This is page 223 of An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Bosworth and Toller (1898)

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DYSIG -- EAC. 223

dysig, disig, dysi, es; n. An error, ignorance, folly, foolishness; error, stult&i-short;tia, ins&a-long;nia. ins&i-short;pientia :-- Ðæt is hefig dysig that is a grievous folly, Bt. Met. Fox 19, 1; Met. 19, 1: Bt. 32, 3; Fox 118, 7. Ðé lícode his dysig and his unrihtwísnes his folly and his injustice pleased thee, 27, 2; Fox 96, 22. Dysi and unrihtwísnes nú rícsaþ ofer ealne middaneard folly and wickedness now reign over all the mid-earth, 36, 1; Fox 172, 8. Fægniaþ irmingas hiera ágnes dysiges and hearmes the wretches rejoice at their own folly and sorrow, Past. 35, 4; Hat. MS. 46 a. 14: Bt. 36, 5; Fox 180, 6. Ulcinienses and Thrusci ða folc forneáh ealle forwurdon for heora ágnum dysige the Volscians and the Etruscans nearly all perished through their own folly, Ors. 4, 3; Bos. 79, 43: Bt. 18, 2; Fox 64, 4. Ne lócaþ næ-acute;fre to ídelnesse, ne to leásungum, ne to dysige non respexit in van&i-short;t&a-long;tes, et ins&a-long;nias falsas, Ps. Th. 39, 4. Míne wúnda rotedan and fúledon for mínum dysige computru&e-long;runt et deterior&a-long;v&e-long;runt cicatr&i-long;ces meæ, a f&a-short;cie ins&i-short;pientiæ meæ, 37, 5. Abigail forswigode ðæt dysig hiere fordruncnan hláfordes Abigail concealed the folly of her drunken lord, Past. 40, 4; Hat. MS. 55 a, 12, 15: 45, 2; Hat. MS. 64 b, 25. Lífes weard of mode abrit ðæt micle dysig the guardian of life removes from his mind that great ignorance, Bt. Met. Fox 28, 156; Met. 28, 78: 19, 77; Met. 19, 39: Bt. 39, 3; Fox 216, 5: Past. 30; Hat. MS. 39 a, 5. Ðeáh ic mid dysige þurhdrifen wsére though I was thoroughly penetrated with folly, Elen. Kmbl. 1410; El. 707: Ps. Th. 75, 4. We sinna fela didon for úre disige we committed many sins through our foolishness, Hy. 7, 107; Hy. Grn. ii. 289, 107.

dysig-dóm, es; m. Foolishness, ignorance; irnp&e-short;r&i-long;tia, Pref. R. Cone.

dysig-nes, dysi-nes, -ness, e; f. Folly, DIZZINESS, blasphemy; , stult&i-short;tia, blasph&e-long;mia :-- Wæ-acute;ron heó mid elreordre dysignesse onbláwne infl&a-long;ti erant barb&a-short;ra stult&i-short;tia, Bd. 2, 5; S. 507, 13. Of manna heortan yfele geþancas cumaþ, dysinessa de corde h&o-short;m&i-short;num malæ cog&i-short;t&a-long;tiones proc&e-long;dunt, blasph&e-long;mia, Mk. Bos. 7, 22.

dys-líc, dyse-líc; def. se -líca, seó, ðæt -líce; adj. Foolish, stupid; stultus :-- Hit biþ swíðe dyslíc ðæt se man beorce oððe blæ-acute;te it is very foolish that the man bark or bleat, Ælfc. Gr. 22; Som. 24, 11: Bd. 1, 27; S. 493, 11. Oft ge dyslíce dæ-acute;d gefremedon often ye have done a foolish deed, Elen. Kmbl. 771; El. 386. From ðæm lífe ðæs dyselícan gewunon a vita stultæ consuet&u-long;d&i-short;nis, Bd. 4, 27; S. 604, 2. On dyslícum geswincum in foolish labours, Past. 18, 2; Hat. MS. 263, 11.

dys-líce; adv. Foolishly; stulte :-- Se Godes cunnaþ ful dyslíce he tempteth God very foolishly. Salm. Kmbl. 455; Sal. 228. Dyslíce ðú dydest stulte op&e-short;r&a-long;tus es, Gen. 31, 28.

dystig; adj. DUSTY; pulv&e-short;r&u-short;lentus, Cot. 183.

dyþhomar pap&y-long;rus = GREEK :-- [Nim] dyþhomar [take] pap&y-long;rus, L. M. 1, 41; Lchdm. ii. 106, 17. v. duþhamor.

