (-brengan) WI bring

ge-brocian WII afflict

Page 290

ge-brosnodlc adj corruptible

ge-bror (ru -ra) m pl tant brothers

ge-bd see:ban

ge-bn see:ban

ge-bycgan WI buy

ge-bgan see:ge-began

ge-byrd n birth, rank, condition

ge-byrgan WI taste

ge-byrian WI

  1. happen
    • 3 sg gebyre (impers)
  2. pertain, behove (impers)
[Ger gebühren]

ge-bsnian WII give good example

ge-bytle n building, dwelling

ge-camp m fight, battle

ge-cosan 2 choose, elect

ge-cegan (-cgan -cgan) WI call, name, invoke

ge-cierran (-cirran -cyrran) WI

  1. turn, change, convert, direct (trans)
    • imp 2 sg gecyr
    • pp gecierred
    • sg -cyrreda
    • pl -cyrrede
  2. turn (one's self), go, return (intr)
    • inf -cyrran
    • imp 2 sg -cyrr
    • opt 3 sg -cyrre
    • pl -cyrran
    • pret 3 sg -cyrde

ge-cgan see:ge-ciegan

ge-clnsian WII cleanse

ge-clingan (principal parts: pret sg:-clong pret pl:-clungon pp:-clungen ) 3 cling, adhere, compress

ge-cnwan R know, understand

ge-cneord-lcan WI be zealous, strive, study (intr)

g-cneordlce adv diligently

ge-cnyrdnis f diligence, earnestness, study

ge-cringan 3 cringe, yield, fall

ge-crstnian WII christianize, catechise

ge-cuman 4 come together, assemble

ge-cwme adj (becoming), acceptable, pleasing

[Ger bequem]

ge-cgan see:ge-cegan

ge-cynd f n nature, kind, generation

Page 291

ge-cynd-bc f Genesis

ge-cynde adj natural

ge-cyrran see:ge-cierran

ge-cyrrednis f conversion

ge-can WI make manifest, show

ge-cnis f manifestation, testament

ge-dafen [(cf ge-dfe)] adj fit, becoming

[Mod deft, daft]

ge-dafenian (-dafnian) WII befit, suit (impers w dat)

[Goth gadaban]

ge-dl n division, separation

ge-dlan WI deal out (tear?)

ge-dfe [(cf ge-dafen)] adj fitting, gentle, improved in condition

[Goth gadbs]

ge-deofenian see:ge-dafenian

ge-deorf n labor, hardship, difficulty

ge-dihtan WI

  1. compose, dictate, write
    • pret 3 sg -dihte
  2. direct, order
    • pret 3 sg
[Ger dichten]

ge-dn irreg

  1. do, act
    • pret 3 pl -dydon
    • pret opt 3 sg dde
  2. cause to be (trans)
    • 3 sg -d
    • 3 pl -d
  3. put into such and such a condition
  4. reach, arrive at
    • pret 3 pl -dydon

ge-dreccan WI oppress, afflict, vex, trouble

ge-drfan WI trouble, disturb, afflict

ge-drfednis f trouble

ge-drosan 2 fall, fail

ge-drincan 3 drink up

ge-drfenlc adj troublous

ge-dryht f train of attendants, retinue, company

ge-drync n drinking, carousing

ge-dwol-monn m erring man, heretic

ge-dwolsum adj misleading, erroneous

ge-dwyld n folly, error


ge-dyrst-lcan WI dare, presume

Page 292

ge-ealgian WII defend

ge-earnian WII earn, deserve

ge-earnung f desert, merit

ge-a-mdian WII humble, debase (w refl acc)

ge-awan see:ge-owan

ge-ed-cwycian (-cwician -cuican) WII quicken, revive

ge-ed-nwian WII renew

ge-ed-staelian WII reestablish, restore

ge-efen-lcan WI imitate

ge-ende-byrdan WI set in order, ordain, arrange

ge-endian WII

  1. end, finish (trans)
    • ger geendianne
    • pret 3 sg geendade
    • pret opt 3 sg geendode
    • pp geendod, -ad
  2. come to an end, die
    • 3 sg geenda

ge-endung f ending, end

ge-owan (-awan) irreg show

ge-fædera m godfather in his relation to the father

ge-fadian WII arrange

ge-fgian WII variegate, embroider

ge-fær n going, journey

ge-faran 6

  1. go, travel (intr)
    • pret opt 3 sg gefre
  2. travel (trans)
  3. depart out of life, die (intr)
    • pret 3 sg gefr

ge-fæstnian WII fasten, fix

ge-fa m joy, delight, gratification

ge-falc adj joyous, pleasant

ge-feccan (-fecgan -fetian) WIII fetch, take

ge-fgan WI join

ge-feoht n fight, strife, battle

ge-feohtan (principal parts: pret sg:-feaht pret pl:-fuhton pp:-fohten ) 3

  1. fight
  2. gain by fighting, win

Page 293

ge-fon 5 rejoice (w inst or gen)

ge-fra m companion, comrade

ge-fran WI travel (trans)

ge-fre adj accessible


ge-fr-scipe m companionship

ge-feterian WII fetter, bind

ge-fetian see:ge-feccan

ge-fexod (-feaxod) adj haired, having hair

ge-fillednys f completion, fulfilment

ge-firnian WII commit a wrong, sin (intr)

ge-fleman (-flman) WI put to flight

ge-flman see:ge-fleman

ge-flt n contention, strife

[fltan; Ger Fleiss]

ge-fn R take, seize

ge-forian WII accomplish

ge-frge adj famous


ge-frge n report, hearsay

ge-fremian WII [(cf ge-fremman)] perform

ge-fremman WI perform

ge-freoge (-frige) n information


ge-frolsian WII set free, deliver

ge-freoian (-frioian -friian) WII protect, favor

ge-frignan 3 learn by inquiry, hear

ge-fullian [(cf gefulwian)] WII baptize

ge-fultumian WII help

ge-fulwian [(cf gefullian)] WII baptize

ge-fylce n army, troop, division


ge-fylgan WIII follow (w dat)

ge-fyllan WI fell, cut down; deprive of (w gen)


ge-fyllan WI

  1. fill (w gen)
    • pp pl gefylda
  2. fulfil, complete, perform
    • 2 pl -fylla
    • opt 2 sg -fylle
    • 1 pl -fyllon
    • pret 3 sg -felde
    • pp -fylled
    • pl -fyllede

Page 294

ge-fylsta m helper

ge-fylstan WI help (w dat)

ge-fyrn adv formerly

ge-gaderian WII gather, collect, assemble (trans and intrans)

ge-gædrian see:gædrian

ge-gn [(cf gn)] irreg happen

ge-gangan R obtain (trans)

ge-gærwan see:ge-gearwian

ge-gearwian (-gæwan, dial) WII prepare

ge-glengan WI adorn

ge-gdian WII endow


ge-gremian WII enrage


ge-grpan (principal parts: pret sg:-grp pret pl:-gripon pp:-gripen ) 1 seize

ge-gyddian WII sing, utter

ge-gyrela m robe, dress, garment

ge-hdian WII ordain

ge-hl adj whole

ge-hlan WI heal (trans)

ge-hlgian WII hallow, consecrate

ge-htan (principal parts: pret sg:-ht pret pl:-hton pp:-hten ) R

  1. promise
    • 1 sg -hte
    • pret 2 sg -hte
  2. name
    • pp gehten
    • pl gehtene

ge-ht-land n promised land

ge-hwian WII look at, reconnoitre

ge-healdan (principal parts: pret sg:-hold pret pl:-holdon pp:-healden ) R hold, protect, maintain, observe

ge-healtsumnis f captivity

ge-hefigian WII weigh down, oppress

ge-hgan WI effect, hold (an assembly)

ge-helpan 3 help (w dat)

ge-hende (adv) prep near (w dat)

Page 295

ge-hran see:ge-heran

ge-hergian WII capture (by harrying)

ge-hieran (-hran -hran -hran) WI hear

ge-hilt n hilt

ge-hran see:ge-heran

ge-hwian WII form, fashion

ge-hlapan R leap (upon a horse), mount

ge-hlotan 2 cast or draw lots

ge-hlystan WI listen

ge-hngan WI humble, cast down


ge-hola m protector


ge-hrosan 2 fall, perish

ge-hw pron each

ge-hwanon adv from every quarter

ge-hwr adv everywhere

ge-hwæer pron both, either

ge-hwelc see:gehwilc

ge-hwerfan see:ge-hwyrfan

ge-hwilc (ge-hwylc, ge-hwelc) each, every (pl all)

ge-hwyrfan (-hwierfan, -hwerfan) turn, change, convert

ge-hdan WI hide, conceal, guard

ge-hygd f n mind, thought, purpose

ge-hyhtan WI have hope, trust

ge-hran see:ge-heran

ge-hyrdan WI oppress


ge-hrnes (-hernes) f hearing

ge-hrsumian WII hear, obey (w dat)

ge-can see:ge-ecan

ge-ct see:ge-ecan

ge-ecan (-can -can) WI increase, add to


Page 296

ge-læccan WI seize, catch, take

ge-ldan WI lead

ge-lred pp adj learned

ge-lstan WI

  1. perform, carry out (trans)
    • 2 sg -lste
    • opt 3 sg -lste
    • pret 3 sg -lste
  2. help, stand by (intr w dat)
[Ger leisten]

ge-laian WII invite, summon

[Ger ein-laden]

ge-laung f (invitation), church, congregation

ge-lafa m belief, faith

ge-laffull adj believing

fe-laffulnes f belief, faith

ge-lecgan WI lay

ge-lfan see:ge-lifan

ge-lendan WI

  1. come to land, come, go
    • pp gelend
  2. endow with lands
    • pret 3 sg gelende

ge-lofan see:ge-lefan

ge-leornian (-liornian) WII learn

ge-lettan WI hinder, prevent

ge-lc adj

  1. like, resembling, same (as adjective standing alone)
    • as gelcan
  2. like, resembling, same w dat
    • np gelce
    • supl ns gelcost, gelcast

ge-lc n similarity

ge-lca m equal

ge-lce adv in like manner

ge-lcian WII please (w dat)

gelcnes f likeness

ge-lefan (-lfan -lfan -lofan) WI believe (w acc, dat, or gen)

ge-lf-fæstan WI make alive, quicken

ge-limpan (principal parts: pret sg:-lomp pret pl:-lumpon pp:-lumpen ) happen

ge-limplc adj fitting, suitable

Page 297

ge-lglan WII lay, deposit

ge-lme adv often, repeatedly

ge-lmlcian WII become frequent

ge-lustfullian WII please (w dat)

ge-lustfullce adv willingly

ge-lfan see:ge-lefan

ge-lfed (-lfed, pp) adj weak, infirm

[lf; Mod left (hand)]

ge-lhtan WI illumine, give sight to

ge-lsan WI release, break, tear

ge-mglc adj importunate

ge-mgnys f importunity

ge-mh (ge-mg) adj malicious, wicked

ge-mlan WI speak

gman see:geman

ge-mna m intercourse; joining (of weapons)

ge-mne adj common

[Ger gemein]

ge-mnelce adv in common, generally

ge-mre n boundary, border

ge-mael n talking, interview, harangue

ge-mearc n boundary, limit

ge-mearcian WII mark, designate

ge-met n measure

ge-met adj meet, fit

ge-mtan WI meet with, find

ge-mteng (gemting) f meeting, assembly

ge-metgian WII moderate, temper, restrain, regulate

ge-metgung f measure, regulation, order

ge-metlce adv moderately

ge-miltsian WII show mercy (w dat)

ge-molsnian WII moulder, decay

ge-mong n crowd, throng

ge-mt n meeting, assembly, council, concourse, encounter

ge-munan PP remember, call to mind, be mindful of

Page 298

ge-mundbyrdan WI protect

ge-mynd f n memory

ge-myndgian (-myngian) WII keep in mind, remember

ge-myndig adj mindful of (w gen)

ge-myntan WI have in mind, intend

gn (gna, gen gena) adv yet, still, even

ge-nadian WI compel

ge-neahhe (ge-nehe) adv enough, frequently, often

ge-na-lcan WI approach

ge-nat m companion

[Ger Genosse]

ge-nehe see:ge-neahhe

ge-nosian WII visit, approach, (trans)

ge-nerian WI save, rescue, preserve

ge-nihtsum adj sufficient, abounding

ge-nihtsumian WII suffice

ge-nihtsumlce adv sufficiently

ge-nihtsumnes f sufficiency

ge-niman (principal parts: pret sg:nm,nam pret pl:nmon,nmon pp:numen ) 4 take

ge-nip n mist, cloud, darkness

ge-npan 1 become dark

ge-nierian (-nyerian) WII cast down, abase, condemn

ge-nierung (-nyerung) debasement, wickedness

ge-nwian WII renew

ge-nh (ge-ng) adj enough

ge-notian WII use, consume

Page 299

geofon n sea, ocean

ge-ofrian (-offrian) WII offer

geogo (giogo, iugo) f youth; giogu (young persons, collect.) (???)

