This is page 94 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)
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kð, pð were first abolished; the liquids kept the soft d till the end of the
century, and lð, mð, nð is still the rule in the Hauksbók; though even the
chief vellum MS. of the Njála (Arna-Magn. no. 468) almost constantly uses
the modern ld, md, nd. As to kt and pt, the case is peculiar; in early
times the Icel. pronounced dýpð or dýpþ etc. exactly as the English at present
pronounce depth; but as the Icel. does not allow the concurrence of
two different tenues, the modern pt and kt are only addressed to the eye;
in fact, when ð became t, the p and k were at once changed into f and
g. The Icel. at present says dýft, segt, just as he spells September, October,
but is forced to pronounce 'Seft-,' 'Ogt-.' The spelling in old MSS.
gives sometimes a clear evidence as to the etymology of some contested
words, e.g. the spelling eykð (q.v.) clearly shews that the word is not
akin to Lat. octo, but is derived from auka (augere), because else it
would have been formed like nótt, átta, dóttir, Lat. noct-, octo, Gr.
GREEK so anði, synð, shew that the d in both cases is inflexive, not
radical, and that an, syn are the roots, cp. Gr. GREEK and Germ, sühnen;
but when editors or transcribers of Icel. MSS. -- and even patriotic imi-
tators of the old style -- have extended the ð to radical ld, nd, and write
lanð, banð, hönð, valð, etc., they go too far and trespass against the law
of the language. It is true that 'land' is in Icel. MSS. spelt 'lð,' but
the stroke is a mark of abbreviation, not of a soft d.
D. INTERCHANGE (vide p. 49): I. between Greek, Latin,
and Scandinavian there are but few words to record, GREEK = dóttir,
GREEK = dyr, GREEK = dyrr, GREEK and GREEK = dá and deyja, GREEK = díar,
GREEK = dalr (arcus), and perhaps GREEK = dómr; Lat. truncus = draugr,
trabere = draga. II. between High German on the one hand,
and Low German with Scandinavian on the other hand, a regular inter-
change has taken place analogous to that between Latin-Greek and
Teutonic; viz. Scandin.-Engl. d, t, þ answer to H.G. t, z, d, e.g. Icel.
dagr, Engl. day = H. G. tag; Icel. temja, Engl. tame = H.G. zähnen;
Icel. þing, Engl. thing = H.G. ding.
&hand; In very early Icel. MSS. we find the old Latin form d, which
sometimes occurs in the Kb. of the Sæm. Edda, but it is commonly UNKNOWN,
whence ð is formed by putting a stroke on the upper part, A.S. ð this
shews that the ð is in form a d, not a þ (th); vide more on this subject
in the introduction to þ Thorodd calls the capital D edd, the d dé.
daðra, að, d. róunni, dat. to wheedle.
dafi, a, m. or dafar, f. pl. a dub. word, a shaft (?), Akv. 4, 14.
dafla, að, and damla, with dat. to dabble with the oar, up and down,
metaph. from churning, Krók. 59 C. damla, u, f., is used of a small
roll of butter just taken from the churn, það er ekki fyrsta damlan sem
þú færð, Brúnn, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 124.
dafna, að, to thrive well, a nursery term, used of babies. dafnan, f.
thriving; döfnunar-barn, etc.
daga, að, to dawn; eptir um morguninn er trautt var dagað, Eg. 360;
þegar er hann sá at dagaði, Fms. v. 21; hvern daganda dag, Mar. (Fr.):
impers., e-n dagar uppi, day dawns upon one, in the tales, said of hobgoblins, dwarfs, and giants, uppi ertu nú dvergr um dagaðr, nú skínn
sól í sali, Alm. 36, cp. Hkv. Hjörv. 29, 30; en Bárðdælingar segja hana
(acc. the giantess) hafi dagat uppi þá þau glímdu, Grett. 141: single
stone pillars are freq. said in Icel. to be giants or witches turned into
stone on being caught by daylight, and are called Karl, Kerling, vide
Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 207 sqq.
dagan, dögur (deging, Sturl. i. 83 C), f. dawn, daybreak; í dagan,
Edda 24; en er kom at d., 29; litlu fyrir d., 30, O.H.L. 51; um morg-
uninn í d., Fms. ix. 258; í dögun, Eg. 261; i öndverða d., Sturl. ii. 249.
