This is page 1077 of An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Bosworth and Toller (1898)

This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.

Click here to go to the main page about Bosworth/Toller. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.

This page was generated on 22 Apr 2017. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.

The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.

ÞURH - ÞURH

þurh, þurg, þuruh, þorh, þorch, þerh, þerih, þærh; prep. Through. A. with acc. v. also C. I. local, (1) marking motion into and out at the opposite side :-- Þorh (dorh, ðorh) ludgaet per seudoterum, Txts. 84, 741. Ðurh ða duru wé gáð in per hostium intramus, Ælfc. Gr. 47; Zup. 269, 18: Cd. Th. 29, 8; Gen. 447. Gangaþ inn þurh (ðerh, Lind.) ðæt nearwe geat, Mt. Kmbl. 7, 13: Lk. Skt. 18, 25. Syllan drincan þurh þyrel, Exon. Th. 485, 1; Rä. 71, 7. Ðá férde hé þurh (ðerh, Lind.) hyra mydlen, Lk. Skt. 4, 30. Wé þuruh fýr faraþ and þuruh flóda þrym transivimus per ignem et aquam, Ps. Th. 65, 11. Hé wæs on breóstum wund þurh ða hringlocan, Byrht. Th. 136, 2; By. 145. (1 a) where the preposition follows the governed word :-- Duru, ðe is wæs þurh hider onsended, Blickl. Homl. 9, 1. (2) marking motion over or in, cf. geónd :-- Hé férde þurh ða ceastre and ðæt castel bodiende, Lk. Skt. 8, 1. Hé ástyraþ ðis folc, læ-acute;rende þurh ealle ludéam, 23, 5. Hé hleóþrede þurh hátne líg, Exon. Th. 185, 4; Az. 2. Ic þurh ðín hús middan eode perambulabam in medio domus meae, Ps. Th. 100, 2. Ðæt fýr nimeþ þurh foldan gehwæt, Exon. Th. 62, 18; Cri. 1003. II. temporal, marking continuity, through, for, during :-- Ðurh twégen dagas per biduum, Bd. 4, 19; S. 589, 2. Þurh ealne dæg tota die, Ps. Th. 73, 21. Þuruh, 87, 9. Ðorh syndrie neht per singulas noctes, Ps. Surt. 6, 7. Þurh scírne dæg Exon. Th. 439, 15; Rä. 59, 4. Þurh