gomor adj sad

[Ger Jammer]

gomor-md adj of sorrowful mood

gomrung f lamentation, moaning

geond (giond) prep (w acc) throughout (place and time)

geond-faran 6 traverse

geond-hweorfan 3 pass over, traverse

geond-lcan (principal parts: 3 sg pres:leolc pret sg:lc pret pl:lcon pp:lcen ) R play over, traverse

geond-lhtan WI

  1. illumine (trans)
    • pret 3 sg -lhte
    • pp pl -lhte
  2. shine over or upon (intr)
    • pret opt 3 sg -lhte

geond-scawian WII overlook, survey

geond-sendan WI send abroad

geond-encean WI think over, reflect upon

geond-wltan 1 look over (trans)

geong (giong, iung) adj young

geonglc adj youthful

ge-openian WII open

georn (giorn) adj eager, earnest, desirous (w gen)

georne adv eagerly, willingly, certainly, surely

geornfull adj eager, desirous

geornfullce adv eagerly, earnestly

geornfulnes f eagerness, zeal

geornlce adv eagerly, earnestly, attentively

ge-or-trwian WII despair of, distrust

ge-rcan WI reach, obtain

ge-rd adj trained, prudent

ge-rdan R and WI counsel, advise

Page 300

ge-rde n trappings

ge-rafian WII seize

ge-reccan WI relate, explain, count

ge-recednis f narration

ge-rfa m reeve

ge-rnian (geregnian) WII arrange, adorn

ge-reord n speech, language

ge-reordung f refection, meal

ge-restan WI rest

ge-rihtan WI correct

ge-rihte n law

ge-riht-lcan WI direct, correct

ge-ripan 1 reap

ge-risenlc adj proper, suitable

ge-risenlce adv suitably, fittingly

ge-rman WI

  1. widen, extend (trans)
    • pret 3 pl rmdon
    • pp rmed
  2. open a way (intr)
    • pp rmed

ge-rne n secret, mystery


ge-slig adj happy, prosperous, blessed

[sl; Ger selig]

ge-sæliglc adj happy, blessed

ge-sliglce adv happily

ge-sl f happiness, fortune, prosperity

ge-srgian WII trouble, afflict

ge-scadlce adv discriminatingly, wisely

ge-scadws adj discriminating, intelligent, rational, wise

ge-scadwsnes f discretion, reason, wisdom

ge-sceaft f

  1. creature, creation
    • ds gesceafte
    • np gesceafta
  2. destiny, decree (of fate)

ge-sceap n

  1. creation
    • ds gesceape
  2. destiny
    • ap gesceapu

ge-sceapenis f creation

ge-scendan (-scindan) WI put to shame, confound


ge-scean 6 harm, injure (w dat)

[Ger schaden]

Page 301

ge-scieppan (-scippan -scyppan) (principal parts: pret sg:-scp (-scop) pret pl:-scpon (-scopon_ pp:-sceapen (-scepen, -scæpen) ) create, make

ge-scnan 1 illuminate (trans)

ge-scindan see:ge-scendan

ge-scipian WII provide with ships

ge-scyldan WI shield, protect

ge-scyldnis f protection

ge-scyrpan WI clothe, equip


ge-scyrpla m garment

ge-scan WI seek

ge-secgan WIII say, tell

ge-seglian WII sail

ge-segnian WII cross oneself


ge-selda m hall-companion, comrade, retainer

ge-sellan WI give up, yield

ge-sman WI reconcile

[Mod seem]

ge-son (-son) (principal parts: pret sg:-seah pret pl:-swon (-sgon) pp:-sewen (-sawen -segen) ) see, observe, consider

ge-set n seat, habitation

ge-setnis f foundation, composition, narrative, decree

ge-settan WI

  1. set, place, appoint
    • pret 3 sg gesette
    • pp geseted
    • pl -sette
  2. compose, write
    • pret opt 3 sg -sette

ge-san WI confirm


ge-sewenlc adj visible

ge-sclian WII sicken


ge-siglan WI sail

ge-sih (-syh) f seeing, sight, presence

ge-singan 3 sing

ge-son see:ge-son

Page 302

ge-sittan 5 occupy

ge-slan 6 gain by fighting, win

ge-smyrian WII annoint

ge-somnian (-samnian) WII collecty, assemble (trans)

ge-somnung f collection, assembly

ge-sprec n interview, counsel

ge-standan 6

  1. stand
    • opt 3 sg -stonde
  2. come upon
    • pret 3 sg gestd

ge-staelian WII establish, build, confirm

ge-stæig adj steadfast

ge-steall n establishment, foundation

ge-stgan 1 ascend (trans)

ge-stillan WI

  1. be still, cease (intr)
    • imp 2 sg gestille
    • pret 3 sg gestilde
    • pl gestildon
  2. restrain, stop (trans)
    • pret opt 3 sg gestilde

ge-stran (-steran, -stran) WI direct, restrain (w dat)


ge-strangian WII strengthen

ge-stron n possession, property

ge-strnan (-strenan) WI (beget), acquire, win, gain


ge-sund adj sound, whole, safe

ge-sundfull adj sound, whole

ge-sundfullce adv safely

ge-sws adj gentle

ge-sweorean 3 become dark, sad

ge-swcan (principal parts: pret sg:-swc pret pl:-swicon pp:-swicen ) 1 cease, leave off (w gen)

ge-swinc n toil, effort, hardship

ge-swns n harmony, melody

ge-swustor (-tru -tra) f pl tant sisters

ge-swutelian (-sweotolian) show, make manifest

Page 303

ge-synto f prosperity

gt see:get

ge-tæcan WI teach, show

ge-tcnian WII betoken, signify

ge-tcnung f signification, token, type

ge-tæl n number, order, narrative

ge-teld n tent, tabernacle

ge-tellan WI tell, count, reckon

ge-tengan WI hasten

ge-ton (principal parts: pret sg:-tah pret pl:-tugon pp:-togen ) 2 draw

ge-torian WII diminish, fail, become exhausted

ge-timbre n structure, building

ge-timbrian WII build

ge-tmian WII happen

ge-tian WII grant (w dat of pers and gen of thing)

ge-toht n battle

ge-truma m troop, (military) division

ge-trymman WI prepare, strengthen, confirm

ge-tn WI instruct

ge-æf adj (with gen) favoring, confessing

ge-afian WII permit, allow, consent to

ge-afung f permission, assent

ge-and m n thought, purpose

ge-ancian WII thank (w dat of pers and gen of thing)

ge-eaht f n

  1. thought, purpose
    • ds geeahte
  2. council, deliberation

ge-eahtere m councilor

ge-encean WI think, take thought

ge-odan WI join, associate

ge-ode (-ode) n language

Page 304

ge-odnis f association

ge-icgean 5 take, receive

ge-ingian WII plead for

ge-ing (ge-ingu) f dignity, rank, office


ge-ht m thought

ge-olian WII permit, allow

ge-rang n press, tumult

ge-ran WI strengthen, arm

ge-ungen (pp) adj grown, triven, perfected, competent, excellent, distinguished


ge-wre adj concordant, at peace

ge-wrian WII make concordant

ge-wr-lcan WI agree to, allow (w dat)

ge-wrnes f agreement, concord, peace

ge-yld n f patience

[Ger Geduld]

ge-yldig adj patient

ge-ydlce adv patiently

ge-uferian WII exalt

ge-unnan PP grant (w dat of pers and gen of thing)

ge-un-trumian WII weaken, make ill

g-wadan 6 go, advance

ge-wgan WI weigh down, distress

ge-wald (weald) n power, control

ge-wpnian WII arm

ge-wealdan R wield, control (w gen)

ge-wman WI entice, bring over

ge-wemman WI defile, impair, destroy

ge-wemmednis f defilement

ge-wemming f defilement

ge-wendan WI return, go

ge-weorc n

  1. work, labor
    • is -weorce
  2. military work, fortification
    • ds -weorce

ge-weoran (wuran) (principal parts: pret sg:-wear pret pl:-wurdon pp:-worden ) 3

  1. happen, come to pass, become, be
    • 3 sg gewyr
    • 3 pl gewura
    • opt 3 sg geweore
    • gewure and hym let it be between you
  2. (impers w reflex acc)
    • sw sw hine silfne gewyr according to his own decree

Page 305

ge-weorian WII honor

ge-wcian WII encamp, dwell

ge-wilnian WII desire (w gen and acc)

ge-wilnung f wish, desire

ge-win-dæg m day of strife

ge-winn n struggle, strife, battle

ge-winnan 3 obtain by fighting, win, gain

ge-wiss adj certain of (w gen)

ge-wissian WII

  1. inform, instruct, enjoin (w dat)
    • pret 3 sg -wissode
  2. guide, direct (w acc)

ge-wisslce adv certainly

ge-wita m witness

ge-wtan (principal parts: pret sg:-wt pret pl:-witon pp:-witen ) 1

  1. depart, swerve, fail
    • 1 pl -wta, -wta
    • imp 2 sg gewt
    • 2 pl -wita
    • opt 3 sg gewte
    • 3 pl -ten
    • pp pl gewitene
  2. depart (from the world), die
    • 3 sg gewtt

ge-witenlc adj transitory

ge-witennis f departure, death

ge-wtnian WII punish, chastise

ge-witt n intelligence, understanding

ge-wlitigian WII beautify, adorn

ge-wrecan 4 avenge

ge-write n writing, letter, scripture

ge-wran 1 bind

ge-wuldrian WII glorify

gewuna m habit, custom

ge-wundian WII wound

ge-wunelc adj customary

ge-wunian WII

  1. dwell, remain, live
    • opt 3 pl -wunien (cogn acc)

Page 306

gewyldan WI bring into one's power, subdue


ge-wyrc(e)an WI work, make, create

ge-wyrdan WI injure, destroy

ge-wyrdelc adj historical

ge-wyrht f n work, deed, desert

ge-wyrman WI warm

ge-wyrpan WI recover (from injury or disease)

ge-wyrtian WII season with herbs, spice, perfume

ge-yrsian WII be angry with (w dat)

gieddian (gyddian) WII recite, speak

giedding f utterance

giefan (gifan gyfan) (principal parts: pret sg:geaf pret pl:gafon pp:giefen ) 5 give

gief-stl m seat of a lord (giving gifts)

giefu (gifu gyfu) f gift

gielp (gilp gylp) m n boasting, arrogance, pride

gielpan (gylpan) 2 boast (w gen)

gielt (gilt gylt) m guilt, offence, sin

geman (gman gman) WI care for, observe, regard (w gen)

gemen (gmen) f care, oversight, responsibility

get (gt gt gt gta gta) adv yet, besides, further, still

gif conj if

gfernes f greediness

gfre adj greedy

gifu see:giefu

gilp see:gielp

gilt see:gielt

gimm (gymm) m gem

gim-stn m precious stone, gem

Page 307

gin-fæst (ginn-) adj ample, liberal

go (go gu gu u o) adv formerly, before, of old

giond see:geond

gsel (gsel) m hostage

[Ger Geisel]

git see:

gt see:get

gtsian WII desire

glæd adj glad, happy, bright, shining

glædlce adv gladly

glæd-md adj glad-hearted

glm m gleam, splendor

glæs n glass

glaw adj wise, prudent

Glaw-ceaster f Gloucester

glaw-md adj wise, sagacious

gleng m f ornament

glengan WI adorn

glowian WII be merry, jest

gldan (principal parts: pret sg:gld pret pl:glidon pp:gliden ) 1 glide

glw (glg glo) n glee, mirth

glw-stæf m joy

gnornian WII mourn, lament

God m God

gd adj good

gd n

  1. benefit
    • ds goode
    • as good
    • gp gooda, gda
  2. goods, possessions

