This is page 92 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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92 BÆNAFULLTING -- BÖSTL.

prayer; morgun-bæn, morning prayer; lesa bænir sínar. to say one's prayers,

etc. COMPDS: bæna-fullting, f. support of prayers, Fms. vi. 114.

bæna-hald, n. a holding of prayers, Landn. Hi, Gþl. 41; baenahalds-

maðr, a man who prays to God, a religions man, Bs. i. 72, Hom. 154.

bæna-hús, n. a chapel, Grág. i. 459, Bs. i. 646; b. tollr, 647: a house

of prayer, Matth. xxi. 13. bæna-staðr, m. entreaty, intercession,

prayer; þat er b. minn til allrar alþýðu, Nj. 189; ek ætlaða, at þér

munduð láta standa minn b. um einn maun, Fms. vi. 101; göra e-t fyrir

bænastað e-s, to do a thing because of one's intercession or prayer, Lv. 13:

supplication, Bs. i. 740; með beztu manna ráði ok b., Gþl. 13. bænar-

bréf, n. a letter of entreaty, Ann. 1330; bónar-bréf, 1392. bænar-

orð, n. pl. prayers, entreaties, Fs. 10, Fms. ii. 235, Sks. 515.

bæna, d, to pray, entreat one; bændi hann til at hann skyldi, Fms. x.

387; prestr sá er baendr er. requested, K.Þ.K. 8, 40; því ætla ek at senda

hann til keisarans sem hann bændi (asíed) sjálfr, Post. 645. 98, cp. Acts

xxv. 25; grát-bæna, to pray 'greeting,' i.e. with tears. β. bæna sik,

(in mod. use) to cover the face with the hands in prayer.

bæn-heyra, ð, esp. theol. to hear one's prayer, N.T.

bæn-hús = bænahús, Pm. 41, Dipl. iii. 2, iv. 9, Vm. 78.

bæn-rækinn, adj. diligent in prayer, Hkr. ii. 191.

BÆR, bœr, or býr, gen. baejar or býjar; gen. biar also occurs, esp.

in Norse MSS. of the 14th century, Fb., but is rare and unclassical; pl.

-ir, gen. -ja, dat. -jum. In Icel. people say bær; in Norway in Swed.

and Dan. (always with y) by; the root word being búa, bú: this word

is very freq. in local names of towns and villages throughout the whole

of Scandinavia; and wherever the Scandinavian tribes settled the name

by or went along with them. In the map of Northern England the

use of this word marks out the limits and extent of the Norse immigration, e.g.

the name Kirkby or Kirby; about twenty or thirty such are

found in English maps of the Northern and Midland Counties, denot-

ing churches built by the Norse or Danish settlers, as Whitby, Grimsby,

etc., cp. Kirkjubær in Icel. In Denmark and Sweden local names

ending in -by are almost numberless. I. a town, village, this is the

Norse, Swed., and Dan. notion; þeir brenna býi at köldum kolum,

Fms. xi. 122; til bæjarins (of Niðarós), vii. 30; of Bergen, viii. 360,

438; Tunsberg, ix. 361; of the town residence of the earl of Orkney,

Nj. 267: allit., borgir ok bæi, castles and towns, Ann. 1349, etc.

etc.; baejar-biskup, a town-bishop, Fms. vii. 32; bæjar-prestr, a town-

priest, D.N.; bæjar-lögmaðr, a town-justice, id.; bæjar-lýðr, bæjar-lið,

bæjar-menn, town's-people, Fms. viii. 38, 160, 210, Eg. 240, Bs. i. 78;

baejar-brenna, the burning of a town, Fms. x. 30; bæjar-bygð, a town-district, viii. 247; bæjar-gjald, a town-rate, N.G.L. i. 328; bæjar-sýsla, a town-office, Fms. vi. 109; bæjar-starf, id., Hkr. iii. 441; bæjar-seta, dwelling

in town, Ld. 73, Ísl. ii. 392. II. a farm, landed estate, this is the

Icel. notion, as that country has no towns; bær in Icel. answers to the

Germ, 'hof,' Norweg. 'ból,' Dan. 'gaard,' denoting a farm, or farmyard and buildings, or both together; hence the phrase, reisa, göra, setja

bæ, efna til bæjar, to build the farmstead, Eb. 10, 26, 254, Ld. 96, 98,

Fs. 26, Landn. 126, 127, Eg. 131, Gísl. 8, 28, Bs. i. 26, Þorst. hv. 35;

byggja bæ, Bs. i. 60; the phrase, bær heitir..., a farm is called so

and so, Ísl. ii. 322, 323, 325, Ann. 1300, Hrafn. 22, Dropl. 5; the allit.

phrase, búa á bæ..., Þorst. hv. 37; the passages are numberless, and

'bær' has almost become synonymous with 'house and home;' and as it

specially means 'the farm-buildings,' Icel. also say innan-bæjar, in-doors;

utan-bæjar, out-of-doors; í bæ, within doors; milii baejar ok stöðuls, K.Þ.K.

