This is page 1072 of An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Bosworth and Toller (1898)

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ÞRÓH - ÞROWING

þróh; adj. glosses rancidus :-- Of ðrón æfðancan rancida invidia, Anglia xiii. 33, 156. Swá ðrógum tam rancidis (v. Hpt. Gl. 472, 61: tam rancidis (fetidis, amaris, s. invisis, abominates) þrón, biterum, mid swá biterum), 148. v. preceding word.

þroht, es; m. Oppression, affliction, hardship :-- Ic hit leng ne mæg helan for hungre, is ðes hæft tó ðan strang, þreánýd ðæs þearl, and ðes þroht tó ðæs heard, Elen. Kmbl. 1405; El. 704. [Cf. Icel. þróttr fortitude.]

þroht; adj. Oppressive, grievous :-- Him sorgendum sár óðclífeþ, þroht þeódbealu, Exon. Th. 78, 2; Cri. 1268. Ellen biþ sélast ðam ðe oftost sceal dreógan dryhtenbealu, deópe behycgan þroht þeódengedál, 183, 8; Gú. 1324.

þroht-heard; adj. I. strong under afflictions, having fortitude or endurance in trouble :-- Ne geald hé (Stephen) yfel yfele, ac his ealdfeóndum þingode þrohtheard he requited not evil with evil, but strong to bear his sufferings he interceded for his foes, Elen. Kmbl. 985; El. 494. Blíðheort wunode eorl unforcúð elnes gemyndig, þríst and þrohtheard in þreánédum, Andr. Kmbl. 2529; An. 1266. Héton læ-acute;dan út þrohtheardne þegn, woldon ellenrófes mód gemiltan; hit ne mihte swá, 2781; An. 1393. Þegnas þrohthearde þafigan ne woldon, ðæt hié forléton leófne láreów, 803; An. 402. II. grievously hard :-- Wæs se leódhete þrohtheard, Andr. Kmbl. 2279; An. 1141.

þrohtig (?); adj. Enduring, firm, persevering, laborious :-- Ðrohtig (in the MS. e is written over o) pervicax, Txts. 87, 1556. Ic eom swiftre ðonne hé, þrágum strengra, hé þreohtigra, Exon. Th. 494, 7; Rä. 82, 4. [Cf. Icel. þróttigr powerful.]

þrop, þrosle. v. þorp, þrostle.

þrosm, es; m. I. smoke, vapour :-- Se þeóstra þrosm, Wulfst. 186, 4. On forsworcennesse sweartes þrosmes and ðæs weallendan pices, 139, 1: Dóm. L. 199. Eft átogenum ðara fýra ðrosmum ... eác fúlnes wæs mid ðæs fýres ðrosme retractis ignium vaporibus ... et foetor cum eisdem vaporibus, Bd. 5, 12; S. 628, 24-26. Ða ðe þrosme beþeahte in þeóstrum sæ-acute;ton, Exon. Th. 8, 11; Cri. 116: Elen. Kmbl. 2593; El. 1298. Ða biteran récas, þrosm and þýstro, Cd. Th. 21, 18; Gen. 326. Se þrosma (but see þrosmig) líg, Dóm. L. 191. II. darkness, a dark space :-- Sweart þrosm onáslít tetrum chaos inlabitur, Hymn. Surt. 13, 36. Betwux ús and eów is gefæstnod micel ðrosm (inter uos et nos chaos magnum firmatum est, Lk. 16, 26), Homl. Th. i. 332, 17. III. in Germ. 398, 230 þrosm glosses chautêrem. v. swefel-þrosm; þrysman.

þrosmig; adj. Smoky, vaporous :-- Ðær synd sorhlíce tósomne gemencged se þrosmiga líg and se þrece gycela (frigora mista simul ferventibus algida flammis, Dóm. L. 25, 95), Wulfst. 138, 26.

þrostle, þrosle, an; f. A throstle, singing-thrush :-- Ðrostle trita, Txts. 103, 2062: turdella, 2068. Þrostle, Wrt. Voc. i. 281, 16: merula, 62, 45: 77, 19. Ðrostle, ii. 55, 61. Þrosle merula vel plara, i. 29, 57. Án blác þrostle flicorode ymbe his neb, Homl. Th. ii. 156, 22. Of ðam leá on þrostlan wyl, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. v. 345, 3. [M. H. Ger. drostel.] Cf. þrysce.

-þrot. v. æ-acute;-þrot, á-þrotsum.

