This is page 605 of An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Bosworth and Toller (1898)

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LÁD - LÁDIAN

lád, e; f. I. excuse, defence against a charge :-- Nú hí nabbaþ náne láde be hyra synne nunc excusationem non habent de peccato suo, Jn. Skt. 15, 22. Ðætte hé náne láde ne mæ-acute;ge findan ac síe súa mid his ágnum wordum gebunden et in nulla sui defensione se exerceat, quam sententia proprii oris ligat, Past. 26, 3; Swt. 185, 16. Ða næ-acute;nige láde gedón ne mágon on dómes dæge ah sceolon mid deóflum in éce wíte gefeallan those will not be able to make any defence at the day of judgment, but will have to fall with devils into everlasting punishment, Blickl. Homl. 57, 20. II. as a technical term in the laws, purgation, exculpation, the clearing one's self from a charge or accusation. The accused might clear himself by his own oath, supported by the oaths of a certain number of compurgators, or he might undergo some form of ordeal. The lád varied with the character of the deed with the commission of which the accused was charged. In the ánfeald lád, if the purgation were by oath, the oaths of the accused, and two others were necessary, in the þrýfeald lád, the accused was to bring five compurgators; if the ordeal was used, in the former case the iron weighed one pound, in the latter, three. Other passages than those cited below, which may illustrate the terms ánfeald, þrýfeald, are the following :-- Wé cwæ-acute;don be ðám morþslyhtum ðæt man dýpte ðone áþ be þrýfealdum and myclade ðæt ordálísen ðæt hit gewege þrý pund, L. Ath. iv. 6; Th. i. 224, 12-14. Gange hé tó ðam þrýfealdan ordále; and ofgá man ðæt þrýfealde ordál ðus: nime fífe and beó hine sylfa syxta, L. C. S. 30; Th. i. 394, 3-5: 44; Th. i. 402, 7. The term 'lád,' it will be seen from the following passages, does not, as Schmid observes, occur in the laws before Ethelred's time, canne and andsæc being used previously :-- Gyf mon ðone hláford teó ... nime him fíf þegnas tó and beó him sylf syxta and ládie hine ðæs. And gif seó lád forþcume beó hé ðæs weres wyrðe if the lord be accused ... let him take to himself five thanes, and be himself the sixth, and clear himself of the charge. And if he be successful in clearing himself, let him be entitled to the 'wer,' L. Eth. i. 1; Th. i. 282, 7: L. C. S. 30; Th. i. 394, 22. Gif him seó lád byrste if the attempt to clear himself fail, L. Eth. i. 1; Th. i. 282, 14: L. C. S. 8; Th. i. 380, 21: 31; Th. i. 396, 5. Gif lád forberste, 54; Th. i. 406, 10. Ðeáh lád teorie, L. O. D. 4; Th. i. 354, 14: 6; Th. i. 354, 31. Ne stent nán óðer lád æt tihtlan búte ordál betweox Wealan and Englan búte man þafian wille no other method of clearing a man upon accusation is valid between Welsh and English but the ordeal, unless it be permitted, 2; Th. i. 354, 1. Láde wyrðe beón to be entitled to clear one's self (by oath or by ordeal), L. C. S. 20; Th. i. 386, 21. Sý æ-acute;lc getrýwa man ðe tihtbysig næ-acute;re and náðor ne burste ne áþ ne ordál ánfealdre láde wyrðe let every true man that has not previously been accused, and in whose case neither oath nor ordeal has failed, be entitled to single purgation, 22; Th. i. 388, 11. Dúnstan gedémde ðæt se mæssepreóst næ-acute;re, gif hé wíf hæfde, æ-acute;nigre óðre láde wyrðe, bútan eallswá læ-acute;wede sceolde ðe efenboren wæ-acute;re, gif man mid tihtlan ðæne beléde, L. Edg. C. 60, note; Th. ii. 256, 38. Gebyreþ ðæt mon óðrum riht wyrce ge at láde ge æt æ-acute;lcre spræ-acute;ce ðe him betweox biþ it is proper for men to do right to one another both as regards clearing themselves of charges and as regards any suits that there are between them, L. O. D. 2; Th. i. 352, 17. Gif æt láde mistíde déme se bisceop if the attempt to clear himself miscarry, let the bishop pass sentence, L. C. S. 57; Th. i. 406, 27. Geládige hine mid fulre láde, 42; Th. i, 400, 25. Geládige swá mid þrýfealdre swá mid ánfealdre láde be ðam ðe seó dæ-acute;d sí, L. C. E. 5; Th. i. 364, 2: L. Eth. ix. 27; Th. i. 846, 15. Ládige hine mid þrýfealdre láde, L. C. S. 8; Th. i. 380, 20: 48; Th. i. 404, 3. Ofgá man ánfealde láde mid ánfealdan foráþe and þrýfealde láde mid þrýfealdan foráþe [the Latin version has the following in explanation :-- Qui autem conquirere debet simplicem purgationem, simplici sacramento hoc faciat, hoc est, accipiat duos et sit ipse tertius, et sic jurando conquirat. Triplex vero juramentum sic conquiratur; accipiat quinque et ipse sit sextus, et sic jurando acquirat triplex judicium aut triplex juramentum'], 22; Th. i. 388, 14. Se geréfa namige ða láde let the reeve name the compurgators, L. Eth. iii. 13; Th. i. 298, 1. Se ðe ofer ðæt láde geþafie oððe se ðe hý sylle gilde vi healfmarc he that admits, or he that offers, purgation after that, shall pay six half-marks, Th. i. 298, 7. Hér swutelaþ an (ðissum gewrite) ðæt Godwine hæfþ gelæ-acute;d fulle láde æt ðan unrihtwífe ðe Leófgár bisceop hine tihte and ðæt wæs lád æt Licitfelda in this writing is declared that Godwine has fully cleared himself of the charge in the matter of the woman about whom bishop Leofgar accused him: and he cleared himself at Lichfield, Chart. Th. 373, 31. See wer-lád, cor-snæd, ordál, ládian; Stubb's Const. Hist. i. 609-; Grmm. R. A. 856, 859-; Du Cange sub voce lada; Richthofen's Altfries. Wört. léde, láde.