78; milli bæja; bæ frá bæ, from house to house; á bæ og af bæ, at home and

abroad: things belonging to a bær, bæjar-dyr, the doors of the houses,

the chief entrance; bæjar-hurð (janua); bæjar-veggr, the wall of the

houses; bæjar-bust, the gable of the houses; bæjar-lækr, the home-spring,

well; bæjar-hlað, the premises; bæjar-stétt, the pavement in the front of

the houses; bæjar-leið, a furlong, a short distance as between two 'bæir;'

bæjar-sund, passage between the houses; bæjar-hús, the home-stead, opp.

to fjár-hús, etc., where cattle is kept, or barns and the like; fram-bær,

the front part of the houses; torf-bær, timbr-bær, a 'bær' built of turf

or timber: phrases denoting the 'bær' as hearth and home, hér sú Guð í

bæ, God be in this house, a form of greeting, cp. Luke x. 5; bæjar-bragr,

the customs or life in a house; nema börn hvað á bæ er títt (a proverb).

bæra, ð, [bera, báru], to move, stir, esp. reflex. to stir a limb, Bb.

3.31; enginn sá hans varir bærast, no one saw his lips move.

bæri-ligr, adj. fit, seemly, Stj. 141.

bærr, adj. due, entitled to, cp. Germ, gebührend; the proverb, b. er

hverr at ráða sínu, every one has a right to dispose of his own property,

Ísl. ii. 145; vera b. at dæma um e-t, to be a fit judge in a matter (a

proverb); unbecoming, Yt. 11.

bæsa, t, [báss], = bása, to drive cattle into stall, Gísl. 20; the saying,

fyrr á gömlum uxanum at b. en kálfinum, Fms. vi. 28.

bæsingr, m., prop, one born in a báss (q.v.); hence, as a law term, the

child of an outlawed mother; þat barn er ok eigi arfgengt (that child is also

not entitled to inheritance), er sú kona getr er sek er orðin skógarmaðr,

þó-at hon geti við bónda sínum úsekjum, ok heitir sá maðr bæsingr,

Grág. i. 178. Is not the name Bastard, which first occurs as. the surname of the Conqueror, simply a Norman corruption of this Scandin. law

term? The son of an outlawed father was called vargdropi, q.v. 2.

poët. the name of a sword, Edda (Gl.)

BÆTA, tt, [bót; Ulf. bôtjan = GREEK; Hel. bôtian; A. S. bêtan;

O.H.G. bôzau; Germ. büssen] :-- to better, improve, amend, also t o

restore, repair, Nj. 163, Gþl. 411; b. aptr, to restore, Grág. ii. 336; b.

upp, to restore, atone for, Fms. ix. 43; b. at e-u, to repair, 367; bæta ráð

sitt, to better one's condition, to marry, Nj. 2: theol. to better one's life:

Guð bætti honum af þessi sótt, God restored him to health, Fms. ix. 391;

with gen. of the sickness, O.H.L. 84. β. to mend, put a patch on a

garment. 2. reflex., e-m bætisk, one gets better, is restored to

health; at föður hans bættisk helstríð, Landn. 146: absol., bættisk

honum þegar, he got better at once, Bs. i. 318, 319, 325: with gen.,

baettisk Búa augna-verkjarins, Ísl. ii. 428 (rare); cp. heilsu-bót, recovery

of health. II. a law term, to pay weregild, the person slain

in acc., the money in dat.; Hrafnkell bætti engan mann fé, i.e. H. paid

no weregild whomsoever he slew, Hrafn. 4; ek vil engan mann fé b.,

9; Styrr vá mörg víg, en bætti engin (viz. víg), S. slew many men,

but paid for none, Eb. 54; bæta þá menn alla er þar létusk eðr fyrir

sárum urðu, 98; b. sakir (acc.) fé (dat.), Grág. ii. 169: the allit.

law term, b. baugum, to pay weregild, 174: the amount of money

in acc. to pay out, bæt heldr fé þat er þú ert sakaðr við hann, Fms.

iii. 22; ok á hann eigi þat at b., he has not to pay that, Grág. ii.