God-bearn n Son of God

god-cund adj divine

god-cundlc adj divine

god-cundlce adv divinely

god-cundnis f divine nature, divinity

gd-dd f good deed

Page 308

Godmundinga-hm m Goodmanham (Bernicia)

god-spell n gospel

god-spellere m evangelist

god-spellc adj evangelical

god-sunu m god-son

god-webb n purple (cloth)

gold n gold

gold-fæt n golden vessel

gold-hord n m treasure

gold-smi m goldsmith

gold-wine m (gold-friend), treasure giver, lord

gomol adj old


gong (gang) m path, course

gongan (gangan, gengan) R go, walk, advance, march

Got-land n Jutland, Gothland (island in the Baltic sea)

grdelce see:grdiglce

grdig adj greedy

grdiglce (grdelce) adv greedily

grg adj gray

gram adj grim, angry, fierce, cruel

grama m anger, wrath

grnung f groaning

græs-wong m grassy plain

Grcisc adj Greek

grne adj green

grot n gravel, sand, earth

grtan WI greet

grimm adj fierce, cruel

grimme (grymme) adv grimly

grindan 3 grind, sharpen

gri n peace

[ON gri]

grwan (principal parts: pret sg:grow pret pl:grwon pp:grwen ) R grow

grund m ground, bottom, earth, country, world

grundlunga adv from the foundation, completely

gryre-lo n song of terror

g-dd (u-dd) f former deed

Page 309

guma m man, hero

g f battle

[cf Mod gon-falon]

g-freca m warrior, valiant one

g-hafoc m war-hawk

g-plega m war-play, battle

g-rinc m warrior

gyden f goddess


gyft (gift gieft) f (technically) marriage payment, dowry

[Mod gift]

gyfl n food

gyfu see:giefu

gyldan (gieldan) 3 pay, requite

gylden adj golden

gylp, gylpan see:gielp, gielpan

gylp-word n boastful word

gylt see:gielt

gman see:geman

gme-last (geme-last, -lest) f neglect

gym-stn see:gim-stn

gym-wyrhta m (gem-wright), jeweller

gyrd f rod, twig

gyrdan WI gird

gyrela m robe, dress, garment

gyrn m f sorrow, misfortune

gyrnan WI yearn, desire, be eager, strive


gyst (giest) m guest, stranger

gyt see:

gt, gta see:get

gtsere m miser

gtsung f avarice



habban WIII have

see:(see næbban)

hd m condition, rank, office

[Mod -hood]

hdor adj bright, clear

[Ger heiter]

hdre adv clearly (light or sound)

hdung f ordination

hafenian WII raise, lift up


Page 310

hafoc m hawk

hæftan WI seize, bind, make captive

hæfting f captivity

hægel (hægl hagol) m hail

hægl-faru f hail-storm

hl adj hale, whole, sound, uninjured

hl (hlor) n welfare, salvation

Hlend m Saviour, Christ

hlettan WI greet, salute

hæle (hæle) m man, hero, warrior

[Ger Held]

hlga m saint

hlgian WII hallow, consecrate

Hlgo-land n Halgoland (a district of ancient Norway)

hlig adj holy

hlignes f holiness, religion

hlo (hlu) f salvation

hals (heals) m neck

[Ger Hals]

hlsian WII greet, address, entreat, implore


hlsung f entreaty

hlwende adj salutary

hm m home

hamor m hammer

Hm-tn-scr (-scr) f Hampshire

hm-weard adv homewards

hm-weardes adv homewards

han-crd m cock-crowing (a division of the night)

hand see:hond

hand-bred n palm of the hand

hand-ge-weorc n handiwork

hand-plega m hand-play or encounter, fighting

hr adj hoary, gray, old

hara m hare

hærfest m harvest, autumn

[Ger Herbst]

Page 311

hs f behest, command


haso adj dark, dusky

haso-pd (hasu-) adj having a gray coat (of an eagle)

haswig-fere adj dusky-feathered

ht adj hot, fervid

htan (principal parts: 3 sg pres:heht pret sg:ht,htte pret pl:hton pp:hten ) R

  1. order, command
    • 1 sg hte
    • 3 sg hte
    • pret 3 sg heht, heht, ht
  2. name
    • 3 sg ht
    • 1 pl ha-ta
  3. passive htte: be called, hight
    • pl htene

hte adv hotly

ht-heort adj hot of heart, passionate

ht-heorte f hot heart, anger

hatian WII hate

htu (hto) f heat

hen adj heathen

hen-gyld n idolatry

hen-gylda m idolater

hen-scipe m heathendom, idolatry

Hum (æt Hum) Haddeby (now Schleswig)

h (ho hit) 3d pers pron he, she, it, pl they

haf m f n mourning, lamentation

heafela (heafola) m head

hafod n head

hafod-burh f chief city, metropolis

hafod-monn m chief man

hah adj high

Page 312

hah-cyning m high king, God

hah-dacon m archdeacon

hah-engel m archangel

hah-fæder m patriarch

hah-ge-rfa m high reeve, chief officer

hah-md adj proud

hah-seld (-setl) n high seat, throne

hah-setl see:hah-seld

hah-ungen pp adj highly prospered, of high rank

healdan (principal parts: pret sg:hold pret pl:holdon pp:healden ) R hold, possess, preserve, regard, observe

healf f half, part, side

healf adj half

halic adj high, exalted, glorious

heall f hall

healt adj halt, lame

han adj low, mean, abject, depressed, humbled

[Ger Hohn]

hanlc adj ignominious

hannis f height, highness, excellence

hap m heap, crowd, multitude

heard adj hard, severe, cruel, intrepid, brave

heardlce adv stoutly, bravely

heardnis f hardness

hearm m harm, injury, grief

hearm adj harmful, hostile

hearpe f harp

hearpere m harper

Page 313

hearpian WII harp

hearpung f harping

hearra m lord

[Ger Herr]

harsum (hrsum) adj obedient (w dat)

heaerian WII restrain

heao-lind f war-linden, shield

heao-rf adj famed in battle

hawan (principal parts: pret sg:how pret pl:howon pp:hawen ) R hew, cut, cut down, kill (trans and intr)

hebban (principal parts: pret sg:hf pret pl:hfon pp:hafen,hæfen ) 6 heave, raise, lift up

hefig adj heavy, oppressive

hefigian WII oppress

hefignes f heaviness, weight

hefig-tme adj oppressive, irksome

helan 4 conceal

[ger hehlen]

hell f hell

helle-ssl n hell-torment

hellc adj hellish

hell-sceaa m hell-fiend

hell-waran (-ware, -waras) m pl inhabitants of hell

help f help

helpan (principal parts: pret sg:healp pret pl:hulpon pp:holpen ) 3 help (w gen or dat)

ho see:h

heofon (heofone, f) m heaven

heofon-cyning m King of heaven

Heofon-feld m Heavenfield (Bernicia)

heofon-hrf n roof or vault of heaven

heofonlc adj heavenly

heofon-rce n kingdom of heaven

heofon-tungol n m star of heaven

hofung f lamentation, grieving

heolstor (heolster) m darkness, concealment, cover

heolstor-cofa m chamber of darkness

Page 314

heonon adv hence

heonon-weard adj hence-ward, passing away

heord f guardianship, keeping, care

heoro-drorig adj dejected, crestfallen, sad unto death

[heoro sword, drosan]

heort (heorot) m hart, stag

heorte f heart

heor-ge-nat m hearth-companion, retainer

heor-werod n body of hearth-companions, retainers

heow n (?) haw, enclosure


hr adv

  1. here
  2. in this year

here m army (the Danish army)

[Ger Heer]

here-flma m fugitive from the army or from battle

here-geatu f war-equipment, arms

[cf Mod heriot]

here-h f war-spoil, booty

here-lf f remainder of an army

herenis f praise

here-toga m leader of an army, chief

[Ger Herzog]

here-wc f n dwelling

herga m harrying, plundering

hergian WII harry, ravage, plunder


herian (herigean) WI praise

[Goth hasjan]

herig (hearh) m (idolatrous) temple, sanctuary

herigendlce adv praiseworthily

heriung (herung) f praise

hrsumian see:hrsumian

hettend m enemy

hicgan see:hycgan

hider (hieder) adv hither

hider-cyme m coming hither, advent

heran (hran, hran, hran) WI

  1. hear
    • pret 3 sg herde
    • 1 pl hrdon
  2. hear, obey (w dat)
    • inf hran
    • pret 1 sg hrde
  3. belong
    • 3 sg hr
    • 3 pl hra

hierde (hirde, hyrde) m shepherd, pastor, guardian, guard


Page 315

hierde-bc f pastoral treatise

here-monn m follower, subject


hige see:hyge

hgian WII hie, hasten, strive

hild f battle, war

hilde-rinc m warrior

hindan adv from behind, behind

hindan-weard adj hindward

hinder-weard adj backward, slow

hiord (heord) f herd, flock

hirde- see:hierde-

hierde-lic (hirde-, hyrde-) adj pastoral

hrd m n family, household

[<hw + rd; Ger Heirat]

hrd-monn m retainer

hit see:ho

hw (ho) n hue, appearance

hladan (principal parts: pret sg:hld pret pl:hldon pp:hladen ) 6 load, draw water, lade, imbibe

hlder f ladder

hlf m loaf, bread

hlford m lord, master, ruler

[<hlf + weard]

hlford-las adj without a lord

hlw m n mound, hill, mountain

hlapan R leap

hlo (hlow)

  1. n protection, shelter
  2. m protector, lord

hleonian (hlinian, hlynian) WII lean, incline, slope

hloor n sound, harmony, song

hloor-cwide m (audible) utterance, command

hlorian WII cry aloud, proclaim, sing

hlfigan WII tower, rise high

hlihhan (hliehhan, hlyhhan) 6 laugh

hlinc m declivity, hill

hlsa m fame, renown

hlot n lot

hl f band, troop

hld adj loud

Page 316

hltor (hlttor) adj clear, pure

[Ger lauter]

hlyn m sound

hlynian see:hleonian

hlyst f listening

hnæppan WI rest upon, strike

hof n court, dwelling

[Ger Hof]

hogian WII think, reflect, resolve

hold adj gracious, favorable, faithful

[Ger hold]

holm m sea, ocean

holm-racu f wave-tumult, sea

holt n holt, grove, forest, wood

holt-wudu m forest, grove

hn (principal parts: pret sg:hng pret pl:hngon pp:hongen ) R hang (trans)

hond (hand) f hand

hongian WII hang (intr)

hopian WII hope

hord n m hoard, treasure

hord-cofa m (treasure-chamber), breast, heart

hordian WII hoard

horn m horn

hors n horse

hors-hwæl m walrus

hors-egn m horse-thane, an officer of the royal household

hosp m contempt, insult

hr (hrw, hr, hrw) m corpse

[Goth hraiw]

hræd adj rapid, quick

[Ger hurtig, rasch]

hrædlce (hradlce) adv quickly, soon

hræd-wyrde adj quick, hasty of speech

hræfn (hremm) m raven

hrægel (hrægl) n garment

[Mod obs rail]

hrn m reindeer

hrae (hrade, hræe, rae) adv quickly, soon

Page 317

hr-wrig adj weary in body

hram m cry, noise, clamor, lamentation

hrman see:hrman

hrmig adj exultant (w gen or dat)

hremm see:hræfn

hremman WI hinder

hro (hroh) adj rough, rude, savage, fierce, severe

hrodan (principal parts: pret sg:hrad pret pl:hrudon pp:gehroden ) 2 adorn

hrofla m leper

[hrof, rough]

hrohnes f roughness

hrosan (principal parts: pret sg:hras pret pl:hruron pp:hroren ) 2 fall

hrowan 2 rue, repent of

hrowsung f repentance

hrepian WII touch, treat

hrran WI stir

[Ger ruehren]

hreer m n heart, thought

hrm m rime, hoarfrost

hrm-ceald adj rime-cold

hrnan (principal parts: pret sg:hrn pret pl:hrinon pp:hrinen ) 1 touch, smite

hring m ring, circle; border; ornaments

hring-loca m corslet (formed of rings)

hr f(?) snow-storm

hrf m roof

Hrfes-ceaster f Rochester

hrse f earth

hrycg m ridge, back

hrman (hreman, hrman) WI cry out, lament, exult, boast (w gen)

hryre m fall, death


hrer (hrer, hr) n cattle

[Mod rother beasts; Ger Rind]

hryig adj storm-beaten (?), tottering (?)

h adv how

Humbre f the Humber

hund m dog

hund num hundred

hund-feald adj hundredfold

Page 318

hund-eahtatig num eighty

hund-nigontig num ninety

hund-twelftig num hundred and twenty

hungor (hunger) m hunger, famine

hunig n honey

hunig-swe-te adj honey-sweet, mellifluous

hunta m hunter

hunto (hunta) m hunting

huru adv certainly, indeed, especially, perhaps, about

hs n house

hsl n housle, eucharist

hsl-gang m attendance upon, or partaking of, the eucharist

hw (hwæt) pron

  1. (interr) who, what
    • ns hw, hu, hwæt
    • gs hwæs
    • ds hwm
    • as hwæt
    • ds t hwm, for hwm wherefore
    • is hw, hw, for hw, for hw, for hwon, for hwan why, wherefore
    • hwæt, interj what! lo! behold!
  2. (indef) anyone, anything
    • ns hw, hwæt
    • sw hw sw whosoever
    • ds hwm
    • as hwæne someone
    • sw hwæt sw whatsoever
    • t æs hwon however

hwæl m whale

hwæl-hunta m whale-fisher

hwæl-hunta m whale-fishing

hwanan see:hwonan

hwænne see:hwonne

hwr (hwr) adv

  1. (interr) where, wherever
  2. (indef) everywhere, anywhere
    • wel hwr nearly everywhere
    • sw hwr sw wheresoever

hwæt see:hw

hwte m wheat

hwæt-hwugu (-hwegu)

  1. pron something
  2. adv somewhat

hwæer pron adj

  1. (interr) whether, which of two
    • as hwæerne, hwæer
  2. (indef)
    • ds b sw hwaerre efes sw on whichever side

hwæer conj adv whether

hwære (hwæere, hwæere) adv however, nevertheless

Page 319

hwearfian WII turn, revolve, move (intr)

hwelc see:hwilc

hwne see:hwn

hwol n wheel

hweorfan (principal parts: pret sg:hwearf pret pl:hwurfon pp:hworfen ) 3 turn, return, move, go, come (intr)

hwider (hwæder) adv whither

hwierfan (hwirfan, hwyrfan) WI turn, return (intr)

hwl f while, time

hwilc (hwylc, hwelc) pron adj which, what (interr or indef)

hwl-wende adj temporary, transitory

hwl-wendlc (wl-, -endlc) adj temporary, transitory

hwylc see:hwilc

hwl-wendlce adv temporarily

hwirfan see:hwierfan

hwt adj white

hwn n trifle

hwonan (hwanan) adv whence

hwnlce adv moderately, slightly

hwonne (hwanne, hwænne) adv when (interr or indef)

hwpan R (boast), threaten

hwylc see:hwilc

hwyrfan see:hwierfan

hycgan (hicgan) WIII think, resolve

hd f hide

Page 320

hyge (hige) m mind, heart

hyge-gls adj hesitating, slow, sluggish


hyht (hiht) m hope

hyhtlce adv joyfully

hyldo f grace, favor


hynan (henan, hnan) WI treat with insult, despise, injure, lay low, fell


hran see:hieran

hyrde see:hierde

hyrne f corner


hyrned-nebb adj having a horny beak

hrsumian (hrsumian) WII obey (w dat)

hyse m young man, warrior


ic first pers pron I

del (del) adj idle, vain, useless, empty, desolate

idig (?) adj greedy (?)

