This is page 91 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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BYRJUN -- BÆN. 91

eptirlátum, Sks. 12; er helzt byrjar kaupmönnum at hafa, 52. 2.

[byrr], the phrase, e-m byrjar vel, illa, one gets a fair, foul, wind; þeim

byrjaði vel, Eg. 69; honum byrjaði vel, 78, Eb. 8; byrjaði þeim vel um

haustið, Fms. iv. 293; þeim byrjaði illa, Eg. 158.

byrjun, f. beginning.

byrla, að, [A. S. byreljan and byrljan; whence the word is probably

borrowed] :-- to wait upon, with dat., esp. to hand the ale at a banquet,

(answering to bera öl, Fs. 121); stóð þar upp Snjófrið dóttir Svása, ok

byrlaði ker mjaðar fullt konungi, Fms. x. 379, Hkr. i. 102; hann setti

annan mann til at b. sér, Post. 656 C. 32: metaph., hann byrlar optliga

eitr sinnar slægðar mannkyninu, Fms. ii. 137: to fill the cup, síðan byrlar

hann í hornin, Fas. ii. 550: in mod. use, to mix a beverage, esp. in bad

sense, by putting poison in it.

byrlari, a, m. [A. S. byrele], a cup-bearer, Fms. i. 291.

byr-leiði, n. a favourable course, Fms. x. 291, Sks. 175.

byr-léttr, adj. gently blowing, Hkr. ii. 143.

byr-leysa, u, f. lack of fair wind, or a foul wind, Ann. 1392.

byrli, a, m. = byrlari, Fms. x. 302.

byr-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), promising a fair wind; því at ekki er byr-

ligt, Sd. 174, in the phrase, blása byrlega, to blow fair for one; ekki b.

draumr, a bad dream, Fas. i. 14.

byr-lítill, adj. of a light (but fair) breeze, Fms. iv. 297.

BYRR, gen. byrjar, nom. pl. byrir, acc. byri: [Swed.-Dan. bör; cp.

usage of Gr. GREEK] :-- a fair wind; it is freq. used in pl., esp. in the

impers. phrase, e-m gefr vel byri (acc. pl.), one gets a fair wind, rarely,

and less correct, byr (acc. sing.), Nj. 10, Vápn. 9, but sing. Nj. 4, Eg.

98; byri gefr hann brögnum, Hdl. 3; með hinum beztuni byrjum, Bs. i.

781; bíða byrjar, Fms. i. 131; liggja til byrjar, to lie by for a fair wind,

Eg. 183; byrr rennr á, a fair breeze begins to blow; þá rann á byrr ok

sigldu þeir, Nj. 135, Eg. 158; þá féll byrrinn, Eb. 8; þá tók byrr at

vaxa, Eg. 390: allit, naut. phrases, blásandi byrr, blíðr byrr, beggja

skauta byrr; hagstæðr byrr, fagr byrr. hægr, óðr byrr, Hm. 89; hrað-

byri, etc.: also metaph., hafa góðan, mikinn, lítinn byrr, to be well, much,

little favoured: in poetry in many compds, byrjar drösull, the horse of the

wind, a ship; byr-skíð, byr-rann. a ship; byrr always denotes the wind

on the sea. byrjar-gol, n. a fair breeze, Fms. ix. 21.

byrsta, t, [bursti], to furnish with bristles or spikes, Sks. 418; gulli byrstr,

Fas. i. 184. 2. metaph. the phrase, b. sik or byrstask, to raise the

bristles, to shew anger, Fms. ii. 174, Finnb. 248, Pass. 26. I.

byr-sæll, adj. having good luck, fair wind, Fms. x. 314.

byr-vænligr, byrvænn, adj. promising a fair wind, Orkn. 332,

Fms. ii. 5.

BYSJA, [Dan. buse; Swed. busa = to gush], to gush, a defect, verb,

occurs only twice or thrice, viz. in pres. sing, býss, Ó. H. (in a verse),

busti (pret. sing.), gushed, of blood, Hkv. 2.8; of tears, Edda (append.)

217: the infin. never occurs, and the word is never used in prose.

byssa, u, f. [Lat. pyxis], a box, Vm. 117, D. N.: mod. a gun (Germ, büchse).

bytna, að, [botn], to come to the bottom, Krók. 20 new Ed.: metaph.,

b. á e-m, to tell on or against one.

BYTTA. u, f. [Dan. bötte], a pail, small tub, K. Þ. K. 82, Stj. 444,

Fms. x. 54, Jm. 29, N. G. L. i. 3-27: of the bucket for baling a ship with,

Fbr. 131, Grett. 95; hence byttu-austr, the old mode of pumping is

defined, Fbr. and Grett. 1. c.

byxa, t, to box, Bev. Fr.; byxing, f. boxing, Finnb. 344 (Engl. word).

