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TAPOR-ÆX - TEÁM

tapor-æx, e; f. A small axe :-- Swá feorr swá mæg án taperæx beón geworpen út of ðam scipe up on ðæt land quam longius de nave potest securis parvula, quam Angli vacant tapereax super terram projici, Chart. Th. 317, 30. Habbe hé áne taperæx on his [handa], Chr. 1031; Erl. 162, 8. [Icel. tapar-öx (borrowed from English).]

tapor-berend, es; m. An acolyte (v. tapor) :-- Taporberend accolitus, Anglia xiii. 418, 759. Taporber[n]endum accolitis, 424, 840.

tappa, teappa? :-- Of rúwan beorge on teappan treów; of tappan treów on westleás hagan, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. v. 277, 21. Teppan hýse, i. 194, 36. On teppen cnolle, iii, 415, 19. Ad Tapan halan, ii. 344, 6.

tara tar. v. teoru.

targe, an; f.: targa, an; m. A targe, small shield [apparently with the same development of meaning as rand, q. v. Cf. O. H. Ger. zarga costa (aheni) with the English word] :-- Ic geann Ælmére mínen discðéne mínes taregan, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 363, 12. Targa[n] parma, scuto, Hpt. Gl. 423, 50. Twá targan and twegen francan, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 304, 30. Targena peltarum, Hpt. Gl. 475, 64. [Icel. targa a small round shield. The word seems to have been taken into the Romance languages from Teutonic.] v. ge-targed.

-targed, tasol. v. ge-targed, teosol.

tawa (?) an implement, a tool, an article for use in an employment. [That towe (part of a cart) is toothed thicke, Pall. 159, 36. Tew of fyschynge piscalia, in plurali reciaria, Prompt. Parv. 490. Halliwell gives tow = tools, apparatus, as a word of the East of England. O. Du. touwe the instrument of a weaver.] v. ge-, web-tawa; tawian.

tawian; p. ode. I. to taw, dress or prepare material :-- Ðá bæd se Godes man ðæt him man íserngelóman mid hwæ-acute;te ðyder brohte ðæt land mid tó tawienne. Ðá ðæt land ða getawod wæs and hé on gerisne tíd mid hwæ-acute;te hit seów ferramenta sibi ruralia cum frumento adferri rogavit, quod dum praeparata terra tempore congruo seminaret, Bd. 4, 28; M. 366, 24. [Birrþ læredd mann þurrh spell mekenn þin herrte, and turrnenn itt and tawwenn itt and nesshenn itt, Orm. 15908. The sotter that tawith &yogh;ure lethir, Rel. Ant. ii. 175, 24 (about 1308). Tewyn lethyr frunio, corrodio, Prompt. Parv. 490. O. Du. touwen to curry leather: O. H. Ger. zauwen, zouwen exercere (ferrum). Cf. also tew or tewynge of lethyr frunicio, Prompt. Parv, 489: O. H. Ger. zawa tinctura: Goth. taui work. Teware corridiator, Prompt. Parv. 490: O. H. Ger. zauwari tinctorius]. v. tewestre. II. but the word seems to occur in the older time in reference to the ill-treatment of persons or things, to intreat shamefully or evilly, treat badly, abuse, insult. Cf. to tew = to trouble, vex, E. D. S. Pub. (Linc.), and see Halliwell :-- Oft týne oððe twelfe (flotmen) æ-acute;lc æfter óðrum scendaþ and tawiaþ tó bysmore ðæs þegnes cwenan and hwílum his dohtor oððe nýdmágan, ðær hé on lócaþ ðe læ-acute;t hine sylfne rancne and rícne, æ-acute;r ðæt gewurde, Wulfst. 162, 20. Se deófol eów tawode þurh his drýmen swá swá hé wolde the devil hath treated you as he pleased (the persons addressed had been deprived in turn of the power of speech, motion, and sight) by his wizards, Homl. Th. ii. 486, 31. Hé heora burga forbærnde and hí tó bysmore tawode (tucode, MSS. C. V.) he burnt up their cities and evilly intreated them, Homl. Skt. ii. 25, 388. Hé Godes templ tawode tó bysmore he had shamefully abused God's temple (cf. l. 538), 25, 542. Ðæt folc hine hæfde swá yfele swilce hé sumes þinges scyldig wæ-acute;re; and ealle men hine fram stówe tó stówe brudon, and tó wundre tawedon treated him wondrous ill, i. 23, 654. Ða ðe gefongne wæ-acute;ron hié tawedan mid ðære mæ-acute;stan uniéðnesse; sume ofslógon, sume ofswungon, sume him wið feó gesealdon. Ðá Rómáne ðæt geácsedan, ðá sendan hié æ-acute;rendracan tó him ... Ðá tawedan hié eft ða æ-acute;rendracan mid ðæm mæ-acute;stan bismere, swá hié ða óþre æ-acute;r dydon, Ors. 4, 1; Swt. 154, 7-13. Ðæt hié hié mósten tawian mid ðære mæ-acute;stan bismrunge, 3, 3; Swt. 102, 21. v. getawian; teágan.