ieldra see:yldra

ierming (earming) m poor, wretched one

eian (yian) WII fluctuate

igga (ga, geo, gott) m eyot, small island

g-lond n island

ilca (ylca) pron the same

Ilfing the Elbing

in prep w acc dat; adv in, into

in-bryrdnis f inspiration, ardor

inca m scruple, offence, ill-will

Page 321

incer dual poss pron of you two

in-cund adj inward

in-dryhten adj very noble

in-dryhto f honor, glory

in-fær n entrance

in-ge-hd (-hygd) f thought, purpose

in-ge-onc m n thought, mind

in-gong m entrance

in-gongan R go in


  1. prep (w dat, acc) in, within
  2. adv

innan-bordes (gen) adv within borders, at home

inne adv within, inside, in

intinga m cause, sake, occasion

in-t [(cf. in and t)] prep (w dat and acc) into, to, against

in-weard adj inward, earnest; adv within

in-weardlce adv inwardly, deeply

in-wit (in-wid) n guile, wickedness

in-wit (in-widd) adj hateful, malign

o see:gio

owan (owan, ewan) WI show, expound

ra-land (r-land) n

  1. Ireland
    • ds Irlande
  2. (probably an error for Iceland)

ren (sen, sern) n iron

irnan see:yrnan

is see:beon

s n ice

sen (sen, sern, ren) adj iron, made of iron

u see:go

Idas n pl the Jews

Idisc adj Jewish

iugo see:geogo

iung see:geong


l interj lo! behold!

lc n present, offering, sacrifice

[cf. Mod wed-lock]

lcan (principal parts: 3 sg pres:leolc pret sg:lc pret pl:lcon pp:lcen ) R leap, play, sport

lce m leech, physician

lce-dm m medicine, remedy

lcnian WII treat with medical skill, cure

Page 322

ldan WI lead, conduct, bring

Lden (Leden, Lyden) adj Latin

Lden-bc (Lyden-) f Latin book

Lden-ge-ode (-iode) n Latin language

Lden-ware pl m Latin people, Romans

lf f remnant, remainder

lfan WI leave

lagu (lago) m sea, lake, water

[Ger Lache]

lagu-fld m ocean-flood, sea

lagu-ld f ocean-way, sea

lagu-stram m ocean-stream, sea, river

L-land n Laaland (Denmark)

lm m loam, clay

ln n loan

[Ger Lehen]

land see:lond

land-r f possessions in land

lne adj granted as a loan, temporary, transitory, perishable

lane (lone, lonu) f lane, street

Langa-land n Langeland (Denmark)

langian WII cause longing (impers w acc of pers)

langsum adj long, lasting a long time

langung f longing, grief

lr f lore, teaching, learning, doctrine, advice

lr-cwide m precept, instruction

lran WI teach, advise, exhort

lrow m teacher

[ON lro, lreo]

Page 323

lrow-dm (lrow-) m instruction

lrig m edge, border (of a shield)

ls comp adv less

lssa comp adj less

lst see:lssa

lst m track, footprint

ltan (principal parts: 3 sg pres:leort pret sg:let pret pl:leton pp:lten ) R let, allow, leave

late adv late, tardily, slowly

l n injury, misfortune

l adj loathly, hateful, hostile

l-ge-nla m (hostile) persecutor, foe

l-lc adj loathsome

l (lu) f injury, offence, malice

lwede adj unlearned, lay

[Mod lewd]

laf n leaf

laf-scead n leafy shade

leahtor m moral defect, offence, crime

[lan: to blame]

lan m n reward, gift, favor

[Ger Lohn]

lanian WII reward, recompense (w dat of pers and acc of thing)

las adj

  1. loose, free from, bereft of (w gen)
    • np lase
  2. false, deceptive
    • ap lase

lasung f deception, falsehood

leccan WI irrigate, lave

[liccian: to lick]

lecgan WI lay, put


lfan see:lefan

Lga-ceaster f Chester

leger n lying, illness


lencten m spring

[Mod lent]

lo m lion

[Lat leo]

Page 324

lod f

  1. a people, nation
    • ds lode
  2. pl lode (loda): people
    • np loda
    • ap loda
[Ger Leute]

lod-bisceop m bishop (of a district)

lod-fruma m first among a people, prince, king

lod-scipe m people, nation, country

lof adj lief, pleasing, dear, beloved

loflc adj pleasant

logan (principal parts: pret sg:lag pret pl:lugon pp:logen ) 2 lie, utter falsely

leoht adj light, not heavy, easy

loht adj light, bright, clear

loht (lioht) n light, brightness

loht-fæt n lantern, lamp

leohtlc adj light, of little weight or importance

loma m light, radiance, ray or beam of light

leornere m learner, disciple, scholar

leornian (liornian) WII learn

leorning-cniht m disciple

leornung (liornung) f learning

lo n song

lo-cræft m poetic skill or art

lo-song n song, poem

leou-cræftig adj skilful of limb

ltnia (ltnia) m f litany

[Lat litana]

Levita (Lauita) gp the Lapithae

libban (lybban, lifgan) WIII live

lc n body, corpse

[Ger Leiche]

lcettan WI profess falsely, pretend

Page 325

licgan (principal parts: pret sg:læg pret pl:lgon,lgon pp:legen ) 5

  1. lie, lie dead
    • ptc licgende
    • 3 sg li, lige
    • 3 pl licga
    • pret 2 sg lge
    • pret 3 pl lgon
  2. extend, run (of land and stream)
    • 3 sg li
    • 3 pl licga
    • pret opt 3 sg lge

lc-homa (-hama) m body

[Ger Leichnam]

lc-homlc (-hamlc) adj bodily

lc-homlce adv corporally

lcian WII like, please (w dat; personal and impersonal)

lc-monn m pall-bearer

lc-rest f sepulchre

lid n ship


ld-monn m sailor, pirate

lefan (lfan lfan) WI allow, permit


lf n life

lifer f liver

lflc adj pertaining to life

lg (leg) m flame, fire

[Ger Lohe]

lg-bryne m burning of flames, burning

lg-racu f violence of flames

lihtan WI alight (from a horse)

lhtan (lhtan) WI shine


lim n limb, bodily member

Limen f the Limen (river or estuary in Kent)

lind f (linden), shield

Lindes-g f Lindesey (dist in Lincolnshire)

Lindis-farn-a (-farena-a) f Lindisfarne Island, Lindisfarne

liss (<ls) f favor, delight

ltel see:ltel

lt-hwn adv little

le adj mild, gentle

[Ger gelinde; Mod lithe]

lxan WI shine, glitter

locc m lock (of hair)

Page 326

lcian WII look

lof m praise, glory, song of praise

[Ger Lob]

lofian WII praise

lof-sang m song of praise

lond (land) n land, country

lond-wela m earthly possessions

long (lang) adj long

longe (lange) adv long

longlce (lang-) adv long

losian WII be lost, escape

lot-wrenc m deception, fraud, W Ile


lcan (principal parts: pret sg:lac pret pl:lucon pp:locen ) 2 lock, interlock, close up (trans and intrans)

lufian (lufigean) WII love

luflce adv lovingly

luf-tme adj benevolent

lufu f love

Lunden-burg f London

lust m lust, desire, pleasure

lustlce adv willingly

lyb-cræft m skill in the use of drugs and of poison

lyft m f n the air

[Ger Luft]

Lge f the Lea

lyge-word n lying word, lie

lyre m loss


lsan WI release, deliver


lystan WI list, cause pleasure or desire (impers w acc of pers and gen of thing)

lt n little, small number, few

lytegian WII dissemble, feign

Page 327

ltel (ltel) adj little, small

see:(see lssa)

ltlian WII lessen, diminish


m (m) comp adv; also noun (adj) indecl more

mden (mægden) n maiden

mg m kinsman

magan PP may, be able

mægen n main, strength, might, valor, virtue

mægen-rymm m great strength, majesty, glory

magister m master


mglc adj belonging to kinsmen

mago (magu) m son, man

mg f kin, tribe, province, nation

mæg-hd m virginity, purity

magu-egn m kin vassal, retainer

ml n time, occasion

[cf. Mod meal]

mldan WI speak, announce

mn n evil, sin

[cf. Ger mein-eid]

mnan WI mean, intend

mancus m mancus (the eighth of a pound, the sum of thirty pence)

mn-dd f evil deed

mn-fremmend ptc m evil-doer

mnfullce adv sinfully

Page 328

manian (monian) WII admonish, exhort, warn

manig see:monig

mænigeo see:menigu

manig-feald see:monig-feald

mann see:monn

manna m (?) manna


mann-cwealm m mortality, pestilence

mra see:micel

mran WI make famous, glorify, honor

mre adj famous, glorious

[Goth -mers, Ger Märe, Märchen]

mrsian WII make famous, celebrate, glorify

martyr m martyr


mr f fame, glory, honor

Maser-feld m Maserfeld, Oswestry

mæsse f

  1. mass
    • as mæssan
  2. festival day
    • ds mæssan
[L Lat missa]

mæsse-prost m mass-priest

mæsse-raf f mass-robe

mst see:micel

mte adj intermediate, inferior

m f measure, degree, condition, fitness, right, honor

el n popular assembly

maelian WII address, harangue, speak

el-stede m place of assembly, battle-field

mum-gyfa (mum-) m giver of treasure, lord

mum (mum) m gift, treasure

m see:ic

meagol adj mighty, emphatic


meaht, meahte see:magan

meaht (miht) f might, power

meahtig (mihtig, myhtig) adj mighty, powerful

mearcian WII mark, represent, mark out, design

mearh (mearg) m horse

mearm-stan (marm-) m marble-stone

[Lat marmor]

mear m marten

mec see:ic

mce m sword

Page 329

md (meord) f meed, reward

med-micel (-mycel) adj moderately great, limited, small

medo (medu, meodo) m mead

medomlce (medumlce) adv moderately, worthily

med-trymnes (trumnes) f infirmity, illness, disease

mele-daw m n honey-dew (?), mildew

men see:monn

mengan WI mingle, mix, combine; disturb, lacerate

menig see:monig

menigu (meniu, menigeo, mænigeo) f multitude

mennisc n folk, race, people

mennisc adj human

menniscnes f human condition, incarnation

meodo see:medo

meodu-heall (medu-) f mead-hall

meolc f milk

meord see:md

More Möre (district in Sweden)

mos n moss

Meotod see:Metod

Meran-tn m Merton (Surrey)

mere m mere, lake, sea

[Ger Meer]

mere-fld m sea-flood, sea

Mere-tn m Merton (?), or Marden (?) (Wiltshire)

Meres-g f Mersea (Essex)

merg see:myrg

mtan WI meet, find

metan (principal parts: pret sg:mæt pret pl:mton pp:meten ) 5 mete, measure, compare

mete m meat, food

mete-liest (lst) f want of food

metgian WII assign in due measure

Metod (Meotod) m Creator, Lord

met-trum (med-) adj infirm, ill

Page 330

me adj weary

[Ger müde]

micel (principal parts: pret sg:mycel pret pl:miccel pp:myccel ) great

micelnes greatness

mid prep w dat instr acc; adv with, among (association, means, condition)

midd adj middle

middan-geard (-eard) m earth, world

middan-geardlc (-eardlc) adj worldly

middel adj middle

middel (midel) n middle

Middel-tn m Milton Royal (Kent)

midde-neaht (-niht) f midnight

midde-weard adj mid-ward, middle of

miht see:meaht

mihte see:magan

ml f mile

[Lat mlia]

milde adj mild, merciful

mild-heort adj mild-hearted, merciful

mild-heortnis f mild-heartedness, mercy

Page 331

milts f mercy

miltsian WII show mercy, pity (w dat)

miltsung (mildsung) f mercy

mn poss pron my, mine

mine m mind, purpose, remembrance, favor

[Goth muns; Ger Minne]

mirce (myrce) adj murky, dark, evil

miscian WII mix, apportion

mis-dd f misdeed

mis-faran 6 go astray, transgress

mislc adj various

missenlc adj various

mis-wendan WI pervert

man (principal parts: pret sg:m pret pl:mion pp:mien ) 1 conceal (w gen)