ládian, p. ode. I. to excuse, clear [one's self of a charge], exculpate, defend :-- Ðe hit symle lytiglíce ládaþ sese callide defendentis, Past. 35, 3; Swt. 244, 9. For ðan ðú tówyrpest ðíne fýnd and ealle ða ðe unrihtwísnesse ládiaþ and scyldaþ ut destruas inimicum et defensorem, Ps. Th. 8, 3. Ðære leóhtmódnesse sanctus Paulus hine ládode ðá hé cwæþ ... a mentis levitate se alienum Paulus fuisse perhibuit, cum dicit ... Past. 42, 3; Swt. 308, 7. Ðá ládode hé hine ille se excusans, Bd. 3, 7; S. 530, 26. Ðá cwæþ Petrus wæ-acute;re ðú mid ðínum fæder ðá hé mé swá ládode ðæt hie mé ne gegripon then said Peter 'Wast thou with thy father when he made such excuse for me that they did not seize me?' Blickl. Homl. 151, 26. Him Rómáne his forwierndon and hit under ðæt ládedon for ðon ðe hé æ-acute;r æt ðæm óðrum cirre sige næfde the Romans refused it [the triumph] to him, and excused [the refusal] under the pretext that before on the other occasion he had not gained the victory, Ors. 5, 2; Swt. 216, 31. Ic bidde ðé ðæt ðú mé ládige I pray thee to excuse me, Homl. Th. ii. 374, 10. Ðæt synfulle mód ðe hit simle wile ládian peccantem animam excusantemque se, Past. 35, 3; Swt. 241, 7. Hú mæg ic ládigan láðan spræ-acute;ce oððe andsware æ-acute;nige findan wráðum tówiðere how can I clear myself of the hateful charge, or find any answer in reply to my foes? Exon. l0 b; Th. 12, 9; Cri, 183. II. as a technical legal term [lád, II.] to clear from an accusation. [Amongst instances in which suspicion of crime is removed by the oath of the suspected party and the oaths of compurgators, may be taken that of King Alfonso who, when suspicion rested on him of complicity in the murder of his brother Sancho, cleared himself by the oaths of himself and twelve of his vassals. See the account in the Cronica del Cid. cc. 76-79.]: Gif se húshláford hit nát ládie hine [shall clear himself by oath] si latet fur, dominus domus ... jurabit, quod non extenderet manum in rem proximi sui, Ex. 22, 8. Gif hé hine ládian wille gá hé tó ðam hátum ísene and ládige ða hand mid ðe man týhþ ðæt hé ðæt fácen mid worhte if he be willing to clear himself, then let him undergo the ordeal by hot iron, and therewith clear the hand with which he is accused of committing the fraud, L. Ath. i. 14; Th. i. 206, 22-4. Gyf mon ðone hláford teó, nime him fíf þegnas tó, and beó him sylf syxta, and ládie hine ðæs [by his own oath and the oaths of five compurgators clear himself of that charge], L. Eth. i. 1; Th. i. 282, 4-6, 13. Hé hine twelfa sum ládige ðæt hé ða sócne nyste let him clear himself by his own oath, supported by the oaths of eleven others, from the charge of having known that the slain man had sought sanctuary, L. Ath. iv. 4; Th. 1. 224, 2. Gif man hwilcne man teó ðæt hé ðone man féde ðe úres hláfordes griþ tóbrocen habbe ládige hine mid þrinna xii (cf. Icel. þrennar tylftir), L. Eth. iii. 13; Th. i. 296, 29. Mæssepreóst ládige hine on ðam húsle ... Diacon nime six his gehádan and ládige mid ðám ... &c. L. Eth. ix. 19-27; Th. i. 344, 346: L. C. E. 5; Th. i. 362, 364. Bútan hé hine ládian mæ-acute;ge ðæt hé him nán fácn on nyste unless he can clear himself from the charge of having known of any fraud in the man, L. Ath. iv. 4; Th. i. 224, 6. Bútan hé hine ládian durre be ðæs flýman were [the degree of lád to be determined by the status of the fugitive) ðæt hé hine flýman nyste, i. 20; Th. i. 210, 13. Ládián be ðæs cynges wergilde oððe mid þrýfealdan ordále, L. Eth. v. 30; Th. i. 312, 6. Ládian be ðam deópestan áþe oððe mid þrífealdan ordále, vi. 37; Th. i. 324, 18. Gif mon cyninges þegn beteó manslihtes, gif hé hine ládian dyrre, dó hé ðæt mid xii cyninges þegnum, L. A. G. 3; Th. i. 154, 6. Gif se hláford hine ládian wylle mid twám gódum þegenum, L. Eth. iii. 4; Th. i. 294, 12. DER. á-, be-, ge-ládian; see previous word.