This is page 34 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)
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AUKA, jók, jóku (mod. juku), aukit [Lat. augere; Gr. GREEK Ulf.
aukan; A. S. eacan or ecan; Engl. to eche or eke; O. H. G. auhon];
pres. ind. eyk; subj. eyki or yki, mod. jyki. A weak form (aukar,
aukaði, aukat) also occurs, esp. in Norse, and (as a Norwegianism) in
Icel. writers, esp. after the year 1260, e. g. aukaðu, augebant, Barl. 138;
aukaðist, augebatur, aukaði, augebat. Barl. 180, Fms. i. 140, 184, x. 21
(MSS. aukuðu or aukaði, and some even jóku), Róm. 234; subj. aukaðist,
augeretur, Fms. vii. 158 in three Icel. vellum MSS.; only one has ykist, the
strong genuine form. Pres. aukar, auget, and aukast, augetur, instead of
eykr, eykst, Stj. 32: part, aukat (= aukit), O. H. L. 46; aukuð, aucta,
Fms. x. 236. Even Snorri in the Edda has aukaðist, p. 3, both in the
vellum MSS. Ob. and Kb., -- a form which is thoroughly unclassical;
the poets use the strong form, and so Ari, who has jókk = jók ek, in the
preface to Íb.; -- so also the great bulk of the classical literature. Since
the Reformation the strong form is the only one used either in speaking
or writing. I. Lat. augere, to augment, increase, with acc., eykr
hann þar ætt sína, Fms. iii. 82; jók Njáll ekki hjón sín, Nj. 59; hét hann
þeim at auka virðing þeirra, Eg. 33; þessi orð jóku mjök sök Adams,
Sks. 542; jók nafn hans, Hom. 51, Nj. 33; var þá síðan aukuð (= aukin)
veizlan, Fms. x. 236: absol., þat hálft er eykr, that half which is over
and above, Js. 75: in the phrase, aukanda ferr um e-t, a thing is increasing,
Nj. 139. II. Lat. addere, to add to the whole of a
thing; with the thing added in the dat., ok jókk (= jók ek) því es mér
varð síðan kunnara, Íb. (pref.): impers., jók miklu við, increased greatly,
Ld. 54; þá eykst enn ellefu nóttum við, eleven nights are still added, Rb.
28: followed by 'við,' auka e-u við e-t, to add to it, Nj. 41; 'til' is rare
and unclassical, and seems almost a Danism, as 'föie til,' þetta til aukist,
Vm. 7: auka synd (dat.) á synd (acc.) ofan, to heap sin upon sin, Stj.
274: aukast orðum við, to come to words, speak, Eg. ch. 58, v. l. (rare);
ef þú eykr orði, if tbou say'st a word more, Lex. Poët. β. with acc. (a
rare and unclassical Latinism), auka ny vandræði (= nyjum vandræðum)
á hin fornu, Bs. i. 751. γ. impers. in the phrase, aukar á, it increases, Róm. 234. III. to surpass, exceed; þat er eykr sex
aura, þá á konungr hálft þat er eykr, if it exceeds six ounces, the king
takes half the excess, N. G. L. i. 281, Js. § 71; en ármaðr taki þat er
aukit er, what is over and above, N. G. L. i. 165. Esp. used adverbially
in the part. pass, aukit, aukin, more than, above, of numbers; aukin þrjú
hundruð manna, three hundred men well told, Eg. 530, Fms. ix. 524, v. l.;
með aukit hundrað manna, x. 184, Ld. 196; aukin hálf vætt, Grett. 141
new Ed. β. in the phrases, þat er (eigi) aukat (aukit), it is no exaggeration,
Jd. verse 22, the Ed. in Fms. xi. 169 has 'árla' (a false reading);
pat er aukat, O. H. L. 1. c.; orðum aukið, exaggerated, Thom. 73.
aukan, f. increase, K. Á. 20.
auki, a, m. eke [A. S. eaca; Old Engl. and Scot, eke or eik], increase,
addition; Abram tók þann auka nafns síns, Ver. 14; a. öfundar ok hatrs,
Stj. 192: cp. also in the phrase, verða at moldar auka, to become dust, to
die, in a verse in the Hervar. S. Fas. i. 580; cp. maðr er moldu samr,
man is but dust, Sl. 47; and another proverb, lauki er lítið gæft til auka,
used by Sighvat (Lex. Poët.), the leek needs but little care to grow; sárs-
auki, pain, Mirm. 47; Danmerkr auki is a poët. name of Zealand used by
Bragi, Edda I: the phrase, í miklum auka, in a huge, colossal shape,
Glúm. 345 (in a verse); hence perhaps comes the popular phrase, að færast
í aukana (or haukana), to exert to the utmost one's bodily strength, Glámr
færðist í alla auka (of one wrestling), Grett. 114 A, (Ed. 1853 has færðist í
aukana.) 2. metaph. seed, germs, thou hast given me no seed, Stj.
