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ÞREAHS - ÞREÁTIAN

þreahs. v. þreax.

þreál, e; f. Correction :-- Þreál correctio, Wrt. Voc. ii. 135, 81. I. correction by words, reproof, rebuke :-- Ðreál correptio, Kent. Gl. 1061. Þreále invectionis, Hpt. Gl. 448, 52. Hé (John the Baptist) ða heard-heortan ðeóde mid stearcre ðreále and stíðre myngunge tó lífes wege gebígde, Homl. Th. i. 362, 34. II. correction by acts, chastisement, punishment, discipline :-- Gif hé bétan nele underlicgge hé rihtlícre þreále si non emendaverit, discipline regulari subjaceat, R. Ben. 56, 13. Ðú (Belshazzar) noldest ðé warnian þurh ðínes fæder ðreále, Homl. Th. ii. 436, 8. Mistlíce þreála gebyriaþ for synnum, bendas oððe dyntas..., L. Pen. 3; Th. ii. 278, 25. Hine man mid líchamlícum þreálum gewylde, R. Ben. 57, 12: 58, 10. Ðonne wurð seó heardnis stíðmódre heortanswíðe gehnescad þush grimlíce steóra and heardlíce ðreála, ðe ic on mancyu sænde, Wulfst. 133, 19.

þreá-líc; adj. Miserable, woeful, calamitous :-- Godes ágen bearn héngon fæderas ússe; ðæt wæs þreálíc geþóht, Elen. Kmbl. 851; El. 426. Wæs þreálíc þing (the deluge) þeódum tóweard, réðe wíte, Cd. Th. 79, 28; Gen. 1318. Ða apostolas þrowedon folcbealo ðreálíc, mæ-acute;rne martyrdóm, Menol. Fox 248; Men. 125.

þreán. v. þreágan.

þreá-níd, es; n.: e; f. Force or compulsion that punishes or causes misery, affliction that comes from punishment :-- Ic hit leng ne mæg helan for hungre; is ðes hæft tó ðan strang, þreánýd ðæs þearl this imprisonment is so hard, so severe the pain of my punishment, Elen. Kmbl. 1404; El. 704. Þrowigean þreániéd micel fýres wylm to suffer much torturing violence, the fervor of fire, Cd. Th. 229, 7; Dan. 213. Þreánýd þolian, Beo. Th. 573; B. 284: Exon. Th. 187, 1; Az. 28. Þreánéd, 270, 12; Jul. 464. Blíðheort wunode eorl in þreánédum cheerful the man remained in his misery, Andr. Kmbl. 2530; An. 1266. Wé ðec for þearfum and for þreánýdum árena biddaþ we pray thee for mercy on account of our needs and afflictions, 186, 4; Az. 14: Beo. Th. 1668; B. 832. Ðone feónd hé gefetrode fýrnum teágum, biþeahte þreánýdum (with penal restraints), 359, 11; Pa. 61. Þreánédum beþeaht, Elen. Kmbl. 1764; El. 884.

þreá-nídla, an; m. Painful constraint, restraint of punishment, oppression :-- Béc ámyrgaþ módsefan of ðreánýdlan ðisses lífes books bring the mind to mirth from the painful pressure of this life, Salm. Kmbl. 481; Sal. 241. Ðonne wyrd and warnung winnaþ mid hira ðreánýdlan hwæðerne áðreóteþ æ-acute;r when fate and prudence strive, each with its own hard constraint, which of the two tires first? 857; Sal. 428. Nealles sylfes willum ac for þreánédlan, Beo. Th. 4450; B. 2224. Hé þeóstra þegnas þreániédlum bond he bound the ministers of darkness with penal restraints, Exon. Th. 143, 29; Gú. 668.

þreáníd-líc; adj. That entails painful violence, calamitous, afflictive :-- Micel is ðæt ongin and þreániédlíc ðínre gelícan ðæt ðú forhycge hláford úrne great is the undertaking and calamitous for the like of thee to despise our lord, Exon. Th. 250, 16; Jul. 128.

þreáp (?) a troop, band :-- Þreápum commanipularibus, sociis (perhaps heápum should be read, cf. efenheápum conmanipularibus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 20, 27; or þreátum; v. þreát: but þreáp may have a double sense as þreát has (see, too, þreápian, þreátian); in later English it remains with the meaning strife, contest, e.g.: Wituten threp (ani enuy, alle chidyng) or strijf, C. M. 13310. This þrepe (the siege of Troy) for to leue, Destr. Tr. 9845: perhaps, also, in sense of troop :-- An feondes trume ... þe saules ... awarieþ al a-þrep (in a troop? or = Ital. a gara) al so wulues doþ þe step, Misc. 149, 85. Halliwell gives thrap to crowd, as an Essex word), Hpt. 477, 52; 487, 33.

