This is page 34 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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34 AUKA -- AURR.

AUKA, jók, jóku (mod. juku), aukit [Lat. augere; Gr. GREEK Ulf.

aukan; A. S. eacan or ecan; Engl. to eche or eke; O. H. G. auhon];

pres. ind. eyk; subj. eyki or yki, mod. jyki. A weak form (aukar,

aukaði, aukat) also occurs, esp. in Norse, and (as a Norwegianism) in

Icel. writers, esp. after the year 1260, e. g. aukaðu, augebant, Barl. 138;

aukaðist, augebatur, aukaði, augebat. Barl. 180, Fms. i. 140, 184, x. 21

(MSS. aukuðu or aukaði, and some even jóku), Róm. 234; subj. aukaðist,

augeretur, Fms. vii. 158 in three Icel. vellum MSS.; only one has ykist, the

strong genuine form. Pres. aukar, auget, and aukast, augetur, instead of

eykr, eykst, Stj. 32: part, aukat (= aukit), O. H. L. 46; aukuð, aucta,

Fms. x. 236. Even Snorri in the Edda has aukaðist, p. 3, both in the

vellum MSS. Ob. and Kb., -- a form which is thoroughly unclassical;

the poets use the strong form, and so Ari, who has jókk = jók ek, in the

preface to Íb.; -- so also the great bulk of the classical literature. Since

the Reformation the strong form is the only one used either in speaking

or writing. I. Lat. augere, to augment, increase, with acc., eykr

hann þar ætt sína, Fms. iii. 82; jók Njáll ekki hjón sín, Nj. 59; hét hann

þeim at auka virðing þeirra, Eg. 33; þessi orð jóku mjök sök Adams,

Sks. 542; jók nafn hans, Hom. 51, Nj. 33; var þá síðan aukuð (= aukin)

veizlan, Fms. x. 236: absol., þat hálft er eykr, that half which is over

and above, Js. 75: in the phrase, aukanda ferr um e-t, a thing is increasing,

Nj. 139. II. Lat. addere, to add to the whole of a

thing; with the thing added in the dat., ok jókk (= jók ek) því es mér

varð síðan kunnara, Íb. (pref.): impers., jók miklu við, increased greatly,

Ld. 54; þá eykst enn ellefu nóttum við, eleven nights are still added, Rb.

28: followed by 'við,' auka e-u við e-t, to add to it, Nj. 41; 'til' is rare

and unclassical, and seems almost a Danism, as 'föie til,' þetta til aukist,

Vm. 7: auka synd (dat.) á synd (acc.) ofan, to heap sin upon sin, Stj.

274: aukast orðum við, to come to words, speak, Eg. ch. 58, v. l. (rare);

ef þú eykr orði, if tbou say'st a word more, Lex. Poët. β. with acc. (a

rare and unclassical Latinism), auka ny vandræði (= nyjum vandræðum)

á hin fornu, Bs. i. 751. γ. impers. in the phrase, aukar á, it increases, Róm. 234. III. to surpass, exceed; þat er eykr sex

aura, þá á konungr hálft þat er eykr, if it exceeds six ounces, the king

takes half the excess, N. G. L. i. 281, Js. § 71; en ármaðr taki þat er

aukit er, what is over and above, N. G. L. i. 165. Esp. used adverbially

in the part. pass, aukit, aukin, more than, above, of numbers; aukin þrjú

hundruð manna, three hundred men well told, Eg. 530, Fms. ix. 524, v. l.;

með aukit hundrað manna, x. 184, Ld. 196; aukin hálf vætt, Grett. 141

new Ed. β. in the phrases, þat er (eigi) aukat (aukit), it is no exaggeration,

Jd. verse 22, the Ed. in Fms. xi. 169 has 'árla' (a false reading);

pat er aukat, O. H. L. 1. c.; orðum aukið, exaggerated, Thom. 73.

aukan, f. increase, K. Á. 20.

auki, a, m. eke [A. S. eaca; Old Engl. and Scot, eke or eik], increase,

addition; Abram tók þann auka nafns síns, Ver. 14; a. öfundar ok hatrs,

Stj. 192: cp. also in the phrase, verða at moldar auka, to become dust, to

die, in a verse in the Hervar. S. Fas. i. 580; cp. maðr er moldu samr,

man is but dust, Sl. 47; and another proverb, lauki er lítið gæft til auka,

used by Sighvat (Lex. Poët.), the leek needs but little care to grow; sárs-

auki, pain, Mirm. 47; Danmerkr auki is a poët. name of Zealand used by

Bragi, Edda I: the phrase, í miklum auka, in a huge, colossal shape,

Glúm. 345 (in a verse); hence perhaps comes the popular phrase, að færast

í aukana (or haukana), to exert to the utmost one's bodily strength, Glámr

færðist í alla auka (of one wrestling), Grett. 114 A, (Ed. 1853 has færðist í

aukana.) 2. metaph. seed, germs, thou hast given me no seed, Stj.