III. Gen. xv. 2; esp. the sperm of whales, amber, Sks. 137. β. produce
of the earth, Barl. 193, 200. γ interest of capital, N. G. L. ii.
380; vide áauki, sársauki, sakauki, i. 187. COMPDS: auka-dagr, m.
'eke-day,' dies intercalaris, Rb. 488. auka-hlutr, m. in the phrase,
at aukahlut, to boot, Hom. 129. auka-nafn, n. 'eke-name,' nickname,
or additional name, Sks. 272. auka-smíði, n. a superfluous thing,
a mere appendix, Fms. ii. 359. auka-tungl, n. intercalary moon,
Rb. 116. auka-verk, n. by-work, Bs. i. 326. auka-vika, u, f.
'eke-week,' intercalary week, v. hlaupár.
auk-nafn, n. = aukanafn, 'eke-name.'
auk-nefna, d, to nickname, Landn. 243.
auk-nefni, n. 'eke-name,' a nickname: α. a defamatory name,
punishable with the lesser outlawry, Grág. ii. 146. β. in a less strong
sense; hann var svartr á hár ok hörund, ok því þótti honum a. gefit er
hann var Birtingr kallaðr, he was swarth of hair and skin, and for that
it seemed a nickname was given him when he was called 'Brighting,' Fms.
vii. 157: Helgi átti kenningar nafn, ok var kallaðr hvíti; ok var þat eigi
a., því at hann var vænn maðr ok vel hærðr, hvítr á hár, Helgi had a
surname (in a good sense), and was called 'White;' and that was no nickname,
for he was a handsome man and well-haired, white of hair, Fbr.
80: þú hyggr at ek muna vilja giptast einum bastarði, -- eigi em ek
bastarðr nema at a., of William the Conqueror, Fb. iii. 464. In old times,
esp. at the time of the colonisation of Iceland, such nicknames were in
freq. use, as may be seen from the index in the Landnama; they gradually
went out of use, but still occur now and then throughout the whole
of the Saga period in Icel. down to the 14th century.
aukning, f., Old Engl. 'eeking,' increase, Stj. 100, 176, Sks. 137.
au-kvisi, a, m. [prop. auð-kvisi, from auð, easy, and kveistinn, touchy;
cp. kveisa, f. ulcus, dolor]; in old writers it is spelt with au or av,
and sometimes with a double k, ökkvisi, Bs. i. 497 vellum MS. A. M.
499; auðkvisi, Ld. 236 C and the vellum MS. A. M. 122 A to Sturl. ii.
8; aukvisi, MS. 122 B; O. H. (Ed. 1853) reads aucvisi; it means a weakly,
irritable, touchy person. Used esp. in the proverb, einn er au. ættar
hverrar, cp. the Engl. there is a black sheep in every flock, Hkr. ii. 238:
mun ek son minn láta heita Gizur; lítt hafa þeir aukvisar verit í
Haukdæla ætt er svá hafa heitið hér til, Sturl. ii. 8, at the birth of earl Gizur.
[The name Gizur was a famous name in this family, Gizur hviti, Gizur
biskup, Gizur Hallsson, etc.]
AULANDI, an indecl. adj., qs. al-landi, an GREEK in the proverb
Nj. 10, illt er þeim er au. er alinn. [The root is prob. al- (Lat. alius),
land, cp. A. S. ellend or elland (Hel. elilendi), alienus, peregrinus; Old
Engl. alyant; O. H. G. alilanta (whence N. H. G. elend, miser): there is
in Icel. also a form erlendr, prob. a corruption for ellendr. This root is
quite lost in the Scandin. idioms with the single exception of the proverb
mentioned above, and the altered form er-.] The MSS. of the Nj. I. c.
differ; some of them have á úlandi in two words, in terra malâ;
Johnsonius has not made out the meaning: the proper sense seems to be exul
ubique infelix. In olden times peregrinus and miser were synonymous,
the first in a proper, the last in a metaphorical sense: so the Lat. hostis
( = hospes) passed into the sense of enemy. The spelling with ö (ölandi)
ought perhaps to be preferred, although the change of vowel cannot be
easily accounted for.