[Ger meiden]

md n mood, wind, courage, pride

md-cearig adj sorrowful of heart

mdelc adj proud, splendid

md-ge-anc m purpose of mind

mdig adj resolute brave, proud, haughty

mdignis f pride, haughtiness

mdor (mder) f mother

mdrige f maternal aunt


md-sefa m mind, heart

mold-ærn n grave

molde f mould, earth, land, world, country

mold-græf n grave

molsnian WII moulder, decay

mna m moon

mna m month

mon-dryhten m liege lord

monig (manig, mænig, moni) adj many, many a

Page 332

monig-feald (manig-, menig-, -fald) manifold, various

monig-fealdian WII multiply

monig-fealdlc (manig-, menig-, -fald) adj various

monig-fealdlce (menig-) adv in the plural number

monn (mon, mann, man) m man; (indef) one

monn-cynn (mann-) n mankind

mon-wre adj gentle, gracious

mr m moor

morgen (mergen) m morning

morgen-td f morning-time

mtan PP may, have opportunity, must

mund f hand

[cf Ger Vor-mund]

munt m mountain

[Lat mons]

munuc m monk

[Lat monachus]

munuc-hd m monkhood, monastic rank

munuclc adj monastic

munuclce adv monastically

munuc-lf n monastic life, monastery

murnan (principal parts: pret sg:mearn pret pl:murnon pp:-- ) 3 mourn, have anxiety or fear (w prep for)

m m mouth

ma m mouth of a river, estuary

mycel see:micel

mylen-scearp adj ground sharp

[mylen /mill/]

Page 333

myndgung f admonition

mynegung f admonition

myngean (mynegian) II admonish, exhort

mynster n

  1. monastery
    • ds mynstre
    • as mynster
    • ap mynstru
  2. minster, cathedral
[Lat monastrium]

mynsterlc adj monastic

mynster-monn m monk

Myrce (Mierce, Merce) m pl the Mercians, Mercia

myrcels m mark


mre f mare


myrg (myrh, merg) f mirth, joy


n (n) adv (adv conj) no, not, not at all, nor (usually strengthens ne)

næbban WIII not to have

[< ne habban]

nacod adj naked, bare

ndre f adder, serpent

næfde, næfdon see:næbban

nfre adv never

nafu f nave

nægel m nail

nægled-cnearr m nailed ship

nh PP 1 sg have not

[< ne h]

nht see:n-wiht

n-hwr adv nowhere, in no case

n-hwæer (n-hwæer, nwer, nwer, ner)

  1. pron neither
    • ns ner
    • as nuer
  2. Conj neither
    • nhwæer n ... n neither ... nor
    • nwer n ... n neither ... nor
    • nuer n ... n neither ... nor
    • ner n ... n neither ... nor

nlæs (nles, nlles, nls) adv not at all

[< n ealles]

nama (noma) m name

nn pron adj not one, none

[< ne n]

nnig pron no one, none

[< ne nig]

Page 334

nn-wuht (-wiht) n nothing

nre, nron see:bon

næs see:bon

næs adv not, not at all

ner see:n-hwæer

nuht see:n-wiht

n-wiht (n-wiht, nuht, nht, nht) n not a whit, nought, nothing; (adv) not, not at all

nwer see:n-hwæer

ne adv not

n adv conj and not, nor

nad see:nod

nah (nh)

  1. near (adv) (of degree) nearly, almost
    • comp nar
    • nar and nar nearer and nearer
  2. near (adv; prep w dat)
    • supl nhst, nhst, nhste, nahst, naxst
    • 3 adj supl as nehst
    • æt nxtan next, finally

neaht see:niht

na-lcan (-lcan) WI draw near, approach (w dat)

nan adv from near

nar see:nah

nearolce adv narrowly, accurately

nearwe adv narrowly, artfully

nat [(cf nten)] n neat, cattle

na-wist (-west) f being near, proximity, presence, neighborhood

[nah, wesan]

nebb n bill, beak

nd see:nod

nd-earf see:ned-earf

nh see:nah

nh-mæg (nah-) m near kinsman

nemnan WI name

nemne (nefne) conj unless, except

neme (nime, nyme) conj unless, except

no-bedd n bed for a corpse

[Goth naus]

nod (nad ned nd nd) f need, necessity, compulsion, force

nodlce adv zealously

[nod, /desire/]

neorxna-wong (neorxena-) m paradise

[ne wyrcan]

Page 335

nosung f visitation

notan 2 enjoy, use, employ (w gen)

[Ger geniessen]

neoan (nian) adv below, beneath, down

nergend m Savior (Christ, God)


nest n nest

nten see:nten

ned-be-earf adj necessary

ned-earf (nd-) f need, necessity

ne-earf (nd-) adj necessary

ng-hworfen (pp) adj newly converted

nigon num nine

nigoa num ninth

niht (neaht) f night: in reckoning time the equivalent of Mod /day/ (cf sennight, fortnight)

niht-helm m cover or shade of the night

niht-rest f night's rest, couch

niht-sca m shadow of night

niman (principal parts: pret sg:nm,nam pret pl:nmon,nmon pp:numen ) 4 take, sieze

Niniueisc adj Ninevitish

nioo-weard adj beneath

npan (principal parts: pret sg:np pret pl:nipon pp:nipen ) 1 grow dark

nis see:beon

n m hatred, envy, malignity

niera (nierra) comp adj lower

nwan (nwan, nwane, nwe, nowan, nen) adv newly, recently

nwe (nwe, nowe) adj new, fresh

n see:n

nht see:n-wiht

n-hwer see:n-hwer

nolde, noldon see:nyllan

nor adv north, northwards, in the north

noran adv from the north

Norerne adj Northern

nore-weard adj northward

Nor-hymbre pl m the Northumbrians, Northumbria

Page 336

Nor-hymbrisc adj Northumbrian

Nor-monn m Norwegian

nor-ryhte adv northward

Nor-s f North Sea

Nor-walas pl m the (North) Welsh, (North) Wales (as opposed to West Wales, i.e. Cornwall)

Nor-wal-cynn n the (North) Welsh

nor-weard adj northward

Norweg Norway

nos-yrel n nostril

notu f office, employment


nuer see:n-hwæer


  1. adv, now
  2. conj, now that, since

nyllan (nillan) not to will, be unwilling

[<ne willan]

nytan (nitan) not to know

[<ne witan]

nyten adj ignorant

[ne witan]

nten (neten, nten, cf nat) n neat, domestic animal, cattle, beast

nytennis f ignorance

nytlic adj useful, profitable

[Ger nützlich]

nyttnes (nytnes) f use, benefit

nyt-wyre adj useful

nyer (nier) adv down

nyerlc (nierlc) adj lovely

nwan, nwe see:niwan, niwe


, oo see:

of prep (w dat) of, from (place and material), from, among, concerning; adv off

of-xian WII learn by asking

ofer prep (w acc) over, across, after, above, upon, superior to, contrary to, against

Page 337

fer m shore, bank

[Ger Ufer]

ofer-cuman 4 overcome

ofer-drfan 1 overcome

ofer-aca m surplus

ofer-fran WI traverse

ofer-frosan 2 freeze over

ofer-gietan 5 forget, disregard

ofer-gyldan WI cover with gold, gild

ofer-hlfian WII over-tower

ofer-mægen n over-mastering might

ofer-mtto f pride

ofer-md n overweening courage, confidence

ofer-mdigian WII be proud, arrogate

ofer-stgan 1 rise above, surpass

ofer-swian WI overcome

ofer-winnan 3 overcome

ofestlce (ofostlce, ofstlce) adv hastily, quickly

ofestum (ofstum) adv hastily, quickly


ofett (ofet) n fruit

[Ger Obst]

of-faran 6 overtake, intercept

offrian WII offer, sacrifice

[Lat offerre]

offrung f offering, sacrifice

of-gn demand, seek, implore

of-giefan (-gifan, -gyfan) 5 give up, quit, desert

of-hrowan 2 pity (w gen)

of-linnan 3 cease

of-lystan WI fill with desire, please

of-munan PP recollect

of-scotan 2 shoot down

of-son 5 see

of-settan WI beset, oppress, afflict

of-slan (principal parts: pret sg:-slg pret pl:slgon pp:-slægen ) 6 strike, slay

Page 338

of-stingan 3 stab to death

oft adv often

of-rysmian WII choke

[rosm, smoke, vapor]

-leccan WI subdue, flatter, soothe, please

[leccan, moisten]

ombiht m servant

[Ger Amt]

on prep (w dat instr acc) on, at, during, in, into, among, against (time, place, manner, circumstance, and condition)

on-lan WI kindle, set on fire, consume by fire

on-bærnan WI kindle, inspire, incite

on-bdan (an-) (principal parts: pret sg:-bd pret pl:-bidon pp:-biden ) 1

  1. abide, tarry
    • imp 2 sg onbd
  2. await (w gen)

on-bltan (principal parts: pret sg:blot pret pl:-bloton pp:-blten ) R sacrifice

on-bregdan 3 move, bow (intr)

on-bryrdan WI inspire, exalt

[brord, prick, point]

on-bryrdnis f inspiration, ardor

on-byrigan (-byrgan) WI taste (w gen)

on-cnwan (principal parts: pret sg:-cnow pret pl:-cnowon pp:-cnwen ) R recognize, acknowledge, understand, know

on-cwean 5 address, answer

on-cyrran WI turn

ond (and) conj and

ondettan see:andettan

ond-git see:and-giet

on-drdan (principal parts: 3 sg pres:-dreord pret sg:-drd pret pl:-drdon pp:-drden ) R fear (trans, and w reflex dat of pers and acc of thing)

Page 339

on-drynne adj awful, exciting, reverence

ond-swarian WII answer

ond-weard see:and-weard

on-emn (on-efn) prep (w dat) near, alongside of

nettan WI (incite), hasten, be active


on-fægnian WII show gladness

on-feohtan 3 fight

on-findan 3 find, find out, discover, learn

on-fn (principal parts: pret sg:-fng pret pl:-fngon pp:-fangen ) R receive (w gen, dat, acc)

on-foran prep (w acc) before (time)

on-gan (an-gan, on-gn, agn) prep (w dat and acc) towards, against; adv, opposite, in the opposite direction, back

ongel-cynn see:Angel-cynn

ongel-od f the Anglian, English people or nation

on-ge-mong (on-ge-mang, on-mang, a-mang) prep (w dat) among

on-gietan (-gitan, -gtan) (principal parts: pret sg:-geat pret pl:-geaton pp:-gieten,-giten,-gyten ) 5 perceive, understand

on-ginn (an-ginn) n beginning

on-ginnan (principal parts: pret sg:-gonn,-gann pret pl:-gunnon pp:-gunnen ) 3 begin, attempt

on-gyldan 3 repay, suffer the penalty for (w gen)

Page 340

on-gytenes f knowledge

on-htan WI heat

on-hebban 6 raise up

on-hldan 1 uncover, open, reveal

on-hn R hang

on-hrodan 2 adorn

on-hyldan WI incline

on-lohtan WI light up, illuminate

on-lc (an-lc) adj like similar (w dat)

on-lce adv similarly

on-lcnes (an-) f likeness, image

on-ltan (principal parts: pret sg:-lat pret pl:-luton pp:-loten ) 2 bow, incline (intr)

[Mod lout]

on-lhtan WI enlighten, illuminate

on-mang see:on-ge-mong

on-middan prep (w dat) amid, at the middle of

on-munan PP consider worthy of or entitled to (w acc of pers and gen of worth)

ono (one, eno) interj lo! behold!

on-rdan 1 ride (on a raid)

on-swan R sow

on-scunian WII shun, avoid, detest, fear

on-secgan WIII offer, sacrifice (trans)

on-sendan WI send

on-sen (an-, -sn, -sn) f appearance, face, sight, presence

on-sgan (principal parts: pret sg:-sh pret pl:-sigon pp:-sigen ) 1 descend

on-slpan R fall asleep, sleep

on-springan 3 spring forth

on-stl m institution, supply

on-stellan WI place, establish, create

on-sund (an-sund) adj sound, whole, healthy

on-sundnis (an-) f soundness

Page 341

on-sn f lack, deficiency

[son, 'sift']

on-ton (principal parts: pret sg:-tah pret pl:-tugon pp:-togen ) 2 assume, take upon oneself

on-tnan WI open (trans and intr)


on-rce (an-) adj dreadful

on-wæcnan WI awake

on-weald (an-, -wald) m power, authority

on-wendan WI turn, change, amend, pervert, overturn, end (trans)

on-wron 1 uncover, reveal

on-wrigennis f (uncovering) revelation


on-wunigan (-wunian) WII dwell, remain

on-wunung f habitation, dwelling

on-wan WI show, manifest

open adj open

openlce adv openly

r [(cf ord)] n beginning

ord n

  1. point, spear-point, spear
    • ds orde
  2. beginning
  3. front of an army, line of battle [(cf Lat acies)]

ord-fruma m beginning, author, chief

or-eald adj very old

[Ger uralt]

orf n cattle

[weorf, weoruf]

organa f organ

[Lat organum]

or-sorglce adv without care or hindrance

or-sorh adj free from care

orlan (orelan) WII breathe, aspire


or-onc m skilful device or work

o prep (w acc) up to, as far as, until (time and place)

o-beran 4 bear away

o-awian WI appear, become visible, show oneself

er (or) other, the other (one of two), another, the second, the next

Page 342

o-fæstan WI set to (a task)

o-feallan R fall off, decline

o-flogan 2 fly away

o-rwan R row away

o-scfan 2 push away, move off, hasten (intr)

o-standan 6 stand fixed

oe conj or

o-windan 3 escape

o-witan (principal parts: pret sg:-wt pret pl:-witon pp:-witen ) 1 reproach, lay to one's charge

