This is page 229 of An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Bosworth and Toller (1898)
This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.
Click here to go to the main page about Bosworth/Toller. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.
This page was generated on 20 Apr 2019. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.
The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.
fate, death; f&a-long;tum, mors :-- Æfter ealdorlege after death, Exon. 51 a; Th. 177, 29; Gú. 1234.
ealdorlíc, aldorlíc; adj. Principal, chief, excellent; princ&i-short;p&a-long;ls, magn&i-short;f&i-short;cus :-- Ealdorlíc princ&i-short;p&a-long;lis, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 28; Som. 11, 37. Ealdorlíc ánnyss princ&i-short;p&a-long;lis un&i-short;tas, Hymn. Surt. i. 5. Ealdorlíce Gáste Sp&i-long;r&i-short;tu princ&i-short;p&a-long;li. Ps. Grn. 50, 13; ii. 149, 13.
ealdor-líce; adv. Excellently, v. aldor-líce.
ealdorlícnes, -ness, -nys, -nyss, e; f. Principality, authority; auct&o-long;r&i-short;tas :-- Ne syllaþ we ðé æ-acute;nige ealdorlícnysse nullam tibi auct&o-long;r&i-short;t&a-long;tem tr&i-short;bu&i-short;mus, Bd. 1, 27; S. 492, 12, 15, 22, 26. Mid máran ealdorlícnysse m&a-long;j&o-long;re auct&o-long;r&i-short;t&a-long;te, 3, 22; S. 553, 3, 35.
ealdor-man, -mann, -mon, ealdur-, aldor-, eldor-, es; m. [eald old, not only in age, but in knowledge, v. eald, hence ealdor an elder; man h&o-short;mo]. I. an elderman, ALDERMAN, senator, chief, duke, a nobleman of the highest rank, and holding an office inferior only to that of the king; m&a-long;jor n&a-long;tu, s&e-short;n&a-long;tor, pr&o-short;cer, princeps, pr&i-long;mas, dux, præfectus, tr&i-short;b&u-long;nus, qu&i-long;cunque est aliis gr&a-short;du aut n&a-long;tu m&a-long;jor. The title of Ealdorman or Aldorman denoted civil as well as military pre-eminence. The word ealdor or aldor in Anglo-Saxon denotes princely dignity: in Beowulf it is used as a synonym for cyning, þeóden, and other words applied to royal personages. Like many other titles of rank in the various Teutonic languages, it, strictly speaking, implies age, though practically this idea does not survive in it any more than it does in the word Senior, the original of the feudal term Seigneur. Every shire had its ealdorman, who was the principal judicial officer of the shire, and also the leader of its armed force. The internal regulations of the shire, as well as its political relation to the whole kingdom, were under his immediate guidance and supervision,--the scír-geréfa, or sheriff, being little more than his deputy, and under his control. The dignity of the ealdorman was supported by lands within his district, which appear to have passed with the office,--hence the phrases, ðæs ealdormonnes lond, mearc, gemæ-acute;ro, etc. which so often occur. The ealdorman had also a share of the fines and other monies levied to the king's use; though, as he was invariably appointed from among the higher nobles, he must always have possessed lands of his own to the extent of forty hides, v. Hist. Eliens. ii. 40. The ealdormen of the several shires seem to have been appointed by the king, with the assent of the higher nobles, if not of the whole witena gemót, and to have been taken from the most trustworthy, powerful, and wealthy of the nobles of the shire. The office and dignity of ealdorman was held for life,--though sometimes forfeited for treason and other grave offences; but it was not strictly hereditary :-- Fram ðám bróðrum and ðám ealdormannum a fratr&i-short;bus ac maj&o-long;r&i-short;bus, Bd. 5, 14; S. 634, 10: 5, 19; S. 637, 6. Ofslógon Rómána ealdorman slew a Roman noble, Ors. 5, 10; Bos. 108, 30. Ealdormen, nom. pl. princ&i-short;pes, Ps. Th. 67, 24: Gen. 12, 15. Ðæt he his ealdormen læ-acute;rde ut er&u-short;d&i-long;ret princ&i-short;pes suos, Ps. Th. 104, 