þrot-bolla, an; m. The gullet, windpipe :-- Ðrotbolla gurgulio, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 3; Zup. 35, 7: Wrt. Voc. ii. 110, 15. Þrotbolla, i. 43, 41: 64, 62: 282, 82: ceutrum, ii. 131, 1. Eal þrotbolla chautrum, i. 43, 42: ii. 22, 59. Gif monnes þrotbolla biþ þyrel, gebéte mid .xii. sci&l-bar;&l-bar;., L. Alf. pol. 51; Th. i. 94, 18. Ðrotbollan gurgilioni, Lchdm. i. lxx, 9. Þrotbollan gurguliones, Wrt. Voc. ii. 40, 45: Hpt. Gl. 490, 20. [Nu schal forrotien ... þi þrotebolle þat þu mide sunge, Misc. 178, 173. And by the throtebolle he caught Aleyn, Chauc. Reeve's T. 353. The throtebolle epyglotum, Wülck. Gl. 580, 21 (15th cent.). Throte bolle frumen hominis est, rumen animalis est, ipoglotum, Cath. Angl. 386.]

þrotu, an; f. The throat :-- Þrotu guttur, Wrt. Voc. i. 43, 39: Ps. Lamb. 5, 11: Scint. 97, 16: Lchdm. ii. 46, 22. Þeós ðrotu hoc guttur, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 22; Zup. 49, 3. On ðære ðrotan, Lchdm. ii. 2, 18. On ða þrotan, Bt. 22, 1; Fox 76, 30. Hé (Judas) gewráð ða forwyrhtan ðrotan, seó ðe lytle æ-acute;r belæ-acute;wde Drihten, Homl. Th. ii. 250, 16. Woruldcara forsmoriaþ ðæs módes ðrotan, 92, 11. Þrotan gurguliones, Wrt. Voc. ii. 82, 52. [O. H. Ger. droza, drozza gurgulio.] v. æsc-, eofor-þrotu(-e).

-þrowen in á-þrowen, read á-dropen.

þrowend, es; m. A scorpion :-- Hí habbaþ tæglas ðám wyrmum gelíce ðe men hátaþ þrowend, Wulfst. 200, 15. Scorpius, ðæt is þrowend, Lchdm. iii. 246, 1. Se wyrm ðrowend slihþ mid ðam tægle tó deáðe ... Ondræ-acute;d ðé ðone ðrowend ... Bið hiht geæ-acute;ttrod mid ðæs ðrowendes tægle, Homl. Th. i. 252, 4-11. Se ðe gegrípð þrowend (scorpionem), Scint. 86, 11: 225, 4. Þrowendra regulorum, serpentium, Hpt. Gl. 450, 17.

þrowende (-as?); pl. The Thronds(?), people in North Norway (Icel. Þrændir: Norw. Thrönder) :-- Mid Þyringum ic wæs and mid Þrowendum and mid Burgendum, Exon. Th. 322, 17; Víd. 64.

þrowere, es; m. I. a sufferer :-- Gif mann bið ákenned on .x. nihta ealdne mónan se bið þrowere, Lchdm. iii. 156, 27, v. lícþrowere. II. a sufferer for religion, a martyr :-- Ðe fruma ðrowere protomartyr, Rtl. 197, 9. Ðroweres ðínes martyris tui, 75, 41. Ðæs þroweres gemynd Sci Ypolyti, Shrn. 117, 8. Sce Ciricius tíd ðæs þroweres, Chr. 916; Th. i. 190, col. 2. Ðrowres, Rtl. 50, 15. Ðrowre martyrem, 2. Monge Godes þrowera, Exon. Th. 113, 5; Gú. 153: 111, 25; Gú. 132. Ðrowara ðínra martyrum tuorum, Rtl. 63, 16, 34. Ðrowerana, 44, 32. Wuldrigo ðrowras gloriosos martyres, 75, 34.

