This is page 54 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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54 BAUGABEOT -- BÁSS.

henni, ef sá væri á baugi, if there were no other chance, Fas. ii. 150. The

explanation of this metaphor is doubtful, cp. Vkv. verses 5 and 7 (?), or

is the metaphor taken from the weregild ? 5. baugr also occurs

in mod. usage in many compds, astron. and mathem., spor-baugr, the

ecliptic; hádegisbaugr, a meridian. COMPDS: bauga-brot, n. pl. cut

off pieces of baugr, b a d money, Band. 12. bauga-xnaðr, m. =

bauggildismaðr, N. G. L. i. 81, 82, 186. bauga-tal, n. the section

of law about weregild, Grág. ii. 171-188: 0. fixing of the weregild,

Grág. i. 158. baugs-helgi, i. personal sacredness, (one's death to be

atoned for by a weregild); þræll á b. á sér ef hann fylgir drottni sinum

til þings ..., N. G. L. i. 70.

baug-reið, f. a law term, an official inspection (in Norway) to measure

the breadth of the highway, defined, Gþl. 412-414.

baug-rygr, jar, f. pl. ir, a law term, an only daughter entitled to

receive and pay weregild, in default of heirs male. The Norse law

defines thus, ef hon er einberni, ok til arfs komin, þar til er hón sezt

á brúðstól, ... up to her wedding day, N. G. L. i. 184, 92: the Icel. law

does not limit the right to her marrying; sú er kona ein er bæði skal

baugi bæta ok baug taka, ef hon er einberni, en sú kona heitir b.,

en hon er dóttir hins dauða, Grág. ii. 183.

baug-þak, n. [þekja baug], a law term, ' baug-covering, ' i. e. the

supplemental payment to be added in due proportion to the amount of

weregild (baugr), defined, Grág. ii. 171, 172; hence' at baugþaki' metaph.

means in addition, to boot; þá kom at honum síðan at b. brotfallit, he

was taken with fits of epilepsy to boot, Bs. i. 336.

baug-þggjandi, pl. -endr, part, a receiver of weregild.

BAUKA, að, [Swed. bö k a], prop, to dig, to rummage; hann b. til

fiskanna, viz. in order to steal them, Grett. 137; aldri skal ek í belginn

bauka, says the giant in the tale, Ísl. bjóðs. ii. 458.

BAULA, u, f. a cow, Bs. i. 635. COMPDS: baulu-fall, n. the

carcase of a slaughtered cow, Bs. i. 593. baulu-fótr, m. cow's foot,

cognom., Sturl. iii, 71; mod. baula, að, to low.

BAUN, f. [A. S. bean, cp. Lat. / ab a], a be an, Gþl. 544, Rb. 394.

bauna-lögr, m. bean-broth, Karl. 452.

bausn, f. the fore fins of a shark, Björn.

BAUTA, the remnant of an obsolete strong verb analogous to hlaupa --

Wjóp, [A. S. b ea t an; Engl. be a t; Germ. botzen, pulsare] , tohunt, beat; bautu,

1st pers. pl. pres. indie., Fms. v. 83 (0. H. 1853 spells bavtu); svá bavtu

vér bjornuna, so ' dowe beat (chase) the bears, Gs. 13: part. pass, bautinn,

beaten, slain, Lex. Poët. s. v. sverðbautinn; Farbauti, beater of ships, is

the name of the giant father of Loki; hylbauti, beater of the waves, a

ship, Edda (Gl.); cp. Swed. bauter, strings for catching birds, Ihre.

bauta-steinn, Snorri (Hkr.) constantly uses the pl. form, but

bautaðarsteinn, Fagrsk. 19, ^nd bautarsteinn, Hm. 72; m. the stone

monuments of the olden age, esp. in Sweden and Denmark; the Hávamál

1. c. (sjaldan bautarsteinar standa brautu nær, nema reisi niðr at nið) tells

us that these stones used to be placed along the high roads, like the sepul-

chral monuments of old Rome; cp. the standing phrase on the Swedish-

Runic stones -- her skal standa steinn ' naer brautu;' or, má eigi' brautar-

kuml' (a roa d monument) betra verða; the high roads of old Sweden

seem to have been lined with these monumental stones; even at the

present time, after the destruction of many centuries, the Swedish-Runic

stones (of the nth and I2th centuries) are counted by thousands. A

great collection was made and drawings executed during the I7*h

century (Buræus, etc.), but only published A. D. 1750, under the name

of Bautil. The etymology of this word is much contested; some

render it by ' s t on e s of the slain' (bauta, to slay), but this is contradicted

by the passage in Hm. 1. c. and by the inscriptions themselves. The

bauta stones were simply monuments erected by the piety of kindred

and friends without any respect to sex or manner of death, either in war,

on sea, or through sickness; some were even erected to the memory

of living persons. They were usually tombstones; but many of them

are memorial stones for men that died in foreign lands, Greece, Russia,

the British Islands, etc. Neither is Snorri right in saying (Hkr. pref.)