þreápian; p. ode To rebuke, reprehend :-- Oft gelintpeþ, ðonne hé tó suíðe and tó ðearllíce ðreápian (ðreáwian, ðreátian, Cott. MSS.) wile his hiéremenn, ðæt his word beóþ gehwyrfedo tó unnyttre oferspræ-acute;ce plerumque contingit, ut, dum culpa subditorum cum magna invectione corripitur, magistri lingua usque ad excessus verba pertrahatur, Past. 21; Swt. 165, 17. [Þrepe arguere, Ps. 93, 10. Himm birrþ þræpenn wiþþ skill onn&yogh;æness alle sinness he must with discretion contend against all sins, Orm. 5744. Whan &yogh;e a&yogh;ens the prechur threpe when ye blame the preacher (quotation in Halliwell's Dict.). Há þreapeð a&yogh;ein þe, Kath. 1916. Bihat al þ-bar; tu wult, þreap (threaten) þrefter inoh, 5499. In þraldom to þrepe (contend) with þe werld, Destr. Tr. 12134. Þai þrappit with stormys, 2003. They threpide wyth the throstille, D. Arth. 930. See also Halliwell's Dict. threap, thripe; Jamieson's Dict. threpe. Cf. Al þet fortune may þreapny (threaten) an do, Ayenb. 84, 20.] v. þrípel, and next word.

þreápung, e; f. Rebuke, reproof :-- Ðæt geðreátade mód bið suíðe raðe gehwierfed tó fióunga gif him mon tó ungemetlíce mid ðære ðreápunga (ðreáwunga, Cott. MSS.) oferfylgð suíður ðonne mon ðyrfe correpti mens repente ad odium proruit, si hanc immoderata increpatio, plus quam debuit, affligit, Past. 21; Swt. 167, 14. [Þrepyng strife, Allit. Pms. 43, 183. Cf. Cheaste. Þes bo&yogh; him todelþ ine .vij. oþre bo&yogh;es ... þe zixte þreapninge (threatening) ... Efterward comeþ þe þreapnynges and beginneþ þe medles and þe werres, Ayenb. 65-66.] v. two preceding words.