DYTTAN; p. de; pp. ed To DIT, close or shut up; oppr&i-short;m&e-short;re, occl&u-long;d&e-short;re, obt&u-long;r&a-long;re :-- Ongunnon ða Fariséi his m&u-long;þ dyttan cæp&e-long;runt Pharisæi os ejus oppr&i-short;m&e-short;re, Lk. Bos. 11, 53. Anlíc nædran seó dytteþ hyre eáran secundum similit&u-long;d&i-short;nem serpentis obt&u-long;rantis aures suas, Ps. Th. 57, 4. [Laym, dutte, p. pl. stopt: Orm. dittenn to shut, stop: O. Nrs. ditta rimas occl&u-long;d&e-short;re, Rask Hald.] DER. for-dyttan.

dyxsas dishes, platters, Mt. Foxe and Jun. 23, 25, = discas; pl. acc. of disc.


A. Anglo-Saxon words, containing the short or unaccented vowel e, are often represented by modern English words of the same meaning, having the sound of e in net, met, ; as, Nett, bedd, weddian, hell, well, denn, fenn, webb, ende. 2. the short e in Anglo-Saxon generally comes (1) before a double consonant; as, Nebb, weccan, tellan, weddian: (2) before any two consonants; as, Twentig, sendan, bernan: (3) before one or two consonants, when followed by a long or by a final vowel; as, Sele, henne. 3. e is often contracted from ea; as, Ceaster and cester a burgh, fortified town; eahta and ehta eight.

B. Words containing the long or accented Anglo-Saxon é are very frequently represented by English terms of the same signification, with the sound of e in heel; as, Réc, méd, hél, cwén, gés, fét, téþ, hédan, fédan, métan to meet. Some remarks on the accented é in Grimm's Deutsche Grammatik, 2nd Edit. Göttingen, small 8vo. 1822, vol. i. pp. 229, 230: 3rd Edit. small 8vo. 1840, vol. i. pp. 361, 362, may be found useful, and are especially recommended to the student of Anglo-Saxon. 2. it is, however, difficult to say when the e is long in Anglo-Saxon, but it may be useful to remember, the e is often long before the single consonants l, m, n, r, c, d, f, g, s, t, and þ; as, in hél a heel, félan to feel, déman to deem, think, fénix a phænix, hér here, gés geese, fét feet, fédan to feed, téþ teeth, béc books, blégen a Wain, dréfan to trouble. C. The Runic RUNE not only stands for the vowel e, but also for the name of the letter in Anglo-Saxon, eh a war-horse, v. eh a war-horse, and RÚN.

-e, in the termination of nouns, denotes a person; as, Hyrde, es; m. A shepherd, from hyrdan to guard. The vowel -e is also used to form nouns denoting inanimate objects; as, Cýle, es; m. Cold; cwide, es; m. A saying, testament: brice, es; m. A breach: wlite, es; m. Beauty. These are mostly derived from verbs, and are masculine, but when derived from adjectives they are feminine; as, Rihtwíse, an; f. Justice.

-e is the termination of derivative adjectives; as, Wyrðe worthy, from wyrþ worth: forþgenge forthcoming, increasing.

-e is also the usual letter by which adverbs are formed from adjectives ending in a consonant; as, Rihte rightly, sóþlíce truly, yfele badly.

é; dat. or inst. to or from a river:--Of ðære é Indus from the river Indus, Ors. 1. 1; Bos. 16, 25 ; dat. sing. v. eá.

EÁ; often indeclinable in the sing, but eás is sometimes found in gen; and é, æ-acute;, eæ-acute;in dat; pl. nom. acc. eá, eán; gen. eá; dat. eáum, eám, eán; f; æ-acute;; indecl. f. Running water, a stream, river, water; fl&u-short;vius, fl&u-long;men, torrens, aqua :-- Eá of dúne water from the hill, Menol. Fox 520; Gn. C. 30. Seó feorþe eá ys geháten Eufrates fl&u-short;vius quartus est Euphr&a-long;tes, Gen. 2, 14: Bd. 3, 24; S. 556, 34, 46. On twá healfe ðære eás on the two sides of the river, Chr. 896; Th. 172, 39, col. 1. On óðre healfe ðære eá [MS. L. eás] on the other side of the river, Ors. 1. 1; Bos. 20, 3. Be ðære eá ófrun by the banks of the river, Gen. 41, 3: Ors. 1, 3; Bos. 27, 28: 2, 4; Bos. 44, 13. Be ðære eá by the river. Chr. 896; Th. 172, 35, col. 2. Ða eá oferfaran wolde would go over the river, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 44, 2. On ðæm lande syndon twá mycele eá Iðaspes and Arbis in the country are two great rivers, Hydaspes and Arabis, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 16, 34. Læ-acute;t streámas weallan, eá in fléde let streams well out, a river in flood, Andr. Kmbl. 3006; An. 1506. Ðás synd ða feówer eán of ánum wyllspringe these are the four streams from one well-spring, Ælfc. T. 25, 19. He hí upforlét on feówer hund eá and on syxtig he divided it into four hundred and sixty streams. Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 44, 9. Betweox ðám twám eáum between the two rivers, Ors. 5, 2 ; Bos. 102, 34. Ofer ðám eám super flum&i-short;na, Ps. Th. 23, 2. Betweoh ðæ-acute;m twám eán between the two rivers, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 16, 28. On feówer eán into four streams, Gen. 2, 10. [Laym, æ, f: Orm. æ: O. Sax. aha, f: O. Frs. a, e f: Ger. aa, f. name of rivers or brooks; -ach suffix of river-names: M. H. Ger. ahe, f: O. H. Ger. aha, f: Goth. ahwa, f; Dan. aa, m. f: Swed. å. f; Icel. á, f: Lat. aqua.] v. æ-acute;g-, ég-, éh-, íg-.