18. Án ealdormann unus de princ&i-short;p&i-short;bus, 81, 7. Ealdormenn Iudan princ&i-short;pes Juda, 67, 25: 82, 9: Mt. Bos. 20, 25: Mk. Bos. 6, 21. His ealdormannum and his þegnum suis d&u-short;c&i-short;bus ac ministris, Bd. 3, 3; S. 526, 1: 4, 15; S. 583, 27. Arbatus his ealdorman, ðe he geset hæfde ofer Méðas ðæt land Arbaces, his chief officer, whom he had set over the country of the Medes, Ors. 1, 12; Bos. 35, 17: 2, 1; Bos. 38, 35: Bd. 4, 12; S. 580, 34: 1, 13; S. 481, 40. Ðæt se ylca ða dóhter ðæs ealdormannes blinde onlíhte ut idem f&i-long;liam tr&i-short;b&u-long;ni cæcam inlumin&a-long;v&e-short;rit, 1, 18; S. 484, 30: Bt. 10; Fox 28, 31. II. the new constitution introduced by Cnut, who reigned in England from A.D. 1014 to 1035, reduced the ealdorman to a subordinate position,--one eorl, Nrs. jarl, being placed over several shires. The Danish kings ruled by their eorlas or jarls, and the ealdormen disappeared from the shires. Gradually the title ceased altogether, except in the cities, where it denoted an inferior judicature, much as it now does among ourselves :-- Ðis is ðonne seó woruldcunde geræ-acute;dnes, ðe ic [Cnut] wille, mid mínan witenan ræ-acute;de, ðæt man healde ofer eall Engla land this is then the secular ordinance which I [Cnut], with the counsel of my witan, will, that it be observed over all the land of the English, L. C. S. pref; Th. i. 376, 3, 4. Ðæt is ðonne æ-acute;rest ðæt ic wylle; ðæt man rihte laga upp-aræ-acute;re, and æ-acute;ghwilce unlaga georne afylle, and ðæt man aweódige and awyrtwalige, æ-acute;ghwylc unriht, swá man geornost mæ-acute;ge, of ðissum earde this is then the first that I will; that right laws be established, and all unjust laws carefully suppressed, and that every injustice be weeded out and rooted up, with all possible diligence, from this land, L. C. S. 1; Th. i. 376, 5-8. And habbe man þriwa on geára burh-gemót, and twá scír-gemót and thrice a year let there be a borough meeting, and twice a shire meeting, L. C. S. 18; Th. i. 386, 4, 5. v. eorl, scírgeréfa, and húscarl.
ealdor-mon, -monn, es; m. An elderman, alderman, nobleman, chief; m&a-long;jor n&a-long;tu, princeps :-- Ebrinus se ealdormon Ebrinus m&a-long;jor d&o-short;mus r&e-long;giae. Bd 4, 1; S. 564, 33: 2, 13; S. 515, 32. v. ealdor-man.
ealdor-ner, aldor-ner, es; n. A life-salvation, life's safety, refuge, asylum; vitæ serv&a-long;tio, ref&u-short;gium :-- Cwom him to áre and to ealdor-nere he come to them for mercy and for their life's salvation, Exon. 53 b; Th. 189, 4; Az. 54. v. ner.
ealdor-sacerd, es; m. A high priest; summus sacerdos :-- Ongan ealdorsacerd hyspan the high priest began to revile, Andr. Kmbl. 1340; An. 670.
ealdor-scype, es; m. Eldership, supremacy; princip&a-long;tus, pr&i-long;m&a-long;tus :-- Ða on þeódum ealdorscype habbaþ they have eldership among the nations, Mk. Bos. 10, 42. Ealdorscype healdan pr&i-long;m&a-long;tum t&e-short;n&e-long;re, Coll. Monast. Th. 30, 17.
ealdor-stól, es; m. The lord's seat; dom&i-short;ni s&e-long;des :-- Áhte ic ealdorstól I possessed the lord's seat. Exon. 94 b; Th. 353, 36; Reim. 23.
ealdor-þegn, aldor-þegn [-þægn], es; m. The principal thane or servant; princ&i-short;p&a-long;lis minister :-- Ealdorþegnas principal servants, Menol. Fox 257; Men. 130. Hie ðæt ðám ealdorþegnum cýðan eódon they went to announce it to the principal thanes, Judth. 12; Thw. 25, 4; Jud. 242.
ealdor-wísa a chief ruler, v. aldor-wísa.
eald-riht, es; n. An ancient right; v&e-short;tus jus vel priv&i-short;l&e-long;gium :-- He him gehét ðæt hý ealdrihta æ-acute;lces mósten wyrðe gewunigen he promised them that they should remain possessed of each of their ancient rights, Bt. Met. Fox 1, 71; Met. 1, 36: 1, 114; Met. 1, 57. Bæ-acute;don hine ðæt he him to heora ealdrihtum gefultumede they prayed him that he would succour them with respect to their ancient rights. Bt. 1; Fox 2, 24.