þreát, es; m. I. a troop, band, crowd, body of people, swarm, press, throng, (1) indefinite :-- Þreát turba, Wrt. Voc. ii. 137, 29. Ðreát (ðreátt, Rush.), Mk. Skt. Lind. 3, 32. Ðreót (ðæt folc &l-bar; ðreátas, Lind.) turbae, Lk. Skt. Rush. 3, 10. Menigo ðreád (monige ðreátas, Rush.) multa turba, Mk. Skt. Lind. 3, 7: 5, 21: Lk. Skt. Lind. 8, 40. Þreát chorus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 17, 33: i. 291, 13. Se ðreát (caterva) ðara Godes ðeówa, Bd. 4, 7; S. 574, 34. His ðegna ðreát ministri ejus, Ps. Th. 102, 20. Heofonengla þreát, Exon. Th. 57, 34; Cri. 928. Wítgena weorod, wífmonna þreát, 462, 7; Hö. 48. Þreátes classis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 24, 78. Þreáte examine; 33, 26. Gesomnadum ðreáte (coetu) bisceopa, Bd. 4, 17; S. 585, 12: Blickl. Homl. 95, 6. Se was on ðam ðreáte þreotteóða secg, Beo. Th. 4803; B. 2406. Cyning þreáte fór, herge tó hilde, Elen. Kmbl. 102; El. 51: Cd. Th. 288, 27; Sat. 388. Hió þrungon on þreáte they pressed in a crowd, Elen. Kmbl. 657; El. 329. In ðreáte in choro, Ps. Surt. 149, 3: 150, 4. Hí gesomnodan mycelne ðreát discipula congregata discipulorum caterva, Bd. 4, 2; S. 565, 25. Wyrma þreát, Cd. Th. 285, 12; Sat. 336. Gif hé on þreát cymeþ, Exon. Th. 380, 4; Rä. 1, 2. Ofer ðreótt, Mk. Skt. Rush. 8, 2. Menigo &l-bar; ðreátas turbae, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 13, 2. Engla þreátas, Blickl. Homl. 11, 12. Ealle ða mycclan þreátas ðe him mid férdon, 99, 35. Þurh þreáta geþræcu, Exon. Th. 417, 17; Rä. 36, 6. Mid engla ðreátum ducibus angelis, Bd. 4, 23; S. 596, 12. Þreátum festis choreis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 148, 14. Weras ðreátum and þrymmum þrungon and urnon, Judth. Thw. 23, 39; Jud. 164. Meara þreátum, Exon. Th. 119, 19; Gú. 257. Ðreáttum turbis, Rtl. 95, 6. (2) in a more definite sense :-- Ðreát turma .i. xxxii equites, Jn. Skt. Lind. 18, 12 margin. Ðes ðreát haec cohors, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 44; Zup. 64, 12. Cohors, d. milites vel þreát, Wrt. Voc. ii. 136, 1. Þreát falanx, multitudo militum, cohors, 147, 6. Of þreáte ex falange, 29, 66. Ðreóte, 107, 59. Ðæs déman cempan gegaderodon ealne ðone þreát (ðreád. Lind. cohortem), Mt. Kmbl. 27, 27. Þicfealdum þreátum eóroda spissis legionum cohortibus, Hpt. Gl. 413, 1. II. violence, compulsion, force, oppression, punishment, ill-treatment. v. þreátend :-- Is ðeós þrág ful strong, þreát ormæ-acute;te; ic sceal þinga gehwylc þolian, Exon. Th. 270, 14; Jul. 465. Hé was gebunden fýre and líge; ðæt was fæstlíc þreát (a punishment that pressed on him without remission), Cd. Th. 284, 22; Sat. 325. Gotan eástan sceldas læ-acute;ddon þreáte (by force or(?) with their army) geþrungon þeódlond monig, Met. 1, 3. Stódan him ábútan swearte gástas and mid micclum ðreáte (with great violence) him onsigon, Homl. Th. i. 454, 9. Ða ðe hæfdon sum þing lytles tó bigleofan, ðæt gelæhton reáferas and of ðam múðe him ábrudon unmæ-acute;ðlíce mid þreáte, Homl. Ass. 68, 73. Mid swíðlícum þreáte, Ælfc. T. Grn. 21, 12: Homl. Skt. ii. 28, 105: 29, 217. Godes æ-acute; forgæ-acute;gan for his gramlícan ðreáte, 25, 220. Ne forhtige gé for ðæs fyrnfullan þreátum (cruelties, or(?) troops), 25, 260. Hié ealle worlde weán and ealle þreátas (all the woes of the world and all miseries) oferhogodan ... hié ealle worldlíce tintrega and ealle lichomlícu sár oforhogodan, Blickl. Homl. 119, 16. [Riden ut þritti þusend, þe þræt (throng) wes þa mare, Laym. 9791. Listeð wich þreat (punishment, trouble, cf. God wile his swerd dragen, 22), Dauid setted uppen us, O. E. Homl. ii. 61, 20. Þrat moste I þole and unþonk, Allit. Pms. 93. 55. 'Herekempen scullen þi lond wasten ...' þis iherde þe king, þræt (threat) þas kaiseres, Laym. 22582. For scrið ne ðret neither for entreaty nor threat, Gen. and Ex. 2021. Ne recche ich noht of þine þete, O. and N. 58. Grete wordis and moche grym þrete, Destr. Tr. 2595. Hire sire and hire dame þreteþ hire to bete, nule heo forgo Robin for al heore þrete, Misc. 190, 84. M. H. Ger. dróz annoyance, molestation. Cf. Icel. þraut; f. a struggle, labour, hard task.] v. á-, beadu-, beorn-, eóred-, ge-, gúð-, here-, heofon-, íren-, mægen-, mearc-, sige-, wæ-acute;g-þreát.

þreátend, es; m. A violent person, one using violence or compulsion :-- Ðæm ðreátende violenti, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 11, 12. Ðæm nédende &l-bar; ðæm ðreátende volenti (l. violenti), 5, 42. Ðæm ðreáddende angarianti, p. 14, 17. v. þreát, II.