eá, eáw oh! alas! commonly eá-lá; interjec. q. v.

eác; prep. dat. With, in addition to, besides; cum, præter :-- Gif ðú sunu áge, oððe swæ-acute;sne mæ-acute;g, oððe freónd æ-acute;nigne eác ðissum idesum, aláide of ðysse leód-byrig if thou have a son, or beloved kinsman, or any friend with [in addition to] these damsels, lead [them] from this city. Cd. 116; Th. 150, 31; Gen. 2500. Ðæt gér wæs ðæt sixte eác feówertigum that year was the six and fortieth, i. e. the sixth with the fortieth, or the sixth increased with forty, Bd. 1, 3; S. 475, 16: 1, 13; S. 481, 35, 39: Bt. Met. Fox 1, 87; Met. 1, 44. DER. to-eác. v. eác; conj.

EÁC; conj. I. EKE, also, likewise, moreover, and; etiam, quoque, et :-- Abeád eác Adame éce Drihten the Lord eternal announced also to Adam, Cd. 43; Th. 57, 8; Gen. 925. Eác we ðæt gefrugnon we also have heard that, Exon. 12 a; Th. 19, 15; Cri. 301: Cd. 174; Th. 220, 8; Dan. 68: Beo. Th. 195; B. 97. Hondum slógun, folmum areahtum and fystum eác struck with their hands, with outstretched palms and with fists also, Exon. 24 a; Th. 69, 24; Cri. 1125: 9 b; Th. 9, 18; Cri. 136: Cd. 69; Th. 82, 35; Gen. 1372. And ge sceolon eác þweán eówer æ-acute;lc óðres fét and likewise ye ought to wash one another's feet, Jn. Bos. 13, 14, 9. Ic eów secge, eác máran ðonne wítegan I say unto you, and more than a prophet. Mt. Bos. 11, 9. Adam hæfde nigen hund wintra and þrítig eác Adam had nine hundred winters, and thirty also, Cd. 55; Th. 68, 31; Gen. 1126: 58; Th. 71, 3; Gen. 1165. Fíf and syxtig wintra hæfde and eác þreó hund he had five and sixty winters, and also three hundred, 62; Th. 74, 4; Gen. 1217: 74, 34; Gen. 1232. Ne his wordum eác woldan gelýfan et non cred&i-short;d&e-long;runt in verbis ejus, Ps. Th. 105, 20. II. eác hwæðre, hwæðre eác Nevertheless, however; nihil&o-long;m&i-short;nus :-- Eác hwæðre ceald lyft is gemenged the cold air nevertheless is mingled, Bt. Met. Fox 20, 156; Met. 20, 78. Wæs me hwæðre eác láþ nevertheless it was to me unpleasant. Exon. 100 b; Th. 380, 23 ; Rä. 1, 12. 2. eác swilce, swylce eác So also, also, moreover, very like, even so, as if; parim&o-short;do, tamquam :-- Ða apostoli gesetton eác swilce lárspell to ðám leódscipum ðe to geleáfan bugon the apostles moreover gave instructions to the nations submitting to the faith, Ælfc. T. 27, 20. Ðá wæs eác swilce se scucca him betwux there was also the devil between them. Th. Anlct. 37, 9: Ps. Th. 55, 4: 108, 29. Eác swylce beo sprecende sý to eallum mancynne as ifit spoke to all mankind, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 44, 34. Wíte þoliaþ swilce eác ða biteran récas they suffer torments, so also the bitter reeks, Cd. 18; Th. 21, 17; Gen. 325: Judth. 12; Thw. 26, 20, 25, 30; Jud. 338, 344, 349: Exon. 120 b; Th. 462, 5; Hö. 47: 34 b; Th. 112, 1; Gú. 137. Swylce grúndas eác so also the abyss, 10 a; Th. 9, 35; Cri. 145. 3. ge eác swylce Quin et :-- Eall ðæt he on ánweald onfeng ge eác swylce monige Brytta eáland Angelcynnes ríce underþeódde quæ omnia sub diti&o-long;ne acc&e-long;pit quin et Mevanias ins&u-short;las imp&e-short;rio subj&u-short;g&a-long;vit Angl&o-long;rum, Bd. 2, 9; S. 510, 16. 4. eác swá So also, even so, likewise :-- Swá ðeós world eall