BÝ, n. [Lat. apis; the Goth, word is not on record; A. S. beo; Engl.

bee; O. H. G. pia; Germ, biene, and older form beie, Grimm i. 1367;

Swed.-Dan. bi] :-- a bee; the spelling in Icel. with ý is fixed by long usage,

and by a rhyme in the Höfuðl., Jöfurr sveigði ý | flugu unda bý, where ý

(a bow) and bý (bee j) rhyme; because perhaps an etymology from bú

floated before the mind, from the social habits of bees, Barl. 86; the

simple by is quite obsolete in Icel. which only uses the compd,

bý-fluga, u, f. a 'bee-fly,' bee, Edda 12, Stj. 91, 210, etc.; bý-flygi,

n. id., Bs. i. 210, Stj. 411.

býfur, f. pl. the feet, with a notion of awkwardness; retta býfur, to

stretch the legs out in an awkward manner; þar lá Kolfinnr son hennar,

ok rétti býfur hölzti langar, Ísl. ii. 416: the passage Od. ix. 298 --

GREEK -- Egilsson in his rhymed translation renders

graphically, ok meðal búfjár býfur rétti.

býli, n. [ból], an abode, mostly in compds, á-býli, etc.

býll, adj. [ból], living, in compds, ár-býll, harð-býll, þung-býll.

býr, v. bær.

bý-skip, n. the ship of the bees, the air, sky, poët., Höfuðl. 17 (dub.)

BÝSN, n. [cp. A. S. bysen, bisen, which means example, whilst the

Icel. word means] a wonder, a strange and portentous thing; commonly

Used in pl., urðu hverskonar býsn, 625. 42; þar sem þessi býsn (acc. pl.)

bar fyrir, Fms. xi. 13; þetta eru stór býsn, 64; slíkt eru banvæn býsn,

Fas. iii. 13 (in a verse); sing., Fms. xi. 10, 64: in mod. use fem. sing.,

Fb. i. 212, Pr. 76, 91; býsna-veðr, portentous weather, Fms. iii. 137; býsna-

vetr, a winter of portents, when many ghosts and goblins were about, Bs.,

Sturl. i. 115; býsna-sumar, in the same sense, Ann. 1203. In mod. use

býsna- is prefixed to a great many words in the sense of pretty, tolerably, Germ, ziemlich; býsna-vel, b. góðr, langr, fljótr, pretty well, pretty good, etc. in early writers the sense is much stronger.

býsna, að, to portend, bode; þetta býsnar tjón ok sorg, Karl. 492; the

proverb, býsna skal til batnaðar, i. e. things must be worse before they

are better, Old Engl. 'when bale is highest, bote is nighest,' Fms. v. 199,

(spelt bisna, O. H. L.); er býsna skal at betr verði, x. 261.

býta, tt, [bútr], to deal out, give, with dat. of the thing; býtti Hrafn

silfrinu, Fas. iii. 256: esp. býta út, or út býta, to give alms, Hebr. xiii.

16, Gal. vi. 6. β. to exchange, Dan. bytte; býttum við jörðum okkar,

Dipl. i. 12, H. E. i. 561.

býti, n. exchange, barter, Krók. 65; býting, f. spending, Ann. 1408.

BÆÐI, [v. báðir, where in p. 54, col. 2, 1. 7, the words 'rarely Norse'

should be struck out], used adverbially, both, Scot. ' baithh, 'with conjunctions connecting two parts of a sentence: a. bæði, ... ok, both ... and;

bæði vitr ok framgjarn, both wise and bold, Nj. 6; b. blár ok digr, Fms.

vii. 162; vitandi bœði gott ok illt, knowing both good and evil, Stj. 145.

Gen. iii. 5; b. fyrir sína hönd ok annarra, Bs. i. 129; b. at viti ok at öðru,

127; b. at lærdómi, vitrleik, ok atgörvi, in learning, wisdom, and accom-

plishments, 130 (where the subdivision after bæði is triple); b. lönd ok

kvikfé, Ísl. ii. 61; mun nú vera rofit bæði búlkinn ok annat, Fms. vi.