[Mod twit]

-wiht pron anything


pællen adj of purple

[pæll <Lat pallium]

pallium m pallium


Panta m the Panta or Blackwater (Essex)

ppa m pope


ppan-hd m papal dignity

papol-stn m pebble-stone

[Lat papula]

paralysis f (?) paralysis

[Gr Lat]

Pamas Patmos

pa (pwa) m peacock

[Lat pvo]

Pedride (Pedrede) the Parret (Somerset)

Peohtas pl m the Picts

pistol m epistle, letter

[Lat epistola]

plega m play, festivity, pleasure

plegian WII

  1. play
  2. contend, fight
    • pret 3 pl plegodon

pleoh n peril

plolc adj perilous, harmful


port m port, harbor

[Lat portus]

post m post

[Lat postis]

prass m (?) tumult (?), pomp (?)

prost m priest

[Lat presbyter]

prost-hd m priest-hood

prica m point, dot

Page 343

Pryfetes flda m Privet's flood, Privet (Hampshire)

pytt m pit

[Lat puteus]


racu f narrative, account, observation

rd f ride, journey, raid

rd m rede, counsel, advice


  1. counsel, advise, decide, R and W I
    • pret 3 sg rdde
    • 3 pl rddon
  2. read, explain, W I
    • ger rdenne
    • 3 sg rt
    • pret 3 pl rddon
    • pp gerd
    • pl gerdde

rd-bora m councillor

rdiing f reading

radost see:hrae

ræfnan WI perform, undergo


rand m border, shield

rp m rope

rran WI raise


rrian WII cry, mourn

rsan WI rush, hasten

rae see:hrae

rad adj red

Radingas pl m Reading

raf n dress, armor

rcan (rccan) WI reck, care (w gen)

reccan (reccean) WI narrate, tell, interpret

reccere m ruler, teacher

rc(c)elas adj reckless, careless

regollc adj according to rules, regular

regollce adv according to rules

reliquias ap relics


rn (regen) rain

rnian WII prepare

rn-scr (regen-) m shower of rain

rocan (principal parts: pret sg:rac pret pl:rucon pp:rocen ) 2 reek, smoke

reord n speech, voice

reordian WII speak

rest f rest

restan WI rest

Page 344

reste-dæg m day of rest, sabbath

re adj fierce, cruel

rce adj powerful, of high rank and authority, rich

rce n kingdom, sovereignty, authority

ricene (ricone, rycene, recene) adv quickly, hastily, instantly

rclce adv powerfully

rcsian (rxian) WII rule, reign

rdan (principal parts: pret sg:rd pret pl:ridon pp:riden ) 1 ride

ridda m rider

riht (ryht) adj right, just, correct

riht (ryht) n right

rihte (ryhte) adv rightly, justly

riht-fremmende (ryht-) (ptc) adj right-doing, righteous

riht-ge-lfed (-lfed) (pp) adj having the right faith, right-believing

rihtlic adj right

rihtlice (ryht-) adv rightly

riht-noran-wind (ryht-) m direct north wind

rihtws adj righteous

rman WI count, number

[Mod rime]

rnan rain

rinc m man, warrior

rip (ryp) n reaping, harvest

rxian see:rcsian

rd f rood, cross

rde-hengen f crucifixion

rde-tcn (-tcen) n sign of the cross (in many cases not a compound)

rodor m sky, heavens

Rmna gp m Romans, Rome

Rmna-burh f city of Rome

Page 345

Rmnisc adj Roman

Rme ds city of Rome

romm m ram

rse f rose

rotian WII rot

rtlice adv cheerfully

rm adj roomy, spacious

rm-md adj magnanimous, bountiful, liberal

rn f (rune), secret meditation

rycene see:ricene

rmet n room, space


s m f sea

scerd m priest

[Lat sacerdos]

sacu f strife, war, battle


sd n seed

sæd adj sad, sated with, weary of (w gen)

[Ger satt]

sdere m sower

Sfern f the Severn

sgan WI cause to sink, settle


sgol m club, staff, pole

s-grund m sea-bottom

sl m f

  1. prosperity, happiness, joy
  2. time, occasion
    • ds sle
    • as sl
[cf ge slig]

slan WI bind

[sl; Ger Seil]

s-lida m sea-farer, pirate

salowig-pd (saluwig-, salu-) adj having a dark, dusky coat (of a rave)

sl f happiness, blessing

sam conj sam ... sam, whether ... or

same adv similarly

samod see:somod

s-monn m sea-man

sm-worht pp adj half-wrought, unfinished

[cf Lat semi-]

sanct m saint

[Lat sanctus]

sand f

  1. mission
    • as sande
  2. service (of food), course, repast
    • ds sande

sr adj sore, grievous

sr m soreness, disease, pain

srig adj sorry, sad

Page 346

s-rima m sea-shore, coast

s-rinc m sea-man, pirate

srlc adj sorrowful, sad

srnis f affliction, distress, suffering

sr-wracu f sorrowful, persecution or tribulation

s-strand m sea-strand

Stanas (Stan) m Satan

[Lat Satana, Satan]

swan (swan) (principal parts: pret sg:sow pret pl:sowon pp:swen ) R sow

swol (swl) f soul

scafan (principal parts: pret sg:scf pret pl:scfon pp:scafen ) 6 shave, scrape

scanca m shank, leg

scand (sceand, scond, sceond) f shame

[Ger Schande]

sceadu (scead, n) f shadow, shade

sceaft m shaft

scealc m servant, man, rogue

[Ger Schalk; cf Mod marshal]

sceamian (scomian) WII shame (impers w acc of pers and gen of thing)

seamu (scamu, scomu, sceomu) f shame, dishonor

scap n sheep

sceard adj (broken), bereft of (w gen)

[Mod shard]

scearplce adv sharply, quickly

scearpnis f sharpness

scat m corner, lap; district or quarter (of the earth)

[Ger Schooss]

sceatt m money, treasure, payment, tribute

[cf Mod scot-free]

sca (sc) f sheath

sceaa m enemy, fiend, criminal


scawian WII see, behold, examine (trans)

scawung f seeing, surveying

Sco-burh f Shoebury (Essex)

sceocca (scucca) m evil spirit, demon, devil

[scoh; cf Mod shy]

Page 347

sceorian WI refuse

scotan (principal parts: pret sg:scat pret pl:scuton pp:scoten ) 2

  1. shoot (trans and intr)
  2. push, thrust (trans)
    • imp 2 pl scota

sceppend see:slieppend

scean (principal parts: pret sg:scd,scod pret pl:scdon,scodon pp:scaen ) 6 scathe, injure (w dat)

scieppan (scippan, scyppan, sceppan) (principal parts: pret sg:scp,scep pret pl:scpon,scopon pp:scepen,sceapen ) 6 create

scieppend (scippend, scyppend, sceppend) m creator

scildan WI shield, protect

scnan (principal parts: pret sg:scn pret pl:scinon pp:scinene ) 1 shine

scip (scyp) n ship

scipen (scypen, scepen) n stall, shed for cattle

[cf Mod shop; Ger Schuppen]

scip-flota m sailor, sea-man

scip-here m fleet, squadron

scippend see:scieppend

scip-rp m ship-rope, cable

scr adj sheer, bright, clear

scr f shire, district, division

Sciringes-hal m Sciringesheal (Norway)

scr-monn m shire-man

scofettan WI shove, push (trans)

scolu f shoal, multitude

scomian see:sceamian

scomu see:sceamu

Scn-g f Skaane (southernmost district of the Scandinavian peninsula)

scop-ge-reord (sceop-) n language of poetry

scortlce (sceortlce) adv shortly, briefly

Scottas (Sceottas) m pl the Scots

scrn n shrine, chest

[Lat scrnium]

scrd n shroud; garment, clothing

scucca see:sceocca

scfan (principal parts: pret sg:scaf pret pl:scufon pp:scofen ) 2 shove, push (intr)

Page 348

sculan (sceolan) PP shall, ought, be necessary

scr m shower

scyld (scield, scild) m shield, protection; portion of a bird's plumage

scyld f guilt, offense, sin

[sculan; Ger Schuld]

scyld-burh f shield-defense; phalanx

scyldig adj guilty

scyld-wyrcende ptc adj evil-doing, sinful

scyll (scell) f shell, scale

scyndan WI hasten (intr)

scne (scene) adj sheen, bright, beautiful

[Ger schn]

scyppend see:scieppend

scyttel (scyttels) m shot, missile; bolt, bar


Scyttisc adj Scottish

s (so, æt) dem pron; def art this, that, the (he, she, it)

[All forms are frequent as antecedents to the relative particle e, thus forming the usual relative pron; the particle is sometimes omitted. See further: be, for ls, mid, t]

sealm m psalm

[Lat psalmus]

sealm-scop m psalmist

Page 349

sealt adj salt

Seal-sudu m Selwood Forest (Wessex)

searolice adv artistically

searu (searo) n art, trick, snare

Seaxe m pl Saxons, Saxony

scan WI seek, strive after

secg m man, warrior

secgan (secgean) WIII say, utter, tell, discuss

sefa m mind, mood, spirit

sfte adj soft, pleasant

segel m n sail

segen (segn) m n sign, ensign, mark, token

[Lat sgnum]

seglian WII sail

segnian (snian) WII make the sign of the cross, cross oneself

seldan (seldon) adv seldom

seld-c adj seldom known, unusual, rare

sele m hall

[Ger Saal]

sele-dram m joy of the hall, revelry, festivity

sele-secg m hero of the hall, retainer

self (seolf, sielf, silf, sylf) pron; adj self, selfsame

selflce n pride, vanity (=adj, selfish, vain, puffed up)

self-willes (sylf-) (gen) adv voluntarily

slla comp adj better

sellan (syllan) WI sell, give, yield

Page 350

sellic adj seldom, choice, wonderful


sllc adj better, superior

sendan WI send

senep m n mustard

[Lat sinpi; Ger Senf]

so see:s

soc (soc) adj sick

seofon (syfen, syfan) num seven

seofon-feald adj seven-fold

seofoa num seventh

seolfor n silver

seolh (siolh) m seal

seomian WII tarry, abide, continue (intr)

son (principal parts: pret sg:seah pret pl:swon,sgon pp:sewen,sawen ) 5 see, look

seona m synod, assembly

[Lat synodus]

set n seat, entrenchment

setl n seat, throne

settan WI

  1. set, place
    • pret 2 sg settest
    • 3 sg sette
  2. compose, write
    • pret 3 pl setton

si, se, sig see:bon

sibb f relationship, friendship, peace

[Ger Sippe]

sib-ge-dryht f peaceful host

siblc adj peaceable

sibling m relative

siccetung f sighing, sigh

Sicilia-land n Sicily

sicol m sickle

sd adj wide, extensive

[cf Mod side]

sde adv widely

sde f side

sido see:siodu

sd-weg m wide way

siendon see:bon

sgan (principal parts: pret sg:sg,sh pret pl:sigon pp:sigen ) 1 sink, settle down, approach

[son, sift]

sige m victory

Sigen f the Seine

sige-wong m plain of victory

Page 351

siglan WI sail

sigor n m victory

sigor-fæst adj victorious

sigor-lan m reward of victory

Sillende Zealand

simle see:symble

sn reflex poss pron his

sin, sind, sindon see:bon

sinc n treasure

sin-caldu f perpetual cold

[symble; cf Ger Singrün]

sinc-gyfa m giver of treasure, lord

sinc-egu f receiving of treasure


sin-dram m everlasting joy

sin-gl adj constant, continual

sin-gllce adv continually

singan (principal parts: pret sg:song pret pl:sungon pp:sungen ) 3 sing, compose poetry

soc see:soc

siodu (siodo, sido) m custom, morals

[Ger Sitte]

siolh see:seolh

sittan (principal parts: pret sg:sæt pret pl:ston pp:seten ) 5 sit, take one's position, remain

s comp adv later

[Ger seit]

s m

  1. journey, going, motion
    • gs ses
    • ds se
    • as s
    • is se
  2. time, occasion
    • re se ... re se on one occasion ... on another

sie-mest supl adj latest, last

s-fæt m journey

siian WII travel, go (intr)

sian (syan, seoan < son, syan) adv (conj) since, after, that, afterwards, when

slp m sleep

slpan (slpan) (principal parts: pret sg:slp pret pl:slpon pp:slpen ) R sleep

slan (principal parts: pret sg:slh,slg pret pl:slgon pp:slagen,slægen,slegen ) 6

  1. strike, smite, slay
    • imp 2 sg sleah
    • pret opt 3 sg slge
    • pp geslægen, geslegen
    • sg geslagena (smite wth an affliction)
  2. construct