þrowian (þrówian?), þreowian (þreówian?); p. ode To suffer :-- Ic ðrowige patior, Ælfc. Gr. 29; Zup. 286, 9. I. to suffer as opposed to to act :-- Verbum ys word ... getácniende oððe sum ðing tó dónne oððe sum ðing tó þrowigenne oððe náðor, Ælfc. Gr. 19; Zup. 119, 10. II. to suffer what is painful. (1) with acc. :-- Mid gewyrhtum is ðás þrowige, Blickl. Homl. 89, 7. Ðú ne þrowast næ-acute;nige þrowunge, 157, 14. Wíf ácenþ bearn and þrowaþ micel earfoþu, Bt. 31, 1; Fox 112, 2. Hungor hí þrowiaþ famem patientur, Ps. Spl. 58, 7: Andr. Kmbl. 562; An, 281: Exon. 98, 30; Cri. 1615. Hé ðæs gewinnes weorc þrowade, Beo. Th. 3447; B. 1721. Hé drepe þrowade, 3183; B. 1589: Exon. Th. 256, 10; Jul. 229. Hé for ælda lufan fela þrowade, 69, 10; Cri. 1118: Blickl. Homl. 23, 35. Hí ermða þrowodan, 17, 17. Ðrowedon, Menol. Fox 244; Men. 123. Hí heora scylde wíte ðrowedon poenas sui reatus luerent, Bd. 4, 26; S 602, 14. Swá oft swá wé óht uneáþes þrowian æt yfflum monnum, Blickl. Homl. 33, 22. Þæ-acute;h þe ealle æ-acute;swice þrowige on þé ic næ-acute;fræ þrowe si omnes scandalizati fuerint in te, ego numquam scandalizabor, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 26, 33. Híra untrymnesse hé sceal ðrowian on his heortan ex affectu cordis alienae infirmitati compalitur, Past. 10; Swt. 61, 16. Éce wíte ðrowian, Homl. Th. i. 66, 14. Sceame þrowian, Soul Kmbl. 98; Seel. 49. Sár þrowian synna tó wíte, Exon. Th. 77, 1; Cri. 1250. Wrace þrowian, biterne bryne, Andr. Kmbl. 1230; An. 615. Wóp ðrowian, heáf under heofonum, Salm. Kmbl. 934; Sal. 466. Torn þrowigean, Cd. Th. 146, 14; Gen. 2422. Þrowigean þreániéd micel, fýres wylm, 229, 6; Dan. 213. Manega earfoðnesse fram Iudéum ic wæs ðrowiende, Blickl. Homl. 237, 10. (2) without acc., generally to suffer martyrdom :-- Ic þrowode, Cd. Th. 296, 17; Sat. 503. Mín Drihten, áne tíd on róde ðú þrowodest, Blickl. Homl. 243, 28. Godes sunu on róde galgan þrowode, 27, 28: Elen. Kmbl. 841; E1. 421: Rood Kmbl. 165; Kr. 84. Ðrowode, Menol. Fox 167; Men. 85. Þrowode martyrizavit, Wrt. Voc. ii. 55, 14. His mæssepreóst þreowude mid him, Shrn. 124, 1. Þrowedon agonizarunt, Wrt. Voc. ii. 3, 6. Þreowedan, 81, 50. Hú Drihten wolde cuman tó ðære stówe ðe hé on þrowian wolde, Blickl. Homl. 15, 5. Hé wolde þrowian for ealra manna hæ-acute;le, 65, 32: 77, 13. Hiæ-acute; læ-acute;ddun hine ðæt hé þrowigan salde duxerunt eum ut crucifigerent, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 27, 31. Ys mannes sunu fram him tó þrowigenne (þrowende bið, Rush.) Filius hominis passurus est ab eis, Mt. Kmbl. 27, 12. Tó ðrowienne, Homl. Th. i. 82, 27. Ðrouande passurum, Lk. Skt, p. 6, 9. Þrowigende laturi, Wrt. Voc. ii. 86, 39: 52, 46. ¶ The past participle is used as if the verb were a causative = to make to suffer, to crucify :-- Æfter ðonne ðe hé þrowad wæs after he was crucified, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 27, 44. Cf. Geðrowod under Pilate, Homl. Th. ii. 596, 15. Ðone geðrowodan Crist, 292, 13. (2 a) with gen. of instrument inflicting death :-- Hé sceolde deófolgeldum geldan, oððe sweordes þrowian suffer death by the sword, Shrn. 129, 3. III. to suffer for something, pay for, atone for :-- Ic ðrounio persolvio, Wrt. Voc. ii. 117, 16. Ðrowode expe[n]disset, throuadae expendisse[t], Txts. 61, 783. Þrowode expendisset, Wrt. Voc. ii. 29, 63. Hé þrowade ðæs þeówes sleacnysse he suffered for the slowness of the servant, Shrn, 43, 15. Þoledan and þrowedan luebant, Wrt. Voc. ii. 53, 29. Ðú scealt þrowian ðínes dæ-acute;da gedwild thou shalt expiate the error of thy deeds, Cd. Th. 57, 2; Gen. 921. Þrowgende luendi, Wrt. Voc. ii. 94, 51: 52, 65. [Crist þrouwede deð, O. E. Homl. i. 17, 29. Þrowede, ii. 101, 9. Hwi walde he þrowin as he dude, Kath. 1135. He ðrowede and ðolede, Gen, and Ex. 1180. O. H. Ger. dróen, druoen pati.] v. á-, efen-, ge-þrowian.