III. Gen. xv. 2; esp. the sperm of whales, amber, Sks. 137. β. produce

of the earth, Barl. 193, 200. γ interest of capital, N. G. L. ii.

380; vide áauki, sársauki, sakauki, i. 187. COMPDS: auka-dagr, m.

'eke-day,' dies intercalaris, Rb. 488. auka-hlutr, m. in the phrase,

at aukahlut, to boot, Hom. 129. auka-nafn, n. 'eke-name,' nickname,

or additional name, Sks. 272. auka-smíði, n. a superfluous thing,

a mere appendix, Fms. ii. 359. auka-tungl, n. intercalary moon,

Rb. 116. auka-verk, n. by-work, Bs. i. 326. auka-vika, u, f.

'eke-week,' intercalary week, v. hlaupár.

auk-nafn, n. = aukanafn, 'eke-name.'

auk-nefna, d, to nickname, Landn. 243.

auk-nefni, n. 'eke-name,' a nickname: α. a defamatory name,

punishable with the lesser outlawry, Grág. ii. 146. β. in a less strong

sense; hann var svartr á hár ok hörund, ok því þótti honum a. gefit er

hann var Birtingr kallaðr, he was swarth of hair and skin, and for that

it seemed a nickname was given him when he was called 'Brighting,' Fms.

vii. 157: Helgi átti kenningar nafn, ok var kallaðr hvíti; ok var þat eigi

a., því at hann var vænn maðr ok vel hærðr, hvítr á hár, Helgi had a

surname (in a good sense), and was called 'White;' and that was no nickname,

for he was a handsome man and well-haired, white of hair, Fbr.

80: þú hyggr at ek muna vilja giptast einum bastarði, -- eigi em ek

bastarðr nema at a., of William the Conqueror, Fb. iii. 464. In old times,

esp. at the time of the colonisation of Iceland, such nicknames were in

freq. use, as may be seen from the index in the Landnama; they gradually

went out of use, but still occur now and then throughout the whole

of the Saga period in Icel. down to the 14th century.

aukning, f., Old Engl. 'eeking,' increase, Stj. 100, 176, Sks. 137.

au-kvisi, a, m. [prop. auð-kvisi, from auð, easy, and kveistinn, touchy;

cp. kveisa, f. ulcus, dolor]; in old writers it is spelt with au or av,

and sometimes with a double k, ökkvisi, Bs. i. 497 vellum MS. A. M.

499; auðkvisi, Ld. 236 C and the vellum MS. A. M. 122 A to Sturl. ii.

8; aukvisi, MS. 122 B; O. H. (Ed. 1853) reads aucvisi; it means a weakly,

irritable, touchy person. Used esp. in the proverb, einn er au. ættar

hverrar, cp. the Engl. there is a black sheep in every flock, Hkr. ii. 238:

mun ek son minn láta heita Gizur; lítt hafa þeir aukvisar verit í

Haukdæla ætt er svá hafa heitið hér til, Sturl. ii. 8, at the birth of earl Gizur.

[The name Gizur was a famous name in this family, Gizur hviti, Gizur

biskup, Gizur Hallsson, etc.]

AULANDI, an indecl. adj., qs. al-landi, an GREEK in the proverb

Nj. 10, illt er þeim er au. er alinn. [The root is prob. al- (Lat. alius),

land, cp. A. S. ellend or elland (Hel. elilendi), alienus, peregrinus; Old

Engl. alyant; O. H. G. alilanta (whence N. H. G. elend, miser): there is

in Icel. also a form erlendr, prob. a corruption for ellendr. This root is

quite lost in the Scandin. idioms with the single exception of the proverb

mentioned above, and the altered form er-.] The MSS. of the Nj. I. c.

differ; some of them have á úlandi in two words, in terra malâ;

Johnsonius has not made out the meaning: the proper sense seems to be exul

ubique infelix. In olden times peregrinus and miser were synonymous,

the first in a proper, the last in a metaphorical sense: so the Lat. hostis

( = hospes) passed into the sense of enemy. The spelling with ö (ölandi)

ought perhaps to be preferred, although the change of vowel cannot be

easily accounted for.