auli, a, m. a dunce, aulaligr adj., aula-skapr m., aulast dep., etc., do
not occur, as it seems, in old writers; prop. a slug (?); cp. Ivar Aasen
s. vv. aula, auling.
aum-hjartaðr, adj. tender-hearted, charitable, Stj. 547, Hom. 109.
aumindi, n. painful feeling from a wound or the like, Fél. ix. 192.
aumingi, ja, m. a wretch, in Icel. in a compassionate sense; Guðs a.,
655 xxxii. 15, Bs. i. 74, Hom. 87.
aumka, að, to bewail, to complain, esp. in the impers. phrase, a. sik, to
feel compassion for, Bær. II, Al. 10, Róm. 182, Bret. 98, Fagrsk. ch. 34;
now freq. used in reflex., aumkast yfir e-t, to pity.
aumkan, f. lamentation, wailing. El. 10.
aumleikr, m. misery, Stj. 428, Bs. i. 321; now also used of the sore
feeling of a wound or the like, v. aumr.
aumligr, adj. and -liga, adv. [A. S. earmlic] , poorly, wretched, Grett.
161, Fms. i. 138, v. 218, Sturl. ii. 13, Bær. 4, Magn. 432, H. E. iii. 366.
aum-neglurr, more correctly anneglur, cp. the Engl. agnail, hangnail,
or naugnail, Fél. ix. 192; the lunula unguium is in Icel. called anneglur,
and so is the skin round the finger-nail, id.
AUMR, adj. [Ulf. has arms = miser; Dan. and Swed. öm], seems with
all its compounds to be a Scandin. word. It originally probably meant
sore, aching, touchy, tender. In mod. Icel. it is sometimes used in this
sense, in Dan. and Swed. only = sore, and metaph. tender. 2. metaph.
poorly, miserable, unhappy; styrkstú, aumr, strengthen thyself, wretched
man, Orkn. 153, Hom. 15, 16, Th. 6, 16: in a bad sense = armr, Fms.
aum-staddr, adj. part, in a poor, wretched state, Stj. 475.
AUNGR, adj. pron., Lat. nullus, none, v. engi, enginn.
AUNGR, adj. narrow, Lat. angustus, v. ongr.
aung-vit, n., medic, lipothymia, a fainting-fit, Fél. ix. 193.
AURAR, m. pl. money, aura- in compds, v. eyrir.
aur-borð, n. the second plank from the keel of a boat, Vellekla and
aur-falr, s, m. [aurr, lutum, falr], the spike at the butt-end of a spear,
Gr. GREEK þeir settu niðr aurfalina er þeir stóðu ok studdust við
spjót sín, Fms. i. 280; síðan mældi hann grundvöll húsgörðarinnar fyrir
þórhalli með aurfalnum á spjóti sínu, ii. 230; Abner sneri spjótinu í
hendi sér ok lagði aurfalnum framan í kviðinn, Stj. 497, 2 Sam. ii. 23
(in Engl. Vers. 'the hinder end of the spear'), Art. 105. β. used of
an arrow, Fb. iii. 406.
aur-gáti, a, m. [qs. ör-gáti, ör- and geta], a tit-bit, good cheer, good
treatment, a rare and now obsolete word; mun ekki af sparat, at veita
oss allan þann a. er til er, Fms. xi. 341; um tilföng veizlunnar, sem bezt
búandi allan a., Mar. 97; af þeim örgáta sem hon hafði framast föng til,
655 xxxi. 2.
aurigr, adj., only in the contr. forms aurgan (acc.), aurgu (dat.), clayey,
muddy, Vsp. 31, Ls. 48; cp. úrigr, madidus.
AURR, s, m., prop. wet clay or loam, but also in Eggert Itin. p. 682
of a sort of clay, cp. Ivar Aasen s. v. aur. In A. S. eâr is humus; in
the Alvismál one of the names of the earth is aurr (kalla aur uppregin).
In the Völuspá the purling water of the well of Urda is called aurr;
hence the paraphrase in the Edda, þær taka hvern dag vatn í brunninum,
ok með aurinn (the clay, humus) er liggr um brunninn, ok ausa upp yfir
askinn. Elsewhere used simply of mud, wet soil, aurr etr iljar en ofan
kuldi, Gs. 15; auri trödd und jóa fótum, Gh. 16; ok við aur ægir hjarna,
bragnings burs of blandinn varð, his brains were mixed with the mud,