This is page 113 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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DÆMAFÁTT -- E. 113

customs of their forefathers, Fagrsk. ch. 219; þessi dæmi (i.e. verses) öll eru kveðin um þenna atburð, Mork. 114; þó hafa mörg dæmi orðið í forneskju, many things have happened in olden times, Ó. H. 73 (margs d., Fms. iv. 172, less correctly), cp. dæmi-saga; spekingr at viti ok at öllu fróðr, lögum ok dæmum (old lore, tales), mannfræði ok ættfræði, Fms. vii. 102; Ari prestr hinn Fróði, er mörg d. spakleg hefir saman töld, Bs. i. 145, cp. also Barl. 47, 73, 112; hence fá-dæmi, an unexampled, portentous thing; eins dæmi, in the proverb, eins dæmin eru vest, viz. a singular, unexampled fate is the worst: used even of pictures, a story represented by drawing, Pm. 122: gramm. a citation, proof, nú skal láta heyra dæmin, now let us hear the proofs, Edda 49; þessi dæmi (those references) ok nóg önnur, Anecd. 6, 15, 18, 21; draga dæmi af bókum, Sks. 468. β. example, generally; djarfari en d. eru til, Fms. iv. 311; vita dæmi til e-s, Róm. 234; umfram d., or dæmum, unexampled, portentous, Stj. 143, Fms. i. 214, viii. 52; svá sem til dæmis at taka, to take an example. Mar. 40, Bs. ii. 116; hence the mod. adverb, til dæmis (commonly written short t.d. = e.g.), for example; sem d. finnask, Fagrsk. ch. 9, Barl. 50; meir en til dæma, beyond example, Stj. 87, 167, 179. γ. example for imitation (eptir-dæmi, example); eptir dæmum Kristinna manna, Fms. v. 319; eptir þínum dæmum, Niðrst. 4; d. dæmi af e-u, to take example by it, Greg. 134. 2. judgment, only in compds as, sjálf-dæmi, rétt-dæmi, justice, etc. COMPDS: dæma-fátt, n. adj. almost unexampled. dæma-fróðr, adj. wise in old lore, Fms. iv. 89. dæma-lauss, adj. unexampled, Stj. 391. dæma-maðr, m. a man to be imitated, Greg. 12.

dæming, f. judgment, Grág. i. 235, Skálda 211.

dæmi-saga, u, f. a fable, parable; in old eccl. translations, the parable of the N. T. is rendered by 'dæmisaga,' Greg. 22; but in mod. versions and writers since 1540 a distinction is made, and dæmisögur are fables, e.g. of Aesop, Reynard, or the like; whereas the parables of the N. T. are called 'eptir-líking;' heyrit mik ok mína dæmisögu, Stj. 399. Judges ix. 7: an old saw, Fms. vii. 102, v.l.: a proverb, Stj. 560. 1 Kings iv. 32, (rare.)

dæmi-stóll, m. the judgment seat, 623. 12, 13, 73, 625. 79.

dæsa, t, to utter a deep groan, Sturl. ii. 154: reflex. to lose breath from exhaustion, Sks. 231: part. dæstr, exhausted, breathless, Grett. 98.

DÖF, f., pl. dafar, the rump, Scot. doup; hér yfir skipunum uppi mættusk döfin ok höfuðit dýrsins (of a bear), Fas. ii. 172, while 510 has dausin; cp. Norse dov = rump, Ivar Aasen. 2. a kind of spear, Edda (Gl.), Akv. 4, 14. II. [cp. dafna, and Swed. däfven = moist], suck (?) and metaph. rest, in the poët. phrase, vær döf, sweet rest; milli Belindar brjósta-kúlna búið hefi eg þér væra döf, Grönd. 67; hreppa væra döf, sweet rest (of one dead), Feðga-æfi, 83 (in a verse).