auli, a, m. a dunce, aulaligr adj., aula-skapr m., aulast dep., etc., do

not occur, as it seems, in old writers; prop. a slug (?); cp. Ivar Aasen

s. vv. aula, auling.

aum-hjartaðr, adj. tender-hearted, charitable, Stj. 547, Hom. 109.

aumindi, n. painful feeling from a wound or the like, Fél. ix. 192.

aumingi, ja, m. a wretch, in Icel. in a compassionate sense; Guðs a.,

655 xxxii. 15, Bs. i. 74, Hom. 87.

aumka, að, to bewail, to complain, esp. in the impers. phrase, a. sik, to

feel compassion for, Bær. II, Al. 10, Róm. 182, Bret. 98, Fagrsk. ch. 34;

now freq. used in reflex., aumkast yfir e-t, to pity.

aumkan, f. lamentation, wailing. El. 10.

aumleikr, m. misery, Stj. 428, Bs. i. 321; now also used of the sore

feeling of a wound or the like, v. aumr.

aumligr, adj. and -liga, adv. [A. S. earmlic] , poorly, wretched, Grett.

161, Fms. i. 138, v. 218, Sturl. ii. 13, Bær. 4, Magn. 432, H. E. iii. 366.

aum-neglurr, more correctly anneglur, cp. the Engl. agnail, hangnail,

or naugnail, Fél. ix. 192; the lunula unguium is in Icel. called anneglur,

and so is the skin round the finger-nail, id.

AUMR, adj. [Ulf. has arms = miser; Dan. and Swed. öm], seems with

all its compounds to be a Scandin. word. It originally probably meant

sore, aching, touchy, tender. In mod. Icel. it is sometimes used in this

sense, in Dan. and Swed. only = sore, and metaph. tender. 2. metaph.

poorly, miserable, unhappy; styrkstú, aumr, strengthen thyself, wretched

man, Orkn. 153, Hom. 15, 16, Th. 6, 16: in a bad sense = armr, Fms.

ix. 414.

aum-staddr, adj. part, in a poor, wretched state, Stj. 475.

AUNGR, adj. pron., Lat. nullus, none, v. engi, enginn.

AUNGR, adj. narrow, Lat. angustus, v. ongr.

aung-vit, n., medic, lipothymia, a fainting-fit, Fél. ix. 193.

AURAR, m. pl. money, aura- in compds, v. eyrir.

aur-borð, n. the second plank from the keel of a boat, Vellekla and

Edda (Gl.)

aur-falr, s, m. [aurr, lutum, falr], the spike at the butt-end of a spear,

Gr. GREEK þeir settu niðr aurfalina er þeir stóðu ok studdust við

spjót sín, Fms. i. 280; síðan mældi hann grundvöll húsgörðarinnar fyrir

þórhalli með aurfalnum á spjóti sínu, ii. 230; Abner sneri spjótinu í

hendi sér ok lagði aurfalnum framan í kviðinn, Stj. 497, 2 Sam. ii. 23

(in Engl. Vers. 'the hinder end of the spear'), Art. 105. β. used of

an arrow, Fb. iii. 406.

aur-gáti, a, m. [qs. ör-gáti, ör- and geta], a tit-bit, good cheer, good

treatment, a rare and now obsolete word; mun ekki af sparat, at veita

oss allan þann a. er til er, Fms. xi. 341; um tilföng veizlunnar, sem bezt

búandi allan a., Mar. 97; af þeim örgáta sem hon hafði framast föng til,

655 xxxi. 2.

aurigr, adj., only in the contr. forms aurgan (acc.), aurgu (dat.), clayey,

muddy, Vsp. 31, Ls. 48; cp. úrigr, madidus.

AURR, s, m., prop. wet clay or loam, but also in Eggert Itin. p. 682

of a sort of clay, cp. Ivar Aasen s. v. aur. In A. S. eâr is humus; in

the Alvismál one of the names of the earth is aurr (kalla aur uppregin).

In the Völuspá the purling water of the well of Urda is called aurr;

hence the paraphrase in the Edda, þær taka hvern dag vatn í brunninum,

ok með aurinn (the clay, humus) er liggr um brunninn, ok ausa upp yfir

askinn. Elsewhere used simply of mud, wet soil, aurr etr iljar en ofan

kuldi, Gs. 15; auri trödd und jóa fótum, Gh. 16; ok við aur ægir hjarna,

bragnings burs of blandinn varð, his brains were mixed with the mud,