táxe (tádie? q. v.), an; f. A toad :-- Táxan rubetae, quae et ranae dicuntur, Hpt. Gl. 450, 19.

te; prep. To :-- Ða mægenu weorðaþ to færwyrde (cf. tó færwyrde, 8), Past. 65; Swt, 463, 6. Heom te cwæþ illis dixit, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 26, 21. Áléfed te habbanne, 14, 4. Te fullfremmanne, Past. 58; Swt. 445, 30: 50; Swt. 391, 29. [O. Sax. te: O. Frs. te, ti: O. L. Ger. te, ti: O. H. Ger. za, ze, zi.] Cf. tó.

te-. v. te-flówan, -tredan, -weorpan given under tó-flówan, -tredan, -weorpan. [O. Frs. te-, ti-: O. H. Ger. za-, ze-, zi-.] Cf. tó-.

te = þe in þætte.

teá ten. v. tín.

teáfor, es; n. I. a pigment, material used for colouring, tiver (red ochre for marking sheep (Suffolk), v. E. D. S. Pub. Old Farming Words, no. vi) :-- Métingc pictura, reád teáfor minium, Wrt. Voc. i. 46, 74. Teáfor minium, 75, 20. Tfafrf ( = teáfre) minio, Germ. 400, 130. Meng swá ðú dést teáfor, Lchdm. ii. 56, 6. II. a material used in making a salve :-- Nim ladsar (benzoin) ðæt teáfur (gum) and galpani óþres healfes panige whit, and gníd hyt tógadere mid wlacan ecede; and nim ðanne ða sealfe and geót on ðæs seócys mannes eáre, iii. 88, 20. [In other dialects the word occurs with a meaning not easily connected with that of the English form. A somewhat similar connection, perhaps, is seen in the case of the different meanings of lybb, q.v. O. H. Ger. zoubar; n. fascinum, fascinatio, divinatio: Icel. taufr; n. sorcery. Cf. O. L. Ger. toufere veneficus. v. Grmm. D. M. 984.] v. tífran.

teáfor?, Exon. Th. 477, 27; Ruin. 31.

teág. v. teáh.

teágan, teán; p. teáde; pp. teád To dress, prepare :-- Íserngelóman ðæt land mid tó teágenne. Ðá ðæt land ðá geteád wæs, Bd. 4, 28; S. 605, 33. Wel geteád alwe, Lchdm. ii. 226, 14, v. ge-teágan; tawian.

teagor, es; n. The water from the eyes, tears :-- Teagor ýðum weól, háte hleórdropan, Exon. Th. 182, 23; Gú. 1314, [Goth. tagr a tear.] v. teár.