lytel fæc, 115, 6; Gú. 185. Þurh ælða tíd, 152, 11; Gú. 807. Þurh ealra worulda woruld, Ps. Th. 71, 5. III. other relations, (1) marking the agent, through, by :-- Þorch (dorh, ðorh) byrgeras per vispelliones, Txts. 86, 760. Ðerih, 151, 6: Wá ðam menn þurh ðone ðe (ðe ðorh hine, Lind.) byð mannes Sunu belæ-acute;wed, Mt. Kmbl. 26, 24: Chr. 1014; Erl. 151, 8. Hié hié, wendon ealla ðurh wíse wealhstódas on hiora ágen geðióde, Past. pref.; Swt. 7, 4. Seó hergung wæs ðurh Alaricum geworden, Bd. 1, 11; S. 480, 11. Hé ða bisceopðéninge ðurh hine sylfne (per se) ðénian ne mihte, 4, 23; S. 594, 27. Wiste Cúðberhtus eal be ðam wífe, and wolde þurh hine sylfne hí geneósian (would visit her in person, the visit should be made by himself,) Homl. Th. ii. 142, 11. Gif hwá ymb cyninges feorh sierwie þurh hine oþþe þurh wreccena feormunge (by his own direct acts or by the harbouring of criminals), L. Alf. pol. 4; Th. i. 62, 15. (1 a) preposition following case :-- Wá ðam ðe hig þurh (ðerh, Lind. Rush.) cumaþ uae illi per quem ueniunt, Lk. Skt. 17, 1. (2) marking the means or instrument, through, by, by means of, by use of :-- Swá he spræc þurh hys hálegra wítegena múð (per os sanctorum), Lk. Skt. 1, 70. Hé ðurh ðæra wealhstóda múð ðam cyninge bodade, Homl. Th. ii. 128, 21: 148, 12. Ic þurh múþ sprece mongum reordum, Exon. Th. 390, 13; Rä. 9, 1. Þurh his sylfes múð, 464, 6; Hö. 83: Andr. Kmbl. 1301; An. 651. Tódæl þurh seofon divide by seven, Anglia viii. 304, 41. Cnuca hý þurh hý selfe pound it by itself (per se), Lchdm, i. 130, 4: 192, 17. Wé ðæt gehýrdon þurg hálige béc, Apstls. Kmbl. 126; Ap. 63. Þurg wítgena wordgerýno, Elen. Kmbl. 577; El. 289. Hié lufodon wísdóm and ðurh ðone hié begeáton welan, Past. pref.; Swt. 5, 14. Hé geférde þurh feóndes cræft, Cd. Th. 29, 21; Gen. 453: 1, 21; Gen. 11: Blickl. Homl. 17, 11. Þuruh, Ps. Th. 70, 1. Hé hié tó heofona ríce laþode þurh his wundorgeweorc and þurh ða godspellícan láre, Blickl. Homl. 7, 9: Andr. Kmbl. 1949; An. 977. Ðæt hí heora synna wítnade and bétte ðurh fæsten and ðurh wópas and ðurh gebedo. Bd. 4, 25; S. 599, 25. Wé witon unrím ðara monna ðe ða écan gesæ-acute;lða gesóhtan nallas ðurh ðæt án ðæt hí wilnodon ðæs líchomlícan deáðes ac eác manegra sárlícra wíta hié gewilnodon wið ðan écan lífe multos scimus beatitudinis fructum non morte solum, verum etiam doloribus suppliciisque quaesisse, Bt. 11, 2; Fox 36, 3. Gif hine mon geyflige mid slege oþþe mid bende oþþe þurh wunde, L. Alf. pol. 2; Th. i. 62, 4. (3) marking the efficient cause or reason, through, in consequence of, as the result of, by reason of, on account of :-- Heofonríces duru belocen standeþ þurh ða æ-acute;restan men, Blickl. Homl. 9, 2. Wæs micel unfrið þurh sciphere, Chr. 1001; Erl. 136, 2. Gif seó hringe nele up þurh his ánes tige, Homl. Skt. i. 21, 47: Ps. Th. 64, 11. Ðurh Æþelrédes hæ-acute;se (jubente Ædilredo) Wilfriþ hine tó biscope gehálgode, Bd. 4, 23; S. 594, 29: Andr. Kmbl. 3038; An. 1522. Ic þurh his willan ásend wæs Dei voluntate missus sum, Gen. 45, 8: Exon. Th. 194, 3; Az. 133. Þurh clæ-acute;ne gecynd in consequence of a pure nature, Hy. 9,

11: 7, 24. Ðá mihte heó wíde geseón þurh (in consequence of) ðæs láðan læ-acute;n, Cd. Th. 38, 3; Gen. 601: 39, 25-27; Gen. 631-2. Þurg, Apstls. Kmbl. 25; Ap. 13. Hé ðurh his gylt on ðám inrum þeóstrum befeóll, Homl. Th. ii. 556, 20: Cd. Th. 21, 29, 30; Gen. 331-2. Þurh ða eáðmódnesse mid geleáfullum hé gefylde ðysne middangeard, Blickl. Homl. 11, 7. Hine mæ-acute;tte, and hé rehte ðæt his bróðrum; þurh ðæt hig hine hatedon ðe swíðor (quae causa majoris odii seminarium fuit), Gen. 37, 5. Hit wearð gelet þurh ðæt ðe Magnus hæfde micelne scypcræft, Chr. 1048; Erl. 173, 7: Wulfst. 161, 1. Wearð ðær æ-acute;fre ðuruh sum þing fleám ástiht, Chr. 998; Erl. 134, 19. Þurh hwæt ðú ðus hearde ús eorre wurde, Elen. Kmbl. 799; El. 400. Man þurh æ-acute;lc þingc rihtwísnesse lufige. Wulfst. 266, 18. (4) marking motive or feeling that prompts action, through, from :-- Ðurh (ðerh, Lind.: ðærh, Rush.) andan hine