DÖGG, f., old gen. döggvar. Korm., Sks. 606, Fms. ii. 278, mod. daggar; old pl. döggvar, Vsp. 19, Vþm. 45; mod. daggir, Sks. 40; dat. sing. döggu, Vtkv. 5, 656 A. 18: [A. S. deaw; Engl. dew; Germ. thau; Dan. and Swed. dug] :-- dew; nátt-dögg, night-dew; morgun-dögg, morning-dew, Vþm. 45, Hkv. Hjörv. 28. COMPD: (mod. daggar-, old döggvar-), döggvar-drep, n. a dew-track, Fms. ii. l.c.

dögg-fall, n. dew-fall, Stj. 17.

dögg-litr, adj. dew-besprinkled, Hkv. 2. 41.

döggóttr, adj. bedewed, Hkv. 1. 46.

dögg-skór, m. [Swed. dopsko], the tip or chape of a sheath, etc., Fas. i. 173, Gullþ. 47, Gísl. 115.

dögg-slóð, f. the slot or track left in the dew, Gísl. 67.

döggva, að or ð, to bedew; pres. döggvar, Stj. 73, 397; hon döggvaði, fætr Drottins, 655 xxxi. 2; á morni hverjum döggvir hann jörðina af méldropum sínum, Edda 7; döggðu andlit sin í tárum, 623. 58; d. hjörtu manna, Skálda 210, Hom. 45.

döggvan, f. bedewing, Stj. 14.

Döglingr, m., poët, a king, descendant of king Dag, Edda 105, Hdl. 18. 2. mockingly, a draggle-tail, Sturl. i. 62.

dögun, dögurðr, v. dagan, dagverðr.

dökk, dökð, f. [dock], a pie, pool, Gþl. 393, Mart. 107.

dökk-blár, adj. dark blue, Sturl. ii. 212.

dökk-brúnaðr, adj. dark brown, Fas. i. 172.

dökk-grænn, adj. dark green, Stj. 62.

dökk-hárr, adj. dark haired, Hkr. iii. 281.

dökk-jarpr, adj. dark auburn, Ld. 274.

dökk-litaðr, adj. dark coloured, Sturl. ii. 212, Fms. vii. 239.

dökkna, að, to darken, Fms. i. 216, x. 284, Fas. iii. 12.

DÖKKR, adj., acc. dökkvan etc., with v inserted, [Swed.-Dan. dunkel], dark, Rb. 108; ský dökt ok dimt, Fms. xi. 136; dökkvir hjálmar, vi. 150; dökkt yfirbragð, i. 97; d. á har, dark of hair, Nj. 39; dökkvan skima, Sks. 229: compar., dökkvara liós, 203; dökkvir villustigar, Fms. i. 138.

dökk-rauðr, adj. dark red, Þiðr. 178.

dökkva, ð, to darken; eigi döktusk augu hans, Stj. 348. Deut. xxxiv. 7; þa er dökkvir skilning, 656 C. 33: impers., dökkvir þik, andskoti, art thou in darkness? 623. 31; dag (acc.) dökði, the day darkened, Skálda (in a verse).

dökkvi, a, m. a dark spot, Fas. iii. 560.

E

E (a), the fifth letter, is in the old Gothic and Anglo-Saxon Runes represented by RUNE, being in Anglo-Saxon called 'eoh;' the common Scandinavian Runes have no character for e, but mark it either ia or i, and, still later, RUNE, with a knob in the middle ('stunginn Íss' RUNE).