teáh, tæ-acute;h, téh, tíh (-g); gen. teáge; f. I. a tie, band :-- Teág, taeg sceda. Txts. 98, 964. Teáh, Wrt. Voc. i. 289, 36. Lege ðé his teáge an sweoran. Lchdm. iii. 42, 13. Hé cyning gebond fýrnum teágum, Exon. Th. 46, 7; Cri. 733. Liðewácum tagum (teágum?, tánum?, or tógum? as an alternative gloss to lentis. v. tóh) (alii) lentis viminibus (caedentes), Hpt. Gl. 514, 70. [Teien togadere mid guldene te&yogh;en. Laym. 20998. A tei&yogh;-doggue þat is in strongue tei&yogh;e (rimes with ei1079;e (eye) ), L. S. 308, 301, He huld an hache harde wiþ teis, Jos. 504. Icel. taug; f. a rope, string.] v. lád-, racent-, sweor-, web-teáh. II. a case, coffer, casket, box :-- Cest vel earc cistella, tæ-acute;g mozytia vel arcula, Wrt. Voc. i. 16. 38. Taeg mantega ( = mantica?), Txts. 35, 19: 77, 1300. Tíg, Wrt. Voc. ii. 55, 57. Hí ðás hálgan martyrrace on ánum leádenum tabulan mid stafon ágrófon, and ðæt gewrit mid twám inseglum on ánre teáge geinsegledon, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 344. Gemétton hí áne teáge, seó wæs geinsæglod mid twám insæglum ... Man bær út ða teáge ... Ðá féng se portgeréfa tó ðære tége and hí sóna unhlidode, 23, 755-765. Búton hit (the stolen property) under ðæs wífes cæ-acute;glocan gebroht wæ-acute;re ... ðæt is hire hordern and hire cyste and hire tége, L. C. S. 77; Th. i. 418, 22. Tégum, fódrum tepis ( = thecis), Txts. 101, 2010. [At hom is hire pater noster biloken in hire teye (rimes with eye (eye) ), Misc. 191, 2. A riche tie Made all of gold and of perrie Out of the which she nam a ring, Gow. ii. 246, 19. Teye of a cofyr teca, Prompt. Parv. 487.] v. beorm-teáh. III. an enclosure, a close (cf. Icel. teigr (teygr?) a close, paddock) :-- Hujus telluris termini ... et aquilone meara-teág ( = horses' close; cf. horsa croft, iii. 464, 3), Cod. Dip. Kmbl. i. 248, 12. Mansionem et clausnlam, quam Angli dicunt teáge, que pertinet ad predictam mansionem, Chart. Th. 467, 19. Circumcincta est ... a meritie brómteágh, ii. 49, 20.

teala, tealgor, teál-líc. v. tela, telgor, tál-líc.

tealt; adj. I. in a physical sense, unsteady :-- Gif hí sculun néðan on nacan tealtum, and se brimhengest brídles ne gýmeþ (cf. The floating vessel ... Rode tilting o'er the waves, Milton, P. L. xi. 747), Runic pm. Kmbl. 343, 22; Rún. 21. II. in a figurative sense, unstable, not to be relied on, untrustworthy, precarious :-- Hú læ-acute;ne ðis líf is, hú tealt, Wulfst. 273, 7. Tealte syndon eorðan welan, 149, 8. Tealte beóþ eorðan dreámas, 264, 3. Tealte getrýwða sindon mid mannum, 82, 12: 129, 6: 159, 14. v. next word.

tealtian; p. ode To be unsteady, to shake, not to stand firm :-- Mid tealtendum grundwealle nutabundo (titubando)fundamento, Hpt. Gl. 497, 49. [Cf. Þenne schal Niniue tylte to grounde, Allit. Pms. 102, 361. Feole temples tulten to þe eorþe, Jos. 100. O. H. Ger. zeltend rosz, zeltari equus trutinans: Ger. zelt amble; zelter palfrey: Icel. tölta to amble; tölt an ambling pace.] v. next word.