168; b. öfandar bót, Gþl. 358: part. bættr, Eb. 98, 246. 2.

metaph. to redress, adjust; b. við e-n, or b. yfir við e-n, to give one

redress, make good a wrong inflicted; hefir þú yfir bætt við mik um

þetta bráðræði, Fms. ii. 25, xi. 434: also used in a religious sense, skaltu

b. við Guð, er þú hefir svá mjök gengit af trú þinni, ii. 213 (yfír-bót,

repentance); b. sál, or b. fyrir sál sinni, to do for the health of the soul,

iv. 63, Fb. i. 345 Bs. i. 642 (in a verse); b. um e-t, to make a thing

better (um-bot, bettering, improvement), Orkn. 442: reflex., ekki bætisk

um, matters grow worse, Fms. ii. 53; b. við, to add to (við-bót, addition),

Húv. 45. 3. part. pass, used as adj. in compar.; ok er eigi

at bættra, þótt ..., things are no better, though ..., Fms. vii. 36; þykir

mér Ólafr ekki at bættari, þótt..., i.e. it is no redress for Olave's death,

though ..., Fas. ii. 410; er mér ekki sour minn at bættari þótt Bolli sé

drepinn, my son's death is none the more atoned for though B. is slain,

Ld. 226. 4. part. act. as noun; bætandi, pl. -endr, a law term, one

who has to pay weregild, Grág. ii. 174, etc.

BÆXL, mod. bæxli, n. [bógr], the shoulder (Lat. armus) of a dragon,

whale, shark, or the like, Fms. vi. 351, Bret. 544.16, Gullþ. 7.

BÖÐ, f., gen. böðvar, [A. S. beadu], a battle, only in poetry, in which

it is used in a great many compds; hence come the pr. names Böðvarr,

Böðvildr, Böðmóðr, vide Lex. Poët.

böðull, m., dat. böðli, [Dan. böddel], an executioner, (mod. word.)

böðvask, að, dep. to rave, Hðm. 21.

BÖGGR, m., dat. böggvi, an obsol. word, a bag; breiðr b., a big bag, in

a metaph. sense, Glúm. (in a verse): the dimin. böggull, m. a small bag, is

in freq. use as a nickname, Arn. S. Bs. i. bögla, að, to shrivel, v. bagla.

BÖL, n., dat. bölvi, gen. pl. bölva, [cp. Goth, balva-vesei and balveins

= GREEK, GREEK; A.S. balew; Engl. bale; Hel. balu; O.H.G. balv;

lost in mod. Germ, and Dan.] :-- bale, misfortune; allit. phrases, böl

and bót, 'bale' and 'bote;' bölva bætr, Stor. 22; þegar böl er hæst er

bót næst, 'when bale is hest, bote is nest,' Morris, E. Engl. Spec, 100;

svá skal böl bæta at bíða annat meira (a proverb), Grett. 123, Fbr. 193;

böl er búskapr (a proverb).

böl-bæn, f. imprecation, Sks. 435, Anecd. 10.

böl-fengi, f. malice, O.H.L. 32.

böll-óttr, adj. ball-shaped, Sks. 634; b. eggskurn, Stj. 12; b. manna

höfuð, Fms. v. 343, Rb. 466.

BÖLLR, m., gen. ballar, dat. belli, [Engl. ball; O.H.G. balla] :-- a

ball, globe: the ball, in the game of cricket, Gísl. 26 (in a verse, A.D.

963), but hardly ever used, knöttr being the common word: a globe, Al.

18; b. jarðar, Sks. 205 B; b. sólar, id., v. 1.: the front of a phalanx, belli

svínfylktar fylkingar, 384 B: a small body of men, Lat. globus, Fms. viii.

406, where some MSS. read bjöllr, probably to avoid the ambiguity: a

peak, mountain, in the local name Ballar-á, a farm in the west of Iceland,

Eb. 2. anatom. the glans penis, Grág. ii. 16.

bölva, að, [Ulf. balvjan = GREEK], to curse, with dat. or absol.,

Stj. 37, 199, Sks. 539, 549, Hom. 33. β. to swear, Sturl. iii. 239.

bölv, n. swearing, (mod.)

bölvan, f. a curse, Stj. 37, 483: swearing, Fær. 239, Hom. 86.

böl-víss, adj. [Ulf. balva-vesei, Hel. balu-veso, = diabolus], 'bale-wise,'

detestable, Hbl. 23:3 nickname, Hkv.

BÖRGR, m. [Dutch and Germ. barg; Engl. barrow], a barrow-hog,

Hd., Lex. Poët.

BÖRKR, m., gen. barkar, dat. berki, bark, Stj. 177, Pr. 473, Am. 17;

börku (acc. pl.), N.G.L. i. 242: a pr. name of a man, Landn.

börr, m. a kind of tree, Edda (Gl.), Lex. Poët. II. a son = burr,

böruðr, m., poët, an ox, Edda (Gl.)

böstl, f., pl. böstlar, arrows, Edda (Gl.), Lex. Poët.