sealdon ða heáhsacerdas, Mk. Skt. 15, 10. Se forhátena spræc þurh feóndscipe, Cd. Th. 38, 21; Gen. 610. Ic Gode þegnode þurh holdne hyge, 37, 7; Gen. 586: Ps. Th. 77, 38. Hyre þurh yrre ágeaf andsware fæder feóndlíce, Exon. Th. 249, 25; Jul. 117. Gif wé þurh eáþmódnesse eall áræfnaþ, Blickl. Homl. 13, 91. Hí fricgaþ þurh fyrwet, Exon. Th.

6, 30; Cri. 92. (5) marking the circumstance which renders state or action possible or right, through, in virtue of, by right of :-- Ðæt Martinus wæ-acute;re wyrðe ðæs hádes, and ðæt folc gesæ-acute;lig ðurh swelcne biscop that Martin was worthy of the office, and the people happy in such a bishop, Homl. Th. ii. 506, 9. His blód ágeát God on galgan þurh his gástes mægen in virtue of his spirit's strength, Cd. Th. 299, 16; Sat. 550. Hé fæste feówertig daga þurh his mildsa spéd, 306, 23; Sat. 668. Heó hit þurh monnes geþeaht ne sceáwode, 38, 12; Gen. 605. Him bearn Godes déman wille þurh his dæ-acute;da spéd, 304, 2; Sat. 623: 301, 30; Sat. 589. (6) marking manner, state, in, by, in the character of, by way of :-- Þorch (dorh, ðorh) óbst per anticipationem, Txts. 84, 757. Ðurh endebyrdnesse singan per ordinem cantare, Bd. 4, 24; S. 597, 6. Ðæt fýr ábyrst út ðurh lígett in the shape of lightning, Lchdm. iii. 280, 6: Elen. Kmbl. 2210; El. 1106. Ácenned in middangeard þurh mennisc heó born into the world in human shape, 12; El. 6. Onsýne þurh cnihtes hád visible in the form of a youth, Andr. Kmbl. 1824; An. 914. Hnígan mid heáfdum þurh geongordóm to bow the head as vassals, Cd. Th. 46, 12; Gen. 743. Ne can ðara idesa ówðer þarh gebedscipe beorna neáwest, 148, 35; Gen. 2467. Hé ðolode ðurh wíte (as punishment) ða ýttran blindnysse ... Hé ðolaþ þeóstra ðurh wrace, Homl. Th. ii. 556, 19-21. Wundorgiefe þurh goldsmiþe wondrous gifts in the goldsmith's art, Exon. Th. 331, 24; Vy. 73. Stód him sum man æt ðurh swefen (per somnium), Bd. 4, 24; S. 597, 11: Cd. Th. 159, 16; Gen. 2635: 160, 21; Gen. 2653. Him synna brytta þurh slæ-acute;p (in sleep) oncwæð, 159, 28; Gen. 2641. (7) marking accompanying circumstances of an action, in, with :-- Ðú scealt þurh wóp and heáf on woruld cennan, þurh sár micel, sunu and dohtor, Cd. Th. 57, 4-7; Gen. 923-4. Líg þurh lust geslóh micle máre ðonne gemet wæ-acute;re, 231, 19; Dan. 249. Ðara ðe hyra lífes þurh lust brúcan, Exon. Th. 127, 19; Gú. 388. Ða wácran ðás woruld healdaþ, brúcaþ þurh bisgo, 311, 6; Seef. 88. (8) marking aim, with a view to :-- Hé Drihten mid hondum genom þurh edwít (with a view to disgrace him), Cd. Th. 307, 17; Sat. 681. Heó his láre geceás ðurh þeódscipe (with a view to instruction(?), in order to be instructed; or on account of his learning(?)), Elen. Kmbl. 2331; El. 1167. (9) with verbs of swearing, adjuring, etc., through, by, in :-- Sume synd jurativa, ðæt synd swerigendlíce, per ðurh: juro per Deum ic swerige ðurh God, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Zup. 