tealtrian; p. ode To shake, totter, stagger, be unsteady, to be in an uncertain or a precarious condition :-- Wé tealtrigaþ týdran móde hwearfiaþ heánlíce we move with uncertain step and feeble mind, wander abjectly, Exon. Th. 23, 19; Cri. 371. Ðý læs ðe ðæt eásterlíce gesceád tealtrige lest the calculation of Easter be untrustworthy, Anglia viii. 308, 4. Tealtrian mid fótum to stagger, Dial. 1, 4 (Lye). Ðý læs se steall cyricean tealtrian (taltrigan, Bd. M.) ongunne ne status ecclesiae vacillare inciperet, Bd. 2, 4; S. 505, 11. Tealtrian vacillare, titubare, Hpt. Gl. 529, 73. Tealtriendum &l-bar; gliddriendum nutabundis, 503, 3. Fela óþera gesynto ða ðe him tealtriende (taltriendum, Bd. M.) gelumpon alia quae periclitanti ei contigissent prospera, Bd. 4, 22; S. 592, 21. Tealniende (tealtriende?, tealtiende?) nutantes, Ps. Lamb. 108, 10. [v. Skeat's Dict. s.v. totter.] v. preceding word.

teám, es; m. A line; but the word which is used in the related dialects (v. infra) with a physical meaning is used in English figuratively. I. a line of descendants, offspring, progeny, family, children :-- Nán wen ne wífaþ, ne wíf ne ceorlaþ, ne teám ne biþ getýmed children are not brought forth, Homl. Th. i. 238, 1. Seó gelaþung is úre ealra módor ... hire teám nis ná líchamlíc ac gástlíc, 492, 8: Homl. Skt. i. 20, 9. Wuenumon and hire teám, Moruiw and hire teám and Wurgustel and his teám wuárun gefreód ... Marh gefreóde Leðelt and ealle hire teám, Chart. Th. 626, 22-37. Ðæs teámes wæs tuddor gefylled unlytel dæ-acute;l eorðan gesceafta, Cd. Th. 97, 15; Gen. 1613. Berende in teáme fecunda in sobole, Rtl. 110, 7. Hé Noe bearh and his wífe and his teáme, Gen. 5, 31 note: Homl. Skt. i. 8, 18. Caines ofspring forwearð ádrenced on ðam deópan flóde ... and of ðam yfelan teáme ne com nán þing siððan, Ælfc. T. Grn. 3, 27. Séd &l-bar; teám semen, Mk. Skt. Lind. 12, 21, 22. Ðæt folc týmde micelne teám on ðam wéstene, Homl. Th. ii. 212, 17. Teám gestrýnan, 324, 11. Ðreó wíteþeówe men mé salde bisceop and hire teám, Chart. Th. 152, 22. Fyllaþ eówre fromcynne foldan sceátas, teámum and túdre, Cd. Th. 92, 27; Gen. 1535. ¶ of animals :-- Beón týmaþ heora teám mid clæ-acute;nnysse, Homl. Th. ii. 10, 17. [Weóx swa Adames team her, ne mahte hit na mon tellen, Jul. 61, 7. Drauh togedere al þene team under þe moder, A. R. 336, 15. Wurrþenn wiþþ childe, and tæmenn hire tæm, Orm. 2415. Ys foure sones ... Þys was a stalwarde tem, R. Glouc. 261, 4.] I a. bringing forth children, child-bearing :-- Ðonne wíf byþ teámes ætealdod, Homl. Ass. 20, 159. His wíf wearð mid Esau and Iacob, and heó geswác ðá teámes, 38, 339. [Weren boðe (John's parents) teames ateald, O. E. Homl. ii. 133, 32.] II. a line of animals harnessed together, a team :-- Oxa on ðam forman teáme (cf. oxa on frumteáme imus, ii. 48, 36) imus, on ðam æfteran teáme binus (bimus), Wrt. Voc. i. 23, 47, 48. On ðæm æftran teáme bimus, ii. 12, 70. v. feoþer-tíme, iuc-tíma, ge-týme. The old pictures represent the plough as drawn by two pairs of oxen one behind the other. Cf. My plowman ... a teme (teome, MS. C.) shal he haue. Grace gaue Piers a teme, foure gret oxen, Piers P. B. 19, 256. III. as a legal term, (1) vouching to warranty. The word denotes one step in the proceedings of a suit for the recovery of property, which was found in one man's possession and claimed by another, who alleged that it had been stolen or had strayed from him. The peculiar character of the process