Eald-Seaxe, Ald-Seaxe; gen. -Seaxa; dat. -Seaxum; pl. m: Eald-Seaxan; pl. m. The Old-Saxons; ant&i-long;qui Sax&o-short;nes; the German or continental Saxons occupying the territory between the Eyder and the Weser :-- Hér Eald-Seaxe [Ald-Seaxe, Th. 92, 29, col. 1] and Francan gefuhton in this year [A.D. 779] the Old-Saxons and the Franks fought, Chr. 779; Th. 93, 29, col. 1, 2. Gegadrode mycel sciphere on Eald-Seaxum [Ald-Seaxum, col. 1] a large naval force assembled among the Old-Saxons, 885; Th. 154, 20, col. 2, 3: 449; Th. 20, 20, 26: 924; Th. 199, 10: Bd. 5, 10; 13. 624, 12, 22. Be norþan Þyringum syndon Eald-Seaxan and be norþan westan him syndon Frysan, and be westan Eald-Seaxum is Ælfe múþa ðære eá and Frysland to the north of the Thuringians are the Old-Saxons, and to the north-west of them are the Friesians, and to the west of the Old-Saxons is the mouth of the river Elbe and Friesland, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 18, 34: Bos. 19, 14.
eald-spell, es; n. An old story; ant&i-long;qua narr&a-long;tio :-- Ælfréd us ealdspell reahte Alfred told us an old story, Bt. Met. Fox introduc. 2; Met. Einl. 1. On ealdspellum in old tales, Bt. 39, 4; Fox 216, 19.
eald-spræc, e; f. An old speech, history, Leo A. Sax. Gl. 149.
Ealdulfes næs, Chr. 1052; Th. 321, 10. v. Eádulfes næs.
ealdung, e; f. Age; s&e-short;nectus :-- Róma besprycþ ðæt hyre weallas for ealdunge brosnian Rome complains that her walls decay from age, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 44, 45. DER. ealdian.
ealdur a prince, Jn. Foxe 16, 11. v. ealdor.
ealdur-dóm authority, principality, Ps. Th. 113, 2. v. ealdor-dóm.
ealdur-man, -mann, es; m. An elderman, alderman, nobleman; m&a-long;jor n&a-long;tu, princeps :-- Nelle ge on ealdurmenn áne getreówian n&o-long;l&i-long;te conf&i-long;dere in princ&i-short;p&i-short;bus, Ps. Th. 145, 2: 118, 161. v. ealdor-man.
eald-wérig; adj. Vile of old; jampridem malignus :-- Ealdwérige Egypta folc the folk of Egypt vile of old, Cd. 145; Th. 180, 24; Exod. 50.
eald-wíf, es; n. An old woman; anus, an&u-short;la, v&e-short;t&u-short;la :-- Sceal ic nú ealdwif cennan num vere par&i-short;t&u-long;ra sum anus, Gen. 18, 13: Ælfc. Gl. 88; Som. 74, 67; Wrt. Voc. 50, 48.
eald-wita, an; m. [eald old, wita one who knows] One old or eminent in knowledge, a priest; þresb&y-short;ter :-- Presbiter is mæsse-preóst oððe eald-wita; ná ðæt æ-acute;lc eald sý, ac ðæt he eald sý on wísdóme presbyter is the mass-priest or one eminent in knowledge; not that every one is old, but that he is old in wisdom, L. Ælf. C. 17; Th. ii. 348, 20: Bd. 2, 16; S. 519, 29.
eald-writere, es; m. An antiquarian, one that writes of old or ancient matters; ant&i-long;qu&a-long;rius. Som. Ben. Lye.
ealeðe-tún, es; m. An ale-house; taberna. Som. Ben. Lye.
eal-fela Very much, full many; permultum :-- Se mæg ealfela singan and secgan he can sing and say very much, Exon. 17 b; Th. 42, 2; Cri. 666: Beo. Th. 1742; B. 869: 1770; B. 883.
eal-felo All-fell, very baleful; omn&i-long;no pern&i-short;ci&o-long;sus :-- Eal-felo áttor very baleful venom, Exon. 106 b; Th. 405, 28; Rä. 24, 9. v. æl-fæle, fell.
eal-fremd foreign; ali&e-long;nus. v. æl-fremd.
eal-geador, eall-geador; adv. Altogether; omn&i-long;no :-- Ðæ-acute;r wæs ealgeador Grendles grápe there was altogether Grendel's grasp, Beo. Th. 1675; B. 835. v. geador.
eal-gearo, eall-gearo; adj. All ready or prepared; omn&i-long;no promptus vel p&a-short;r&a-long;tus :-- Beorh ealgearo wunode on wonge the mountain stood all ready on the plain, Beo. Th. 4475; B. 2241: 155; B. 77: 2465; B. 1230.
eal-geleáflíc believed by all; cathol&i-short;cus. v. eall-geleáflíc.
ealgian, algian; p. ode; pp. od To defend; defend&e-short;re :-- Nemne we mæ-acute;gen feorh ealgian þeódnes unless we may defend the life of the prince, Beo. Th 5304; B. 2655: 5329; B. 2668. Hí æt campe wið láþra gehwæne land ealgodon they defended the land in conflict against every foe, Chr. 937; Th. 202, 4; Æðelst. 9: Andr. Kmbl. 20; An. 10: Bec. Th. 2413; B. 1204: R. Ben. 64: 69. DER. ge-ealgian, -algian.