227, 3. Ic swerige þurh mé sylfne per memetipsum juravi, Gen. 22, 16. Ðæt gé ne swerion ne þurh heofon ... ne þurh eorðan . . . ne ðú ne swere þurh ðín heáfod, Mt. Kmbl. 5, 34-36: Cd. Th. 205, 10; Exod. 433: Elen. Kmbl. 1369; El. 686. Ðú deópe áðe þurh ðínes sylfes sóð benemdest, Ps. Th. 88, 42. Ic ðec hálsige þurh gæ-acute;sta weard, Exon. Th. 174, 14; Gú. 1177. Hý þurh mínne noman bæ-acute;dan, 92, 12; Cri. 1507. Eallum ðæ-acute;m ðé mé gecégaþ þorh ðínne noman, Shrn. 105, 6. Ic ðé háte þurh ða héhstan miht, Cd. Th. 308, 18; Sat. 694. (10) marking extent :-- Hwí is ðis fæsten þus geteald þurh feówertig daga why is this fast reckoned at forty days? Homl. Th. i. 178, 19. B. with dat. v. also C. I. local, (1) marking motion into and out at the opposite side :-- Englas flugon swilce ðurh ánre dúna intó ðære heofenan, Homl. Th. ii. 342, 6. Gif ðæ-acute;r biþ in hwem open forlæ-acute;ten, ðæt se here þurh ðam infær hæbbe, 432, 5. Ðerh middum, Lk. Skt. Lind. 4, 30. (2) marking motion over or in :-- Ic wæs getogen þurh ðisse ceastre lanum, Blickl. Homl. 243, 29. II. in other relations, (1) marking means or instrument :-- Geufered þurh láréwlícum basincge exaltatus melote, Hpt. Gl. 440, 71. Heó wolde þurh his mynegungum hire mód getrymman, Homl. Th. ii. 146, 10: 448, 27. Ðurh ðínum drýcræftum, 414, 4. Þurh ðam eárplættum, 248, 25. Þurh twám gewritum, Wulfst. 230, 3. Ðerh múðe háligwara, Lk. Skt. Lind. 1, 70. (2) marking cause :-- Hé næs ácweald ðurh ðam heálícan fylle, Homl. Th. ii. 300, 19. Seó gelaðung ys weaxende þurh ácennedum cildum and waniende þurh forðfarenum, Lchdm. iii. 238, 2. (3) marking manner, state :-- Hé ðæt weorc ðæs godspelles má ðurh his fóta gange fremede ðonne on his horsa ráde (more on foot than on horseback), Bd. 4, 3; S. 566, 32. Ðá com úre Drihten þurh wolcnum (in clouds), Blickl. Homl. 145, 35. C. in the following passages both acc. and dat. are used :-- Ðá áxode se ealdorman ðone hæftling, hwæðer hé ðurh drýcræft oððe ðurh rúnstafum his bendas tóbræ-acute;ce, Homl. Th. ii. 358, 10-11. Hí sume þurh freónda fultum and ælmesdæ-acute;dum, and swíðost þurh hálige mæssan beóð álýsede, 352, 25-27. Ðurh ða treówu and ðam streáwe and ðam ceafe sind getácnode leóhtlíce synna, 590, 12-14. D. with gen. :-- Wé beóð geclæ-acute;nsode þurh ðæs hálgan húselganges, Homl. Th. ii. 266, 23. E. as adverb; see also the following compounds :-- Hé sæ-acute; tóslát and hí fóran þurh, Ps. Th. 77, 15. Ðæ-acute;r wæs fleóhnet ymbe ðæs folctogan bed áhongen, ðæt se bealofulla mihte wlítan ðurh, and on hyne næ-acute;nig monna cynnes, Judth. Thw. 22, 5; Jud. 49. [O. E. Homl. þurh, þurch, þuregh: Laym. þurh, þorh: Orm. þurrh: A. R. þurh, þuruh: Gen. and Ex. ðurg: Havel. þoru: R. Glouc. þoru, þorw: Chauc. thurgh: Piers P. þorow&yogh;, thorw: Goth. þairh: O. Sax. thurh, thuru: O. L. Ger. thurh, thuru(-o): O. Frs. thruch: O. H. Ger. durh, duruh (-ah, -eh).]