to which it refers was determined by the formalities insisted upon by the law when property changed hands. At such a transaction the presence of witnesses was necessary (L. Ed. 1; Th. i. 158, 11: L. Edg. H. 4; Th. i. 258, 22: L. Edm. C. 5; Th. i. 253, 8: L. C. S. 23; Th. i. 388, 21: 24; Th. i. 390, 4), and one responsible person (geteáma), who according to Ine's laws must not be a þeów man (L. In. 47; Th. i. 132, 5), was to be fixed upon as representing the party that made the sale or transfer, and to him, if a question subsequently arose as to ownership, the new owner might refer (tíman) in support of his right; this referring the property to the party who had sold it was teám. In cases of undivided ownership the geteáma would be the person making the sale; in cases of joint ownership one of the parties would be taken. The proceedings in a suit in which teám was resorted to seem to have been somewhat as follows. The plaintiff, who made claim to property on the plea that it had been stolen from him, had to give security that he would carry on his case: Warige hine, se ðe his ágen befóþ, ðæt hé tó æ-acute;lcan teáme hæbbe getrýwne borh, L. Eth. ii. 9; Th. i. 290, 6: Wil. I. 21; Th. i. 477, 11; the defendant had to declare how the property came into his hands, and to give security that he would produce his geteáma in court: Gif hwá befó ðæt him losod wæs, cenne se ðe hé hit æt befó hwanon hit him cóme, sylle on hand and sette borh (pledge himself and find security) ðæt hé bringe his geteáman in ðæ-acute;r hit besprecen biþ, L. Eth. ii. 8; Th. i. 288, 15. On the case being brought into court (which was to be held in cynges sele, L. H. E. 7; Th. i. 30, 18: 16; Th. i. 34, 7, or kyninges burh: Æ-acute;lc teám beó on ðæs kyninges byrig; L. Eth. iii. 6; Th. i. 296, 4), the plaintiff made oath, that he prosecuted his suit lawfully and fairly, L. O. 2; Th. i. 178, 10, and without malice, 4; Th. i. 180, 8; the defendant on his side made oath that he had had no part in the alleged robbery, but had acquired the property in a lawful manner, 3; Th. i. 178, 16, and was guiltless, 5; Th. i. 180, 14. He was now bound to produce witnesses of the transaction which resulted in his acquiring the property in dispute, or teám was denied him: Búton hé ðara óðer (certain witness) hæbbe, nele him mon næ-acute;nne teám geþafian, L. Edg. H. 4; Th. i. 260, 2. Ne beó æ-acute;nig man æ-acute;niges teámes wyrðe búton hé getrýwe gewitnysse hæbbe, L. C. S. 23; Th. i. 388, 20. Ne beó ðæ-acute;r nán teám, 24; Th. i. 390, 6. If the witness was forthcoming, the geteáma had to be produced, and witness or oath again was called for to prove that the defendant's proceedings were correct: Wé cwæ-acute;don, se ðe týman scolde, ðæt hé hæfde ungeligene gewitnesse ðæs ðæt hé hit on riht týmde, oþþe ðone áð funde ðe se gelýfan mihte ðe on sprece, L. Ed. 1; Th. i. 158, 16. If the geteáma, though living, were not brought, according to one regulation the defendant lost his case, and had to resign the property, L. H. E. 7; Th. i. 30, 9; according to another, if he could bring witness to prove the sale, he received the price of the property he had to give up, 16; Th. i. 34, 8. If the geteáma were dead other formalities were prescribed, L. In. 53; Th. i. 134, 17: L. Eth. ii. 9; Th. i. 290, 9. If all the requirements had been satisfied the property in question was handed over to the geteáma: Se ðe yrfe bycge on gewitnesse, and hit eft týman