dag-drykkja, u, f. a morning-draught, which was taken after the
dagverðr, Orkn. 276, Fas. iii. 42.
dag-far, n. a 'day-fare,' journey, used in dat. in the phrase, fara dagfari
ok náttfari, to travel day and night, Fms. i. 203; hann hafði farit norðan
dagfari, in a single day's journey, ix. 513. 2. mod. and theol. the
'journey of life,' daily course, conduct; hence dagfars-góðr, adj. good
dag-fasta, u, f. fasting by day, K.Þ.K. 106, Hom. 73.
dag-fátt, n. adj., in the phrase, verða d., to lose the daylight, to be over-taken by night, Fms. xi. 142, Rb. 376, Ver. 24.
dag-ferð, dag-för, f. a day's journey, Symb. 15, Fms. xi. 440, Stj. 65.
dag-ganga, u, f. a day's walk, Fas. iii. 643.
dag-geisli, a, m. a day-beam, Bjarn. 46, name given to a lady-love.
dag-langr, adj. [A.S. dœglang], all day long; d. erfiði, toil all day long,
Sks. 42; daglangt, all this day long, for this day, Eg. 485, Fms. ii. 268.
dag-lát, n. pl. day-dreams, vide dreyma.
dag-leið, f. a day's journey, Fms. vii. 110, Hkr. i. 45; fara fullum
dagleiðum, Grág. i. 48.
dag-lengis, adv. all day long, Korm. (in a verse), Karl. 481.
dag-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), daily, Fms. ix. 407, Sks. 42, Dipl. iii. 14,
H. E. i. 432, Vm. 139.
dag-mál, n. (vide dagr), prop. 'day-meal,' one of the divisions of the
day, usually about 8 or 9 o'clock A. M.; the Lat. hora tertia is rendered
by 'er vér köllum dagmál, 'which we call d., Hom. 142; cnn er ekki
liðit af dagmálum, Hom. (St.) 10. Acts ii. 15; in Glúm. 342 we are told that the young Glum was very lazy, and lay in bed till day-meal every
morning, cp. also 343; Hrafn. 28 and O.H.L. 18 -- á einum morni milli
rismála ok dagmála -- where distinction is made between rismál (rising
time) and dagmál, so as to make a separate dagsmark (q.v.) of each of
them; and again, a distinction is made between 'midday' and dagmal,
Ísl. ii. 334. The dagmal is thus midway between 'rising' and 'midday,' which accords well with the present use. The word is synonymous
with dagverðarmál, breakfast-time, and denotes the hour when the ancient
Icel. used to take their chief meal, opposed to náttmál, night-meal or
supper-time, Fms. viii. 330; even the MSS. use dagmál and dagverðarmál indiscriminately; cp. also Sturl. iii. 4 C; Rb. 452 says that at full
moon the ebb takes place 'at dagmálum.' To put the dagmál at 7.30
A.M., as Pál Vídalin does, seems neither to acccord with the present use
nor the passage in Glum or the eccl. hora tertia, which was the nearest
hour answering to the Icel, calculation of the day. In Fb. i. 539 it is
said that the sun set at 'eykð' (i.e. half-past three o'clock), but rose at
'dagmál' which puts the dagmal at 8.30 A.M. COMPDS: dagmála-
staðr, m. the place of d. in the horizon, Fb. I. dagmala-tið, f.
morning terce, 625. 176.
dag-messa, u, f. day-mass, morning terce, Hom. 41.