Page 352

slege m stroke, blow, slaughter, death


sliht (slieht) m slaughter, destruction


sltan (principal parts: pret sg:slt pret pl:sliton pp:sliten ) 1 slit, tear (trans)

slen (sle) adj perilous, grim

smæl adj small, narrow

smagan (sman) WIII think, reflect upon, consider (trans and intr)

smaung (smagung) f contemplation, reflection

smi m smith

smie f smithy

smolt adj mild, peaceable

smylte adj mild, tranquil, peaceable


smyltnes f smoothness, quiet, calm


smyrian (smerian, smyrwan) WI anoint


snw m snow

snell adj quick, active, keen, bold

[Ger schnell]

snian (principal parts: pret sg:sn pret pl:snidon pp:sniden ) 1 cut

[Ger schneiden]

snwan WI snow

snotor (snottor) adj discerning, wise

snde adv quickly

[Ger schleunig]

snytro (snyttru) f discernment, wisdom


snyttru-cræft m discerning skill or might

sfte adv softly, easily, pleasantly

solor (solere) m soler, upper floor or chamber

[Lat slrium; Ger Söller]

somnian WII

  1. collect, gather together (trans)
    • 3 sg somna
  2. assemble (intr)
    • 3 sg (for 3 pl ?) somna
[Ger sammeln]

somnunga (semninga) suddenly, forthwith

somod (samod) adv together

sn m sound

[Lat sonus]

sna adv soon

song (sang) m n song, poem

song-cræft m art of song and poetry

sorg (sorh) f sorrow

Page 353

sorg-full adv sorrowful

s adj sooth, true

s-cyning m true King, God

s-fæst adj true, faithful

s-fæstnis f truth

slice adv verily, truly, indeed

spæc see:sprecan

spca m spoke

sptan WI spit

spearca m spark

spearwa m sparrow

spd f speed, success, riches, power

spdan WI accede (w dat)


spdig adj prosperous, rich, powerful

spel-boda m messenger


spell n saying, story, narrative, message

spere n spear

spillan WI spill, destroy

splott n splotch, blot, spot

spor n track, footprint

[Ger Spur]

spwan (principal parts: pret sg:spow pret pl:spowan pp:spwen ) R succeed (impers w dat)

[cf Ger sputen]

sprc f speech, language, saying, discourse

sprecan (specan) (principal parts: pret sg:spræc pret pl:sprcon pp:sprecen ) 5 speak

sprengan WI fly into pieces, burst, break (intr)


springan (principal parts: pret sg:sprong pret pl:sprungon pp:sprungen ) 3 spring (intr)

spyrian (spyrigean) WI; W II follow, search, inquire (intr)


staca m stake

stæde-fæst see:stede-fæst

stæf m staff, rod; letter, writing

[cf Ger Buchstabe]

stæl-here m predatory, marauding army or band

stæl-hrn m decoy-reindeer

Page 354

stæl-wyre adj stalwart, serviceable

stn m stone, rock

stn-clif n stony cliff

standan see:stondan

stnen adj of stone


stn-hleo (hl) n stony declivity, cliff

stn-scylig adj stone-shelly, stony


stæp-mlum (dp) adv step by step

str n story, history, narrative

[Lat historia]

stæ n shore

[standan; Ger Gestade]

staelian WII establish

[staol, foundation]

stap adj steep, lofty, precipitous

stearc adj stark, strong

stda m steed, stallion

stede m stead, place

stede-fæst (stæde-) adj steadfast

stefn (stemn) f

  1. voice, sound
    • ds stefne, stemne
    • is stefne
  2. m, summons, term of military service
    • as stemn
[Ger Stimme]

stefn (stæfn) m stem, prow of a ship

stemn see:stefn

stemnettan WI stem, resist, stand firm (intr)

stenc m stench, odor, fragrance

steng m stang, pole, rod, bar


stor-bord n starboard, right side of a ship

stor-rra m steersman

steort m tail

[cf Mod start]

steppan (stæppan) (principal parts: pret sg:stp pret pl:stpon pp:stapen ) 6 step, advance, go

stician WII

  1. stick, stab (trans)
    • pp gesticod
  2. stick, remain (intr)
    • 3 pl sticia

stgan (principal parts: pret sg:stg,sth pret pl:stigon pp:stigen ) 1 ascend, rise, spring up

[cf Mod sty]

stihtan WI incite

[Ger stiften]

stille adj still, fixed

stilnes f stillness, quiet

Page 355

stincende (ptc) adj stinking, of offensive smell


stingan (principal parts: pret sg:stong pret pl:stungon pp:stungen ) 3 sting, stab, push through (trans)

st adj stiff, firm, stern, resolute, brave

st-hycgende (ptc) adj firm of purpose, resolute, brave

st-hdig (-hygdig) adj firm of purpose, resolute

stlce adv stoutly, boldly, severely

stoce m stock, stake

std-hors n stallion

stondan (standan) (principal parts: pret sg:std pret pl:stdon pp:standen ) 6 stand, occupy a place, arise (intr)

storm m storm

stw f place

[Mod stow]

strl m f arrow, dart

[Ger Strahl]

strand m strand

strang see:strong

strangian WII strengthen


stranglc adj strong

stranglce adv strongly

strt f street, road

[Lat strta]

stram m stream

strec (stræc) adj stern, severe


strengu (streng) f strength

strong (strang) adj strong

stund f brief period of time

[Ger Stunde]

Str-mere m estuary of the Stour (Essex)

stycce-mlum (dp) adv piecemeal; here and there

stman WI steam (intr)


styrman WI storm (intr)


styrian WI stir, move (trans and intr)

su see:sw

sub-dacon (-dacon) m subdeacon

suelc see:swilc

s-stæ n south coast

sum pron adj some, certain, some one, certain one (w gen)

Page 356

sumor (sumer) m summer

sumor-lida m summer-army (one that does not winter in the country)


sun-bearo m sunny grove

sun-beorht adj sun-bright

sundor adv apart

sund-plega m sporting in the waves, bathing

sunnan-dæg m Sunday

sunnan-hta m Sunday morning

sunn-bam m sunbeam

sunne f sun

sunu m son

span (principal parts: pret sg:sap pret pl:supon pp:sopen ) 2 sup, drink

ssl n torment

s adv south, southwards

san adv from the south

serne adj southern

se-weard adj southward

s-rima m south coast

s-rodor m southern sky

s-ryhte adv southwards

s-s m f south-sea (the sea south of England)

S-seaxe pl m South Saxons, Sussex

suwian see:swigian

sw (sw) adv (dem and rel) so, as (manner, degree)

swæcc m odor, fragrance

Page 357

swlce adv so, thus

swan m swan

swn m swain, peasant, young man

swr (swr) adj heavy, grievous

[Ger schwer]

sws adj beloved, own

swsendu pl n dainties, banquet

swt m sweat, blood

swæ n swath, track, footprint


sweart adj swart, black, tawny

swefn (swefen) n sleep, dream


swg m sound, harmony

swgan WI sound, have sound or import (intr)

[cf Mod swoon]

swegel (swegl) n sky, heavens

swegel-condel f candle or luminary of heaven

swelc, swelce see:swilc, swilce

swelgan (principal parts: pret sg:swealg pret pl:swulgon pp:swolgen ) 3 swallow (trans)

sweltan (principal parts: pret sg:swealt pret pl:swulton pp:swolten ) 3 die

swencan WI trouble, molest, afflict, torment


sweng m stroke, blow


Swo-land n Sweden

Swom dp m the Swedes

swora (swra, swra, swra) m neck

sweord (swurd, swyrd) n sword

sweotol (swiotol, swutol) adj clear, manifest, distinct

[cf Goth swikuns]

sweotole adv clearly

sweotolian WII make manifest

sweotolce (swutelce) adv clearly

swer m pillar, column

swte adj sweet

swtnis f sweetness

swerian WII diminish, subside (intr)

swc-dm m deception

swift adj swift

Page 358

swgian (swugian, sugian, suwian) WIII be silent

[Ger schweigen]

swilc (swylc, swelc) pron adj such

swilce (swylce, swelce) adv conj

  1. (w indic) in such manner, thus, likewise
    • ac swylce
    • ac swelce
  2. (w opt) as if, as though

swimman (principal parts: pret sg:swomm pret pl:swummon pp:swummen ) 3 swim

swn (swn) n swine, hog

swincan (principal parts: pret sg:swonc pret pl:swuncon pp:swuncen ) 3 swink, labor, toil, strive (intr)


swingan (principal parts: pret sg:swong pret pl:swungon pp:swungen ) 3 whip, swinge, scourge, strike, beat

swingel f whip, scourge


swnsian WII sound, make melody, sing

swnsung f melody, harmony

swra see:swora

sw (sw) adj strong, active, severe

[Ger geschwind]

swe (swe) adv very, exceedingly, severely; (in supl) especially

swlc adj intense, excessive

swol n heat, burning

[swelan, /sweal/]

swongor adj heavy, inert

[Ger schwanger]

swra see:swora

swurd see:sweord

swuster (sweosteor) f sister

swutelce see:sweotolce

swylc, swylce see:swilc, swilce

swylt-cwalu f agony of death

swylt-hwl f hour of death

swn see:swn

swra see:swora

sylen f gift


sylf see:self

sylfren adj of silver


Page 359

syll f sill, base, support

symbel n feast, banquet

symble (symle, simle) adv ever, always

[sin + ml]

symle see:symble

syn-bend m f n fetter of sin or of hell

syn-byren f burden of sin

synd see:bon

synderlce adv specially


syndrig adj separate, private

syndriglce adv separately, specially

syn-full adj sinful

synlc adj sinful

synn f sin

synnig adj sinful

syrwan (sierwan) WI

  1. plot, machinate
  2. put on armor
    • pp gesyrwed

Syr-ware pl m Syrians

syan see:sian

syx (siex, six, sex) num gp syxa

syxtig num sixty

syxtig-feald adj sixty-fold


tcan (tcean) WI teach, direct

tcen n token, symbol, sign, miracle

tcnian WII symbolize, signify, represent

tægel m tail

tlan WI reprove, blame

tam adj tame

tn (t, f) m twig

[cf mistel-tn /mistletoe/]

tapur (tapor) m taper

tsan WI lacerate, pierce

[Mod tease]

teala see:teola

tar m tear

tar-gotende (ptc) adj tear-shedding, tearful

telga m branch

Temes f the Thames

tempel n temple

[Lat Templum]

teohhian (tiohhian) WII arrange, appoint, direct, destine

[teoh, Ger Zeche]

Page 360

teola (teala, tela) adv properly, well


teolian, teolung see:tilian, tilung

ton (ton) (principal parts: pret sg:tah pret pl:tugon pp:togen ) 2 draw, betake oneself, go

ton (togan) irreg arrange, create

[cf teohhian]

tonlce adj grievously

[ton, /accuse/; Mod teen]

Ter-finna gp the Terfins

tber n offering, sacrifice

[cf Ger Ungeziefer]

td f tide, time, hour

tgan WI tie

tihtan see:tyhtan

til adj good

[Ger Ziel]

tilian (teolian) WII

  1. endeavor, strive, after
    • inf teolian
    • 3 sg tiola
    • 3 pl tilia
  2. provide, treat, gain (w gen)
    • 3 pl tilga opt 3 sg tilige
[Mod till]

tilung (teolung) f tillage, husbandry

tma m time

timbran WI build, construct

tin-treg n torment

tin-treglc adj full of torment

tiohhian see:teohhian

tr m fame, glory, honor

[Ger Zier]

tr-adig adj glorious

tr-fæst adj famous, glorious

tr-meahtig adj of glorious might

tian WII grant (w dat of pers and gen of thing)

t prep

  1. (w dat instr) to, at, for (place, time, indirect relation, condition); conducing to, for, as; sign of gerund; w verbs to inquire, seek, learn; prep adv
    • t m adv, to such an extent or degree, so
    • t m
    • t on
    • t on to that (time)
    • t son truly
    • t dæg to-day
    • t dæge
    • t earfe according to what is needed (cf for benefit)
    • t r to where; belonging thereto
    • r t acan in addition thereto
  2. (w gen)
    • t æs adv [(= t æm) (hwon)] moreover, however