þrowiend-líc, þrowigend-líc; adj. I. capable of suffering :-- Ðá wearð hé (Christ) gesewenlíc on úrum gecynde and þrowigendlíc, Homl. Th. i. 120, 26: ii. 6, 32. Ðis is ðín gecynd ðus ðrowigendlíc, ðe ic of ðé genam, 256, 28. Hélias wæs ús mannum gelíc, ðrowiendlíc, swá swá wé, 330, 16. II. as a grammatical term, passive :-- Passiva verba, ðæt synd þrowiendlíce word, Ælfc. Gr. 19; Zup. 121, 1. Eal swá gáð ða óðre ðrowigendlícan word, 27; Zup. 161, 15. v. un-þrowi(g)endlíc.

þrowing, þreowing, e; f. I. suffering as opposed to doing :-- Verbum is word, and word getácnaþ weorc oððe ðrowunge oððe geþafunge, Ælfc. Gr. 5; Zup. 9, 3. Him (the verb) gelimpþ siginficatio, ðæt ys getácnung, hwæt ðæt word getácnige, dæ-acute;de oððe þrowunge oððe náðor, 19; Zup. 119, 14. II. suffering which is painful :-- Ic geteorode on ðære þrowunga, Ps. Th. 38, 11. Ðú ne þrowast næ-acute;nige þrowunge on ðínum líchoman, Blickl. Homl. 157, 15. Wæs monigu ðrowunga from swíðe monigum lécum fuerat multa perpesa a compluribus medicis, Mk. Skt. Rush. 5, 26. Hé gehýrde heora þrowunga he heard of their sufferings (they had been struck blind), Blickl. Homl. 153, 35. II a. as a medical term, a painful symptom :-- Tácn ðæs ofercealdan magan, ðæt ða men ne þyrst, ne hí swól gefélaþ on magan, and ne biþ him æ-acute;nig wearm þrowung getenge, Lchdm. ii. 194, 13. III. suffering that is undergone for the sake of religion, suffering of persecution, cross (in the phrase to take up one's cross) :-- Him God wolde æfter þrowinga þonc gegyldan, ðæt hé martyrhád móde gelufade, Exon. Th. 130, 22; Gú. 442. Læ-acute;dæ ðróunc his and fylge meh tollat crucem suam et sequatur me, Mk. Skt. Lind. 8, 84. Ðrowung (ðrowunge, Rush.), Lk. Skt. Lind. 9, 23. Ðróung (ðrowunge, Rush.), 14, 27. Se ðe in þrowingum þeódnes willan dreógeþ, Exon. Th. 125, 18; Gú. 356: 148, 26; Gú. 750. Gehýran heora þrowunga to hear of the sufferings of St. Peter and St. Paul, Blickl. Homl. 173, 2. III a. suffering which ends in death, passion, martyrdom :-- Ðrouinges martyrii, Rtl. 64, 18. Ðróunges passionis, 50, 23. Ic, eówer emnðeówa and Cristes ðrowunge gewita, Past. 18; Swt. 137, 16. Se ðe biþ gemyndig Drihtnes þrowunge and his æ-acute;riste, Blickl. Homl. 83, 14. Ða móddru on heora cildra martyrdóme þrowodon ... neód is ðæt hí beón efenhlyttan ðæs écan edleánes, ðonne hí wæ-acute;ron geféran ðære ðrowunge, Homl. Th. i. 84, 20. On hwæs tíman hé ðrowunge underhnige in whose time he had submitted to martyrdom, ii. 506, 31. Ðæt hé tó ðrowunge becóme ad martyrium pervenire, Bd. 1, 7; S. 478, 12. Be Cristes ðrowunge de passione dominica, 4, 24; S. 598, 13. Drihten ús mid his þrowunga álésde, ðá hé on róde galgan ástág, Blickl. Homl. 97, 10: 35, 7: 81, 31. Ðrowenge passione, Rtl. 50, 4. Hé ongan árweorþian ða ðrowunge háligra martyra honorem referre incipiens caedi sanctorum, Bd. 1, 7; S. 479, 1. Þurh his þrowinga, Exon. Th. 29, 29; Cri. 470: 69, 33; Cri. 1130. III b. the anniversary of a martyr's suffering :-- On ðone feówer and twéntygoðan dæg ðæs mónðes byð Sci. Crisso&yogh;ones týd and þrowung, Shrn. 151, 17, 31. Þreowung, 114, 21. [Vre drihtnes halie passiun, þet is his halie þrowunge, O. E. Homl. i. 119, 26. Inntill þrowwinnge and pine, Orm. 15205. Cheosen er licomes hurt þen soule þrowunge, A. R. 372, 6. Wiðuten ðhrowing and figt, Gen. and Ex. 1317. O. H. Ger. druuunga passio.] v. following words.