DAGR, m., irreg. dat. degi, pl. dagar: [the kindred word dœgr with a
vowel change from ó (dóg) indicates a lost root verb analogous to ala,
ól, cp. dalr and dælir; this word is common to all Teutonic dialects;
Goth. dags; A.S. dag; Engl. day; Swed.-Dan. dag; Germ, tag; the
Lat. dies seems to be identical, although no interchange has taken place] :-- a day; in different senses: 1. the natural day :-- sayings referring
to the day, at kveldi skal dag leyfa, at eventide shall the day be praised,
Hm. 80 ; allir dagar eiga kveld um síðir; mörg eru dags augu, vide
auga; enginn dagr til enda tryggr, no day can be trusted till its end; allr
dagr til stefnu, Grág. i. 395, 443, is a law phrase, -- for summoning was
lawful only if performed during the day; this phrase is also used metaph. = 'plenty of time' or the like: popular phrases as to the daylight are
many -- dagr rennr, or rennr upp, and kemr upp, the day rises, Bm. 1;
dagr í austri, day in the east, where the daylight first appears; dagsbrún,
'day's brow,' is the first streak of daylight, the metaphor taken from the
human face; lysir af degi, it brightens from the day, i.e. daylight is
appearing; dagr ljómar, the day gleams; fyrir dag, before day; móti
degi, undir dag, about daybreak; komið at degi, id., Fms. viii. 398;
dagr á lopti, day in the sky; árla, snemma dags, early in the morning,
Pass. 15. 17; dagr um allt lopt, etc.; albjartr dagr, hábjartr d., full day,
broad daylight; hæstr dagr, high day; önd-verðr d., the early day =
forenoon, Am. 50; miðr dagr, midday, Grág. i. 413, 446, Sks. 217, 219;
áliðinn dagr, late in the day, Fas. i. 313; hallandi dagr, declining day; at
kveldi dags, síð dags, late in the day, Fms. i. 69. In the evening the day
is said to set, hence dag-sett, dag-setr, and dagr setzt; in tales, ghosts and
spirits come out with nightfall, but dare not face the day; singing merry
songs after nightfall is not safe, það kallast ekki Kristnum leyft að kveða
þegar dagsett er, a ditty; Syrpuvers er mestr galdr er í fólginn, ok eigi er
lofat at kveða eptir dagsetr, Fas. iii. 206, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 7, 8: the daylight
is symbolical of what is true or clear as day, hence the word dagsanna, or
satt sem dagr, q.v. 2. of different days; í dag, to-day, Grág. i. 16,
18, Nj. 36, Ld. 76, Fms. vi. 151; í gær-dag, yesterday; í fyrra dag, the day
before yesterday, Háv. 50; í hinni-fyrra dag, the third day; annars dags,
Vígl. 23, Pass. 50. I; hindra dags, the hinder day, the day after to-mor-
row, Hm. 109; dag eptir dag, day after day, Hkr. ii. 313; dag frá degi,
from day to day, Fms. ii. 230; hvern dag frá öðrum, id., Fms. viii. 182;
annan dag frá öðrum. id., Eg. 277; um daginn, during the day; á dögunum.
the other day; nótt ok dag, night and day; liðlangan dag, the 'life-long'
day; dögunum optar, more times than there are days, i.e. over and over
again, Fms. x. 433; á deyjanda degi, on one's day of death, Grág. i.
402. β. regu-dagr, a rainy day: sólskins-dagr, a sunny day; sumar-
dagr, a summer day; vetrar-dagr, a winter day; hátíðis-dagr, a feast day;
fegins-dagr, a day of joy; dóms-dagr, the day of doom, judgment day, Gl.
82, Fms. viii. 98; hamingju-dagr, heilla-dagr, a day of happiness; gleði-
dagr, id.; brúðkaups-dagr, bridal-day; burðar-dagr, a birthday. 3. in
pl. days in the sense of times; aðrir dagar, Fms. i. 216; ek ætlaða ekki
at þessir dagar mundu verða, sem nú eru orðnir, Nj. 171; góðir dagar,
happy days, Fms. xi. 286, 270; sjá aldrei glaðan dag (sing.), never to
see glad days. β. á e-s dögum, um e-s daga eptir e-s daga, esp. of
the lifetime or reign of kings, Fms.; but in Icel. also used of the lög-
sögumaðr, Jb. repeatedly; vera á dögum, to be alive; eptir minn dag,
'after my day,' i.e. when I am dead. γ. calendar days, e.g. Hvita-
dagar, the White days, i.e. Whitsuntide; Hunda-dagar, the Dog days;
Banda-dagr, Vincula Petri; Höfuð-dagr, Decap. Johannis; Geisla-dagr,
Epiphany; Imbru-dagar, Ember days; Gang-dagar, 'Ganging days,' Ro-
gation days; Dýri-dagr, Corpus Christi; etc. 4. of the week-
days; the old names being Sunnu-d. or Drottins-d., Mána-d., Týs-d.,
Öðins-d., Þórs-d., Frjá-d., Laugar-d. or Þvátt-d. It is hard to understand
how the Icel. should be the one Teut. people that have disused the old
names of the week-days; but so it was, vide Jóns S. ch. 24; fyrir bauð
hann at eigna daga vitrum mönnum heiðnum, svá sem at kalla Týrsdag