Page 361

t adv too

t-æt-can WI add


t-berstan 3 burst, break asunder

t-brdan WI spread out

t-brecan 4 break in pieces, destroy, break through

t-ceorfan (principal parts: pret sg:-cearf pret pl:-curfon pp:-corfen ) 3 carve out

t-clofan 2 cleave asunder

t-cnwan R know, acknowledge

t-cuman 4 come, arrive

t-cwsan WI crush

[Mod squeeze]

t-cwsednis f crushed condition

t-cyme m arrival, advent

t-dl n separation, difference

t-dlan WI divide, separate

t-emnes prep (w dat) alongside

t-faran 6 separate, disperse (intr)

t-foran prep (w dat) before (time and place)

t-gædere adv together

t-ganes prep (w dat) toward, before

t-ge-odan WI join

t-hopa m hope

t-lsan see:t-lsan

t-lsnes f dissolution, violation, breach

t-licgan 5 lie between, separate

t-lsan (-lsan) WI loosen, relax, unhinge

t-middes prep (w dat) amidst, amongst

t-niman 4 take apart, separate, open, lift up

torht adj bright, glorious

torn n anger, indignation

[Ger Zorn]

tscad n distinction, difference

t-slpan 2 slip away

t-smagean (-smagan) WIII think over in detail, inquire into, consider

to-stencan WI scatter, drag along


t-teran 4 tear in pieces

Page 362

t-twman WI separate


t m tooth

t-weard adj toward, approaching, imminent, future

t-weard prep (w dat) toward

t-wearde adv in advance, beforehand

t-wegan 5 disperse

t-weorpan (-wurpan) (principal parts: pret sg:-wearp pret pl:-wurpon pp:-worpen ) 3 overthrow, destroy

t-wurpan see:t-weorpan

traht-bc f treatise

[trahtian Ger trachten]

tro f tree, wood

trow f faith, pledge, agreement

trowen adj of a tree, wooden

Trs an ancient city on the Drausensea

trwa m confidence

trymm (tremm) n short distance, step

trymman (trymian) WI confirm, exhort

[Mod trim]

t see:twgen

tcian WII ill-treat, torment, punish

tdor (tddor) n offspring, issue

tn m (enclosure), town, village, homestead

[Ger Zaun]

tunece f tunic, coat

[Lat tunica]

tunge f tongue

tn-ge-rfa m town-reeve, bailiff, steward of a manor

tungol n (m) luminary, star

turf f turf

twa (twwa twwa trwa) adv twice

tw see:twgen

twgen num m twain, two

twelf num twelve

Page 363

twntig num twenty

twonian (twnian) WII doubt (impers)

twonung (twnung) f doubt

tw-feald adj two-fold

tdernis (tddernis) f weakness


tdran WI beget, bring forth


tyht (tiht) m training, instruction; motion, progress


tyhtan (tihtan) WI instigate, urge, persuade, exhort


tyhting (tihting) f instruction, advice

tman WI beget, engender


tn (ten) num ten

adv; conj (dem and rel) then, when

[Ger da]


afian WII consent to, permit; endure, suffer

m, m see:s

anc (onc) m grace, mercy, thanks

ancian WII thank (w dat of pers and gen of thing)

anon see:onan

r (r) adv (dem and rel) there, where

re, ra, ra see:s

s see:s

æs see:s

æslce [(cf yslc)] adv suitably

æt (ætte < æt e) conj that, so that

e rel particle that, which; (conj) because, or; w comp, than

Page 364

see: and s

ah (h) conj adv though, however, nevertheless

earf f need, behoof, requirement, benefit


earfa m poor man

earfende (ptc) adj being in want

earle adv severely

earlc adj severe, cruel

aw m habit, custom, practice, behavior

[Mod thews]

eccan WI cover

[cf Mod thatch; Ger decken]

egen (egn, n) m servant, thane, officer, retainer, warrior

[Ger Degen]

egenlce adv in a manner becoming a egen, faithfully

egnian (nian) WII

  1. serve (w dat)
    • pret 3 sg node
  2. perform (a service), supply another with anything
    • inf nian

h see:ah

n see:egen

encan WI think, consider, resolve, intend

enden conj adv while, as long as

nian see:egnian

nig-monn m serving-man

nung (ning) f service, ministration, office; attendants; service of a meal; book of a service

od (od) f people, nation

[Ger deutsch]

oden m chief, lord, prince, king

od-land n inhabited country

od-scipe m service, discipline

of m thief

on (principal parts: pret sg:h pret pl:igon pp:igen ) 1 thrive, prosper, succeed

[Mod obs thee, Ger gedeihen]

Page 365

os see:s

oster-full adj full of darkness

ostro (ostro, stro) f n darkness

ow (ow) m servant

[cf egen]

owa m servant

ow-dm m service

owian WII serve (w dat)

s (os, is) dem pron this

iccnes f thickness

icgan 5 receive, take, consume, eat

ider (yder, idres) thither

ider-weard adv thither-ward

ider-weardes adv thither-wards

n poss pron thine

nen f handmaid


ing n thing

ingere m one that pleads a cause, advocate

ingian WII plead a cause, intercede for another (w dat)

ingung f advocacy, intercession, mediation

od see:od

ostro see:ostro

ow see:ow

owot-dm (owot-) m service

is see:s

olian WII

  1. suffer, endure, undergo
    • ger olianne, oligenne
    • pret 3 sg olade
  2. endure, hold out (intr)
[Ger dulden]

on see:s

Page 366

onan (onon, anon) adv thence

onan-weard adj on the way thence

one see:s

onne (ænne) adv (dem and rel) then, when; w comp than

orn m thorn

oterung f lamentation

rg (rh) f time

ragean (ragan, ran) WIII rebuke, reprove, oppress

rat m crowd, troop, flock

r (re, r, row, row) num three

ridda num adj third

ringan (principal parts: pret sg:rong pret pl:rungon pp:rungen ) 3 throng, press or crowd together

[Ger dringen]

rnnis f trinity

rst (rste) adj bold, confident, resolute, rash, presumptuous

[Ger dreist]

r-tne (ro-, -tne, rottne) num thirteen

rtig (rttig, rttig) num thirty

rtig-feald adj thirty-fold

rwa adv thrice

rotu f throat

rwian WII suffer

rwung f suffering

ryccan WI oppress, afflict

[Ger druecken]

rymlce adv gloriously

rymm m multitude, host, strength, force, renown, glory

Page 367

rym-sittende (ptc) adj sitting in glory

r (ro) f might, majesty, copiousness

second pers pron thou

unor m thunder

urfan PP need, be required, have occasion

[Ger duerfen]

urh prep (w acc) through (condition, agency)

urh-flon 2 fly, fly through

urh-scotan 2 shoot through, pierce

urh-slan 6 smite through

urh-ton 2 (draw through), fulfil, accomplish

urh-wadan (principal parts: pret sg:-wo-d pret pl:-wdon pp:-waden ) 6 go through, penetrate

urh-wunian WII continue, be steadfast

urst m thirst

urstig adj thirsty

us adv thus

send n thousand

wan (principal parts: pret sg:wh pret pl:wgon pp:wægen ) 6 wash

wyrnis (weorhnis) f perversity



dan WI submit


yncan WI seem, appear

yrstan WI thirst after (w gen)


yslc (uslc, æslc) pron adj such

stro see:ostro

Page 368


ufan adv from above, above

ufe-weard adj upward, upper, higher up

ufor adv further away

hta m dawn

ht-song m morning song; matins

un--berendlc adj intolerable

un--secgendlc adj unspeakable

un--roten (pp) adj unwearied, indefatigable


un--wendendlc adj unchangeable

un-be-boht adj (ptc) unsold


un-be-fohten (pp) adj unopposed

un-bryce adj imperishable


uncer see:ic

un-cou f disease

un-c adj unknown, uncertain

un-cyst f vice, wickedness

under prep (w dat and acc)

  1. under (w dat)
  2. (w acc)
    • under bæc adv backwards [(cf ofer bæc)]

under-be-ginnan (principal parts: pret sg:-gonn pret pl:-gunnon pp:-gunnen ) 3 undertake

under-fenge m undertaking

under-fn (principal parts: pret sg:-fng pret pl:-fngon pp:fangen ) R undertake, receive, assume

under-gietan (-gitan -gytan) 5 perceive

undern m mid-morning, morning

under-scotan (principal parts: pret sg:-scat pret pl:-scuton pp:-scoten ) 2 support

under-stondan 6 understand

under-odan see:under-edan

under-edan (-dan, -odan, -odan) WI subject to (w reflex acc and dat)

under-odan see:under-edan

un-drfed (pp) adj untroubled, undisturbed, undefiled (of water)

un-earg (-earh) adj not cowardly, brave

un-ae adv not easily, with difficulty

un-aelce (-elce, -elce) adv with difficulty

Page 369

un-fæger adj not fair, unsightly, foul

un-feor adv not far, near

un-for-bærned (pp) adj unburned

un-for-c adj reputable, excellent, brave

un-forht adj fearless, undaunted

un-forht-md adj fearless

un-fri m hostility

un-gearo adj unprepared, unready

un-ge-cyndelc adj unnatural, terrible

un-ge-endod (pp) adj endless

un-ge-fge adv excessively

un-ge-frglce adv (to an unheard of degree), unquestionably, incredibly

un-ge-fullod (pp) adj unbaptized

un-ge-hrsum adj disobedient

un-ge-lred (pp) adj unlearned, ignorant

un-ge-lrednes f want of learning, ignorance

un-ge-laffull adj unbelieving

un-ge-lafulnes f unbelief

un-ge-lc adj unlike (w dat)

un-ge-limplc adj unfitting, shameful

un-ge-metlce adv immoderately

un-ge-rd adj at variance, discordant

un-ge-rdelice (-rdelce -rdelce) adv insecurely

un-ge-slig adj unhappy

un-ge-sl f misfortune

un-ge-scadws adj undiscerning, unintelligent, irrational

un-ge-sewenlc adj invisible

un-ge-trum adj weak, infirm

un-ge-wre adj at variance, discordant

un-ge-yldig adj impatient

un-ge-wemmed (pp) adj undefiled, pure

un-ge-wuna m evil habit

un-ge-wyrded (pp) adj uninjured

un-glawnes f want of discernment

un-hl adj not hale, ill

un-hanlce adv not ignominiously, nobly

[Ger Hohn]

un-lred (pp) adj unlearned, ignorant

un-lybba m poisonous drug

un-mte adj immeasurable

un-mihtig adj without might, weak

Page 370

un-myltsiendlc adj unpardonable

unnan PP grant, favor (w dat of pers and gen of thing)

un-ndig adj without compulsion or restraint; of one's own volition


un-nytt (-nett) useless


un-ofer-swelc adj unconquerable

un-orne adj old

un-rd m evil counsel, folly

un-riht adj wrong, wicked, unjust

un-riht n wrong, sin, injustice

un-rihtlce adv wrongfully

un-rihtnes f wrong, unrighteousness

un-riht-wsnes f unrighteousness, injustice

un-riht-wyrhta m evildoer

un-rm n countless number

un-rt adj sad, disconsolate

un-rt-md adj sadhearted

un-rtnes f sadness, contrition

un-scæig adj innocent

un-sceafulnes f innocence

un-scyldig adj guiltless, innocent

un-sme adj not smooth, uneven, rough

un-spdig adj poor

un-staol-fæst adj unstable, unenduring

un-stille adj moving

un-stilnes f disturbance

un-tela adv improperly, wrongly

un-trowsian WII deceive

un-trum adj weak, infirm, ill

un-trumnes (-try-) f weakness, illness

un-anc-wure adj ungrateful, unacceptable

un-aw m evil practice, vice

un-wclce adv unwaveringly

un-wær adj unwary

un-wærlce adv unwarily, rashly

un-wærscipe m carelessness, folly

un-wealt adj not 'walty,' steady

Page 371

un-weaxen (pp) adj not grown, young

un-wemme adj undefiled, pure

un-wiere (-wyre) adj unworthy of (w gen)

un-windan (principal parts: pret sg:-wond pret pl:-wundon, pp:-wunden ) 3 unwind, uncover

un-ws adj unwise

un-ws-dm m unwisdom, ignorance

un-wit-weorc n foolish work

un-wi-metenlce adv incomparably

un-wlitigian WII change the appearance of beauty of anything

un-wrecen (pp) adj unpunished


un-wrtere m incorrect writer

p (pp, upp) adj up, upwards

p--hafenes f exaltation

p--hebban 6 exalt, lift up

p--rred (pp) adj exalted

p--stgnes f ascension

p--wend pp directed upward

p-gang m

  1. rising (of the sun)
    • ds -gange
  2. way up, approach
    • as -gang

p-ldend (ptc) adj towering

p-lc adj upper, heavenly

uppe adv up, above

uppon prep (w dat) upon

pp-stgan 1 rise, spring up

p-stige m ascension

re poss pron our

urnon see:yrnan

s see:ic

ser poss pron our

sic see:ic

t adv out, without

tan adv from without, outside

tan-bordes (gen) adv abroad

te adv out, outside, without

ter-mere m outer, open sea

tera (terra, tra, ttra) comp adj outer

te-weard adj outward, outside

t-gong m departure, exodus

Page 372

uton see:wuton

-wita m wise man, philosopher


w [(cf wa)] m

  1. woe
  2. interj
    • wlw alas
    • wi l wi

wc adj weak, pliant, insignificant, mean

wæcce f watch, waking

wcian WII become weak, waver

wclc adj weak, mean

wcnis f weakness; insignificance

wacol adj awake, vigilant

wacollce adv vigilantly

wadan (principal parts: pret sg:wd pret pl:wdon pp:waden ) 6 wade; advance, go, travel

wdl (wl, wl) f poverty, want

wdla m poor man

wdlian WII be poor, beg

wfels m n covering, dress

wfer-sn f spectacle, display

wfian WII be agitated or astonished

wg (wg) m wave

[wegan; Ger Woge]

wagian WII wag, move (intr)

wæl n

  1. body of the slain, slaughter, carnage
  2. battle-field
[wl 'pestilence'; cf Mod Valhalla]

wæl-feld m field of slaughter

wæl-gfre adj greedy for slaughter

wæl-hrow adj slaughterhouse, murderous, cruel

wæl-raf n spoil of the slain, of the destroyed

wæl-rest (-ræst) f bed of slaughter