scyle, ðonne onfó se his ðe hé hit æ-acute;r æt bohte, L. Ath. i. 24; Th. i. 212, 12. Swá ic hit týme swá hit mé se sealde ðe ic hit nú on hand sette, L. O. 3; Th. i. 180, 3: L. Eth. ii. 8; Th. i. 288, 20; and the defendant thereupon appealed to the geteáma to corroborate his statement of the case, 21. If the latter accepted the property, the former was cleared, and the geteáma himself was now in a similar position to that in which the defendant had stood, 22; but if he declined to receive it, and declared that it was not the property he had sold, then the defendant had to prove that it was: Gif se mon (the geteáma) onfón ne wille, and sægþ ðæt hé him næ-acute;fre ðæt (the property) ne sealde, ac sealde óðer, ðonne mót se gecýðan, se ðe hit tiémþ, ðæt hé him nán óðer ne sealde búton ðæt ilce, L. In. 75; Th. i. 150, 7: cf. 35; Th. i. 124, 10. If however the case were not stopped, the process, in earlier times, was repeated until either there was a failure to produce a geteáma (v. teámbyrst), or the property was traced to some person whose right to its possession was undoubted: Gange se teám forð óþþæt man wire hwæ-acute;r hé óðstande, L. Ed. 1; Th. i. 158, 15: L. Eth. ii. 9; Th. i. 290, 3. Betweox teáme gif hwá tó féhþ, and ná furðor teám ne cenþ, ac ágnian wile, ne mæg mon ðæs wyrnan, gif getrýwe gewitnes him tó ágenunge rýmþ, 290, 18. Later teám was necessary only three times: Týme hit man þrywa, æt ðam feórðan cyrre ágnige hit, oððe ágyfe ðam ðe hit áge, L. C. S. 24; Th. i. 390, 9. At one time also a change was made in the place where teám should be made: Be teámum. Hwílon stód ðæt man sceolde þrywa týman ðæ-acute;r hit æ-acute;rest befangen wæ-acute;re, and syþþan fylgean teáme swá hwæ-acute;r swá man tó cende. Ðá geræ-acute;ddan witan, ðæt hit betere wæ-acute;re, ðæt man æ-acute;ure týmde ðæ-acute;r hit æ-acute;rest befangen wæ-acute;re ... ðý læs ðe mon unmihtigne man tó feor and tó lange for his ágenan swencte, L. Eth. ii. 9; Th. i. 288, 28. A case in which a defendant is cleared by his geteáma, who, however, cannot get himself cleared, is given Chart. Th. 206, 19 sqq. A woman had been stolen, and was found in the possession of one Wulfstan. Ðá týmde Wulfstán hine (the woman) tó Æðelstáne; ðá cende hé tém and lét ðone forberstan. v. teám-byrst. Another case is mentioned where a bishop was not allowed teám: Ne móste se bisceop beón ðara þreora nánes wyrðe ðe eallum leódscipe geseald wæs on wedde, tale, ne teámes, ne áhnunga, 266, 11. (2) The word also occurs often in charters along with sac, sóc, toll, etc., where according to one definition it refers to the right to the forfeitures which were made in the suits where teám was resorted to: Theam, quod si aliquis aliquid interciebatur super aliquem, et ipse non poterat warrantum suum habere, erit forisfactura, et justicia sinuliter de calumpniatore, si deficiebat, sua erit, L. Ed. C. 22; Th. i. 452, 1. Donavi abbati ... consnetudinem que dicitur teames, Chart. Th. 405, 1. v. teám-byrst. A different meaning is given elsewhere to the word. In Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iv. 202, 7 teám occurs, and in the Latin form of the charter is rendered by 'privilegium habendi totam suorum seruorum propaginem,' 203, 6. [O. Frs. tám a bridle; a line of descendants, progeny, family: O. L. Ger. tóm frenum: Du. toom: O. H. Ger. zoum funis, habena; Icel. taumr bridle, rein, cord.] v. bearn-, frum- (v. II above), here-, leger-teám; tíman.