that the bautasteinar belonged to the old burning age (brunaöld), and

were replaced by the cairns (haugar) in the subsequent cairn age

(haugaöld) -- þá skyldi brenna alla dauða menn ok reisa eptir bauta-

steina, en síðan er Freyr hafði heygðr verit at Uppsölum þá görðu

margir höfðingjar eigi síðr hauga en bautasteina. Svíar tóku lík hans ok

var hann brendr við á þá er Skúta heitir, þar vóru settir bautasteinar

hans, Hkr. Yngl. ch. 17 -- the passage in Hávamál and the monuments

refute this statement. The great bulk of the Scandinavian bauta stones

seem to be of the nth and even 12th century. In Icel. no stones of that

time are on record: var hann þá her heygðr skamt frá bsenum, ok settir

upp bautasteinar, þeir er enn standa her, Hkr. i. 269; hávir bautasteinar

standa hjá haugi Egils ullserks, 153, -- where Fagrsk. reads, í þau skip

var lagðr í valrinn, ok orpnir þar haugar utan at; þar stendr ok bautaðar-

steinn (= bautarsteinn in Hm. ?) hár sem Egill fell, p. 19; -- en eptir alia

þá menn er nokkut mannsmót var at, skyldi reisa bautasteina, ok hélzt

sa siðr lengi síðan, Hkr. Yngl. ch. 8. It is worth remarking that the

Word ' bautasteinn' never occurs out of Icel. literature, and there only in the above passages, viz. once in the old Hm., once in the Fagrsk.,

four times in the Hkr., whence it has passed over to modern writers.

The word is most probably only a corruption from brautarsteinar,

lapides viae, (by dropping the r); cp. the analogous Swedish word,

brautarkuml, monumentum viae, which occurs in the inscriptions

themselves.

BÁÐIR, adj. pron. dual, gen. beggja, neut. bæði rarely, (Norse);

báði, gen. báðra, sometimes occur in MSS. of the I4th century, but

both of them are Norse forms, [Goth, b a i, baioþs; A. S. ba; Engl. both;

Germ, beide; cp. also Gr. a/j. (pai, Lat. a mb o] :-- both, Nj. 82, Sturl.

iii. 314, Eg. 257, Grág. i. 368, N. G. L. i. 33, Ísl. ii. 348, Fms. x.

118, etc. etc.

BÁG-1, a, m. (not bagi), an adversary, Stor. 23, Lex. Poët.

bágindi, n. pl. distress, difficulties.

bágliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), adversely, Vígl. 30.

bág-lundr, adj. ill-disposed, bad-tempered, Lex. Poët.

bágr, adj. uneasy; honum verðr bag höndin, Fas. iii. 370: eiga bágt

is now in Icel. to be poor, bard up: bag-staddr, adj. distressed.

bágr, m. [cp. Hel. bâgan -- contender e, and Icel. bægja below], contest,

strife, in such phrases as, fara í bag, to come athwart; for í bag með

þeim, they came a cross, Bjarn. 28; í bága (pl.), Bs. i. 622; brjóta bag við

e-m, to make a struggle against, Al. 49; Pali postuli braut þar helzt bag

við ávalt er öðrum þótti torveldast, Post. 656 C. 24, Fms. viii. 42; koma

í bága við, to come intostrife or collision with.

bág-ráðr, adj. difficult to deal with, Fms. ii. II.

bág-rækr, adj. difficult to drive, of geese, Grett. 90.

BÁKN AKN, n. for. word [A. S. been; O. H. G. pauhan] , a beacon, v;

sigrbákn: bákn now means a bi g', monstrous thing.

bákna, að, [A. S. bêcnan] , to beckon; þeir báknuðu vápnunum til

þeirra Hákonar, Fms. vii. 276, xi. 366.

BÁL, n. [old Scot, b a le, i. e. a beacon-fagot, Lay of Last Minstrel 3.