þreátian; p. ode. I. to urge, press :-- Threátade urguet, Wrt. Voc. ii. 124, 21. (1) to oppress, afflict, vex, trouble, exercise, harass :-- Ðú ðreátt ða ðeóda ðe ús ðreátigeaþ, Ps. Th. 9, 5. Mec láðgeteónan þreátedon þearle my foes harassed me sorely, Beo. Th. 1124; B. 560. Wyrd ... for ðý cymþ tó ðæm gódan, ðæt hió óþer twéga dó, oððe hine þreátige tó ðon ðæt hé bet dó ðonne hé æ-acute;r dyde, oððe him leánige ðæt hé æ-acute;r tela dyde fortuna ... remunerandi exercendive bonos causa deferatur, Bt. 40, 1; Fox 236, 3. Þreátende maceratus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 113, 49: 55, 43. (2) to urge a person to something, press for something, force to do something :-- For ðí ic ðreátige ðé tó úra goda offrunge, ðæt ðis folc, ðe ðú bepæ-acute;htest, forléton ða ídelnysse ðínre láre, Homl. Th. i. 592, 31. Seó wyrd ðe þreátaþ ða yflan tó wítnianne fortuna quae justo supplicio malos coercet, Bt. 40, 2; Fox 236, 25 note. Hé þreátode hine tó hæ-acute;þenscipe, Shrn. 33, 10. Æ-acute;ghwylc hine þreátode æfter ðám bócum every one tormented him for the books, 123, 29. Ða cempan hine ðreátodon ðæt hé his lác offrian sceolde the soldiers urged him to offer his sacrifice, Homl. Th. i. 416, 27. Men ðreátian and tihtan tó gódum ðeáwum for ðam ege ðæs wítes ad rectum supplicii terrore deducere, Bt. 38, 3; Fox 200, 7. Sceolan ða bisceopas men georne þreátigean, and him bebeódan, ðæt hí Godes dómas on riht healdan, Blickl. Homl. 47, 35. Ongan se cásere hine ðreátian tó hæ-acute;ðengylde, Shrn. 121, 12. Ða fæ-acute;mnan Simfronius ongan þreátian his suna tó wífe that virgin (St. Agnes) Simfronius attempted to force to be wife to his son, 56, 7. Geneáded &l-bar; þreátod coacta, Hpt. Gl. 508, 22. II. to reprove, rebuke :-- On wuda ðú wildeór wordum þreátast increpa feras silvarum, Ps. Th. 67, 27. Geðence hé ðæt hé biþ self suíðe gelíc ðám ilcan monnum ðe hé ðæ-acute;r ðreátaþ and hénð aequales se ipsis fratribus, qui corriguntur, agnoscant, Past. 17; Swt, 117, 16. Se ðe brúne ýða þreátaþ he that rebukes the waves (cf. geðreádade tó sae increpavit mari, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 8, 26), Andr. Kmbl. 1039; An. 520. God þreátode (arguit) ðé, Gen. 31, 42. Ðá þreátode (increpavit) se fæder hine, 37, 10. Ðonne se láreów sécð ðone tíman ðe hé his hiéremen on ðreátigean (ðreágean, Cott. MSS.) mæge cum tempus subditis ad correptionem quaeritur, Past. 21; Swt. 153, 6. Líðelíce tó ðreátianne (ðreátigeanne, Cott. MSS.) leniter arguenda, Swt. 151, 11. III. to threaten :-- Hé þreátaþ ðone earman mid his eágum oculi ejus in pauperem respiciunt, Ps. Th. 9, 29. Hí þreátiaþ eall moncynn mid hiora þrymme ore torvo comminantes, Bt. 37, 1; Fox 186, 6: Met. 25, 13. [In later English the forms from þrétan, þriétan (e.g. p. þrette) occur, though in the earlier time this form seems very rare. v. þrítan. He gon þretien swiðe, þat al he wolde heom todrive, Laym. 17300. Mine þralles me þretiað (threaten), 493. þe king þræted Brutun, þat..., 504. Summe þrætteden heore ueond, 27131. Oluhnen oðer þreaten, A. R. 248, 8. He þrette us for to smiten, 366, 16. He bigon to þreatin hire vehementius adversus eam in vocem erupit, Kath. 2078. Þreatin minari, 626. To þrete to complain (cf. pleny, 548), Allit. Pms. 17, 560. Þat þretes (reproves) þe of þyn unþryfte, 89, 1728. Euereuch man me mid stone þreteþ (ill-treats), O. and N. 1609. Sho was adrad, for he so þrette (threatened), Havel. 1163: Gen. and Ex. 2023. An canticle ðæt ðreated (rebuked) ðo men, 4125. Ne threte (arguis) me, Ps. 6, 2. He wat&yogh; þreted (abused) and þef called, Gaw. 1725. Of thralles y am thrat (ill-used?), P. S. 158, 17.] v. á-, ge-þreátian; þrítan; þreátnian; þreátung; þreótan.