381; bæði var at hann kunni betr en flestir menn aðrir, ok hafði betri

færi á ..., Bs. i. 129; sometimes in inverse order, ok ... bæði; hér og á

himnum bæði, Pass. 24. 7; fagrt ok fátítt b., Hom. 117; undruðu ok

hörmuðu b., 120. β. bæði... enda, where the latter part of the sen-

tence, beginning with 'enda,' is of a somewhat disjunctive character, and

can scarcely be literally rendered into English; it may denote irony or

displeasure or the like, e. g. það er b. hann er vitr, enda veit hann af því,

i.e. he is clever, no doubt, and knows it; b. er nú, jarl, at ek á yðr

margan sóma at launa, enda vili þér nú hafa mik í hina mestu hættu, it

is true enough, my lord, that I have received many good things from you,

but now you put me in the greatest danger, i. e. you seem to intend to make

me pay for it, Fb. i. 193: or it denotes that the one part of a sentence

follows as a matter of course from the other, or gives the hidden reason;

b. mundi vera at engi mundi þora at etja, enda mundi engi hafa hest svá

góðan, i. e. no one would dare to charge him, as there would hardly be

any who had so good a horse, Nj. 89.

bægi-fótr, m. [bágr], 'lame-foot,' a cognom., Eb.; Egilsson renders

GREEK (Od. viii. 349) by bægi-fótr.

bæging, f. thwarting, Finnb. 344.

bæginn, adj. cross-grained, Fms. iii. 95; bægni, f. peevishness; orð-

bæginn, q.v.; mein-bæginn, pettish.

bægja, ð, (an old pret. bagði, Haustl. 18), [bágr], with dat. to make one

give way, push one back; tröll-konan bægir honum til fjallsins, Bs. i. 464;

b. skipi ór lægi, to push the ship from her moorings, Fms. vii. 114; b.

vist sinni, to change one's abode, remove, Eb. 252; þeim bægði veðr, of

foul wind, Eg. 245; honum bægði veðr, ok bar hann til eyja þeirra er

Syllingar heita, the weather drove him from his course, and he was carried

to the islands called Scilly, Fms. i. 145. β. absol. to binder; ef eigi

b. nauðsynjar, Grág. i. 446. 2. metaph. to treat harshly, oppress

one, Bs. i. 550. 3. reflex. with the prep. við; b. við e-n, to quarrel;

þá vill hann eigi við þá bægjask, Ld. 56; þá var við enga at bægjask

(none to dispute against) nema í móti Guðs vilja væri, Bs. i. 128. β.

bægjask til e-s, to contend about a thing, but with the notion of unfair

play; betra er at vægjask til virðingar en b. til stór-vandræða, Fms.

vii. 25. γ. impers., bægðisk honum svá við, at ..., things went so

crookedly for him, that..., Grett. MS.

bæki, v. beyki; bæki-skógr, m. a beech-wood, Fms. xi. 224.

bæklingr, m. [bók], a 'bookling,' little book, Lat. libellus, Bs. i. 59.

bæla, d, I. [bál], to burn = bræla, in the allit. phrase brenna ok b.,

671. 4, Fms. iv. 142, vi. 176; vide bræla, Fas. i. 4. II. [ból], to

pen sheep and cattle during the night; reflex., dýr bælask í þeim stöðum,

Greg. 68.

bæli, n. [ból], 1. in the Norse sense, a farm, dwelling, = býli,

Gþl: 452. 2. in the Icel. sense, a den, Fas. ii. 231, of a vulture's nest;

arnar-bæli, an eyry, a freq. local name of farms in Icel., Landn.; dreka-

bæli, orms-bæli, a dragon's lair, serpent's den, Edda; even used of the lair

of an outlaw, Grett. 132 (Grettis-bæli), Ld. 250.

BÆN and bón, f. [biðja], prayer, request, boon; these two words are

nearly identical in form, and sometimes used indiscriminately as to sense;

but in most cases they are different, bæn having a deeper sense, prayer,

bón, request, boon; we may say biðja e-n bónar, and biðja e-n bænar, but

the sense is different; only bæn can be used of prayer to God; göra e-t at

bæn e-s, Fs. 38; er su bæn allra var, at ..., we all beg, that..., Eg. 28;

skaltú veita mér bæn þó er ek mun biðja þik, Nj. 26; fella bæn at e-m,

to pray one earnestly, Ísl. ii. 305. β. prayer to God, often in plur.; vera

á bænum, to be at prayers; hon var löngum um nætr at kirkju á bæuum

sínum, Ld. 328; hann hellir út bænir fyrir dómstól Krists, Hom. 13, 156;

bæn ok ölmusugjafir, Bs. i. 370, Pass. 4. 22, 44. 17: the phrase, vera e-m

góðr (illr) bæna (gen. pl.), to turn the ear (or a deaf ear) to one's prayers,

Hom. (St.) 95; ver mér nú svá bæna, sem þú vilt at Guð sé þér á dóms-

degi, Orkn. 174; Drottinleg bæn, the Lord's Prayer; kveld-baen, evening