27 note]. I. aflame, Nj. 199, Ld. 100, Stj. 45 (freq.) IT.

Lat. rogus, a pyre, funeral pile; hlaða b., rogum struere, Eb. 314, 2645

Fms. v. 328, esp. for burning dead bodies; a funeral pile in the old

heathendom, til brands eðr báls, an old law term, a d urnam, N. G. L. i.

50: the phrase, vega e-n á bal, or, bera á bal, to carry tothe pyre,

Vkv. 14, cp. Vþm. 54, Fas. i. (Hervar. S.) 487; graphical description of

those funerals, vide Edda 37, 38 (Baldrsbrenna), Fas. i. (Völs. S.) 204;

cp. 333, Hkr. Yngl. S. ch. 27; cp. also the funeral of the mythical king

Sigurd Ring, recorded by Arngrim Lærde in his Supplementum ad Com-

pendium Hist. Norv. MS. (composed A. D. 1597), probably taken from

a lost leaf of Skjöldunga Saga (Sögubrot), and mentioned by Munch,

Norske Folks Hist. i. 274: mod. of a foaming wind, wrath, etc. --

bálviðri, n. and balhvass, bálreiðr, adj., etc.

bál-för, f. a funeral, Edda 37.

bál-gerð, f. id., Edda (Ub.) 288 (Ed. 1852).

bálki, a, m., v. the following word.

BÁLKR, old form b^lkr, Grág., dat. bselki, N. G. L. i. 399, acc. pl.

bcólku or bálku, Lex. Poët. [A. S. b a l e], a balk, partition [cp. naval bulk-

heads]; b. um þveran hellinn, of a cross w a ll, Fms. iii. 217, Fas. ii. 333,

Grett. 140; sá studdi höndunum á bálkinn, of a balk of wood across

the door, Orkn. 112. /3. a low wall in a stall or house, N. G. L. ú

399, 2. metaph. a law term, a section in a code of law; þjófa bálkr,

Kristindóms b., etc., criminal, ecclesiastical law ..., Grág., Jb. y.

a body, a host, in compds as frændbálkr, ættbálkr, herbálkr; s^ndist

honum úárenniligr b. þeirra, of a host in line of battle, Bs. i. 667;

a pr. name. COMPDS: balkar-brot, n. the breaking a fence, crib, Gpl.

350, 391. bálkar-lag, n. a sort of metre (from a pr. name Balkr),

Edda (Hi.) 142.

BÁRA A, u, f. [berja ?], a wave, billow, v. alda; as a rule bára denotes

the smaller waves caused by the wind (on the surface of larger

billows), alda the rollers or swell, Bs. ii. 82, Fas. i. 186, Fms. x. 324 (of

a breaker = boði), Gkv. 1. 7: the proverb, sigla milli skers ok báru, cp,

inter Scyllam et Cbarybdin, Fms. ii. 268, Fb. iii. 402; sjaldan er ein

báran stök, there i s seldom a single billow: of misfortune, cp. Aesch.

Prom. 1015 KOJCUV rpiKVfiia., cp. also Ísl. þjóðs. i. 660. p. metaph.

of undulations or rough stripes on the surface of a thing, e. g. the crust

of a cheese, Fs. 146; a scull, cp. Eg. 769: baruskel, f. c a rd/ a testð

cordatapectinata, a shell, Eggert Itin. p. 1010. COMPDS: barn-fall;

n. a swell at sea, Al. 50. baru-skel, f., v. above. baru-skot, n.

waves from a fresh breeze, wrinkling the surface of the sea, Hkr. i. 59.

baru-stormr, m. an unruly sea, Stj. 89. báru-stórr, adj. the waves

running high, Bs. ii. 82, Fas. i. 72; vide mót-bára, objection.

bár-óttr, adj. waved, of a skull, Eg. 769.

bása, að, = bæsa, to drive cattle into a stall, Gísl. 104.

bás-hella, u, f. a stone w a ll between two stalls in a cowhouse,

Grett. 112.

BÁSS, m. [Ulf. bansts -- ajroOrjier); A. S. bós; Engl. provincial boose; Germ, banse] , a boose or stall in a cowhouse; kýr á bási, binda kú á bás, etc., Bjarn. 32, Bs. 5. 171; a cow and a bas go together, e. g. in the . nursery rhyme lulling children to sleep; sou, sofi... selr í sjá... kyr á