A. PRONUNCIATION, etc. -- The Icel. e is sounded as English a in same, take, and in modern printed books is only used in radical syllables without regard to etymology; but there is sufficient evidence that in early times in Icel. the e had a double sound, one long, like the Italian e or English a (long), the other short, like e in English wet. These two sounds are etymologically different; the first is of comparatively late growth and derived from a by vowel change or otherwise; it is therefore in kindred languages (Swed., Germ.) often spelt ä, so as to indicate its origin from the mother-letter a: the other e is much older, nearly akin to i, being related to that letter as o to u. Grimm suggests that e is derived from i as o from u (only admitting a, i, u as primitive vowels), but in the Icel. at least e and o are in spelling as old as i or u, and seem to be primitive. The Runes in Tune and on the Golden horn have special marks for e and o. At the time of Ari and Thorodd the two seem to have been distinguished in Icel. The latter grammarian uses a special sign for each; he proposes to represent the long sound (Engl. a) by UNCERTAIN (commonly &e-hook;), adding (as he says) the bight of a to the body of e, to express a sound intermediate between ä and e; he therefore would have written UNCERTAIN (I take), UNCERTAIN, UNCERTAIN (to tame), but eðr, en, ef, etc., Skálda 161-163; in the unique vellum MS. (and in Edd.) the characters are not given correctly, as transcriber and editors did not fully understand the bearing of the author's words. About 700 years later, Jacob Grimm (without knowing the Icel. grammarian or the spelling of MSS. not then edited) recalled the old double e sound to life, guided by the analogy of other Teutonic languages. He proposed to represent a (the &e-hook; of Thorodd) by e, and the genuine e by ë. He (Gram. i. 281-284) drew out a list of words founded on the supposed etymology, and kept this distinction wherever he spelt Icel. words. It is curious to observe the difference between Grimm's artificial list of words and the phonetic spelling in some MSS.; there are especially two MSS., both of them Norse, which are remarkable for their distinction of the two sounds, the long e being spelt with æ, the short with e: these MSS. are the O. H. L., published from a vellum MS. Ups. De la Gard. no. 8, written in Norway at the beginning of the 13th century, and edited by C. R. Unger; the second, small fragments of Norse law MSS., published in N. G. L. ii. 501-515 and i. 339 sqq. Some words compiled from them are as follow: I. æ: the verbs, bærja, blækkja, ærja, æggja, færja, hængja, glæðja, hæfja, hærja (to harry), kvæðja, læggja, sægja, sælja, sætja, strængja, væðja (to bail), værja, etc.; bænda, brænna (brændi), bræsta, æfla, æfna (Swed. ämna), fælla (to fell), frægna, gægna, hæmna ( = hæfna), hværfa (to turn), kænna, mætta, næmna (Swed. nämna), rænna (to let run), ræfsa, spænna, stæmna (stafn), tælja, værða (to become), værka, vækra (vakr), þværra: nouns, bæn, a wound (but ben, N. G. L. iii. 388); bær, a berry; bæðr, a bed; bælgr; bærsærkr; bælti, a belt; dæpill; drængr, a man; drægg; ækkja, a widow; ændi, end; ældr, fire; æmni ( = æfni = Swed. ämna); æmbætti (Germ. amt); ældri (in for-ældri, forefathers, Germ. ältern); ælja, a concubine; ærendi, an errand; ærændr, exanimis; ængill, an angel; ærmr, a sleeve (armr); ærvi, ærfingi, ærfð (arfr); ænni, the forehead; ærtog (a coin); æng, a meadow (ang = a sweet smell); Ærlingr (a pr. name); ærki-, Engl. arch- (GREEK); ærveði, toil, and ærveðr, toilsome; ægg, an edge; fæðgar (faðir); fælmtr (falma); færð (fara); frælsi (frjals); hæl, hell; hælviti; hælla, a stone; hællir, a cave; hærra, a lord; hærr, troops; hærbúðir; hærnaðr; hærað, a county (but herað in N. G. L. i. 344 sqq.); hærðar, shoulders; kæfli (Swed. kafle); kær, a jar; kælda (kaldr), a well; kætill, a kettle; fætill; kvæld, evening; kværk, the throat; læggr, a leg; mærki, a mark; mærgð (margr); mægn, mægin, main; mærr, a mare; næf, nose; næss, a ness; ræfill, tapestry; rækkja, a bed; sækt, sake; skægg, beard; skællibrögð; skæpna, a creature (skapa, Dan. skæbne); sværð, a sword; sænna, sound; væfr, weaving; værk (but verk better, N. G. L. i. 339 sqq., cp. virkr): væstr, the west; væl, a trick; vætr, the winter (but vittr or vitr better, N. G. L. ii. 509); vær (in sel-vær); værðr, a meal; þængill, a king; þækja, thatch; þægn, thane; Ængland, England; Ænskr, English; Ænglændingar, the English (Angli); Tæmps, the Thames, etc.: datives, dægi, hændi, vændi, vælli, hætti (höttr), bælki (balkr): adjectives, compar. and superl., fræmri, fræmstr; skæmri, skæmstr; ældri, ælztr; længri, længstr; bætri, bæztr; værri, værstr; hældri, hælztr: sækr, guilty; værðr, due; fæginn; hælgr, holy; bærr, bare; stærkr, stark, etc.: prepositions, hænni, hænnar (hann); tvæggja, duorum; hværr, who; ænginn, none; ækki, nothing (but also engi, which is better), etc.: particles, æftir, after; væl, well; ælligar, or: inflexive syllables, -sæmd (-sanir); -ændi; -spæki, wisdom, etc.: the diphthongs æi and æy = ei and ey, læita, bæita, hæyra, æyra, etc. II. e: the pronouns and particles, eða, or; ek, ego; enn, still; en, but; sem, which; ef, if; með, with; meðan, while; meðal, between; nema, nisi; snemma, early; er,