This is page 118 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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118 EIÐSPJALL -- EIGA.

their parliament was held on an isthmus, Eid, now called Eidsvold; vide Munch.

eið-spjall, n. delivery of an oath, in the Icel. law phrase, hlýða til eiðspjalls e-s, to listen to one's oath, Nj., Grág. i. 39, 76, etc.

eið-stafa, að, to say the oath formula for another to repeat, D. N.

eið-stafr, m. the form or wording of an oath; sverja með þessum eiðstaf, Gþl. 7, Fms. vi. 53, viii. 150, x. 418.

eið-svari, a, m. a confederate, one bound by oath, Nj. 192: a liegeman bound by a hollustu-e., Orkn. 106, Fms. v. 44 (Hkr. ii. 333).

eið-særr, adj. such that it may be sworn to, absolutely true, Eg. 347 (in a verse, MS.; Ed. auðsært).

eið-unning, f. the taking an oath, Grág. i. 57.

eið-vandr, adj. 'oath-fast,' religious as to an oath, Lex. Poët.

eið-varr, adj. cautious (conscientious) as to an oath, Ísl. ii. 98.

eið-vinning, f. = eiðunning, K. Þ. K. 156.

eið-vætti, n. testimony on oath, Jb. 448.

EIGA, pret. átti; pret. subj. ætti, pres. eigi; pres. ind. á, 2nd pers. átt (irreg. eigr, Dipl. v. 24), pl. eigum, 3rd pers. pl. old form eigu, mod. eiga; imperat. eig and eigðu; sup. átt; with suffixed neg. pres. ind. 1st pers. á'k-at, 2nd pers. átt-attu; pret. subj. ættim-a: [Gr. GREEK; Goth. aigan; A. S. âgan; Hel. êgan; O. H. G. eigan; Swed. äga; Dan. eje; Engl. to owe and own, of which the former etymologically answers to 'eiga,' the latter to 'eigna'] :-- to have, possess.

A. ACT. I. denoting ownership, to possess: 1. in a proper sense; allt þat góz sem þeir eiga eðr eigandi verða, D. N. i. 80; hann eigr hálfa jörðina, Dipl. v. 24; Björn hljóp þá á skútu er hann átti, Eb. 6; Starkaðr átti hest góðan, Nj. 89; þau áttu gnótt í búi, 257; hón á allan arf eptir mik, 3; átti hón auð fjár, Ld. 20; ef annarr maðr ferr með goðorð en sá er á, Grág. i. 159; annat vápnit, ok á þat Þorbjörn, en Þorgautr á þetta, Ísl. ii. 341; eignir þær er faðir hans hafði átt, Eb. 4; í ríki því er Dana konungar höfðu átt þar lengi, Fms. xi. 301, Rb. 494, Eb. 54, 118, 256, 328, Sturl. ii. 60, Eg. 118; e. saman, to own in common, Grág. i. 199; ef tveir menn eigo bú saman, ii. 44; e. skuld (at e-m), to be in debt, Engl. to owe; en ef hann átti engar skuldir, if he owed no debts, i. 128; þar til átti honum (owed him) meistari Þorgeirr ok þá mörk, D. N. iv. 288 (Fr.); e. fé undir e-m, to be one's creditor, Nj. 101; in mod. usage, e. fé hjá e-m, or ellipt., e. hjá e-m. 2. in a special sense; α. eiga konu, to have her to wife; hann átti Gró, Eb. 16; hann átti Ynghvildi, 3; Þorgerðr er (acc.) átti Vigfúss, ... Geirríðr er (acc.) átti Þórólfr, 18; hann gékk at eiga Þóru, he married Thora, id.; Þuríði hafði hann áðr átta, Thorida had been his first wife, 42; enga vil ek þessa e., I will not marry any of these, Nj. 22; Björn átti þá konu er Valgerðr hét, 213, 257; faðir Hróðnýjar er átti Þorsteinn, Landn. 90; Ásdísi átti síðar Skúli, S. was A.'s second husband, 88; Þorgerðr er átti Önundr sjóni, 89; Vigdís er átti Þorbjörn enn digri, 87; Árnþrúðr er átti Þórir hersir, 66; Húngerð er átti Svertingr, 6l, 86, and in numberless passages: old writers hardly ever say that the wife owns her husband--the passages in Edda 109 (vide elja) and Nj. 52 (til lítils kemr mér at eiga hinn vaskasta mann á Islandi) are extraordinary--owing to the primitive notion of the husband's 'jus possessionis' (cp. brúðkaup); but in mod. usage 'eiga' is used indiscriminately of both wife and husband; Icel. even say, in a recipr. sense, eigast, to own one another, to be married: þau áttust, they married; hann vildi ekki at þau ættist, hann bannaði þeim að eigast, he forbade them to marry :-- to the ancients such a phrase was almost unknown, and occurs for the first time in K. Á. 114. β. eiga börn, to have children, of both parents; áttu þau Jófriðr tíu börn, J. and her husband had ten bairns, Eg. 708; hann átti dóttur eina er Unnr hét, Nj. 1; þau Þorsteinn ok Unnr áttu son er Steinn hét, Eb. 10, Nj. 91, 257; áttu þau Þórhildr þrjá sonu, 30; e. móður, föður, to have a mother, father, Eb. 98; vænti ek ok, at þú eigir illan föður, id. γ. the phrase, e. heima, to have a home; þeir áttu heima austr í Mörk, Nj. 55; því at ek tek eigi heim í kveld, þar sem ek á heima út á Íslandi, 275; in mod. usage = to live, abide, in regard to place, cp. the questions put to a stranger, hvað heitir maðrinn? hvar áttu heima? used in a wider sense than búa. δ. eiga sér, to have, cp. 'havde sig' in Dan. ballads; Höskuldr átti sér dóttur er Hallgerðr hét, Nj. 3; ef hann á sér í vá veru, Hm. 25, (freq. in mod. use.) 3. without strict notion of possession; e. vini, óvini, to have friends, enemies, Nj. 101; hverja liðveizlu skal ek þar e. er þú ert, what help can I reckon upon from thee? 100; e. ván e-s, to have hope of a thing, to reckon upon, 210; e. til, to have left; ekki eigu it annat til (there is nothing left for you) nema at biðja postulann. Jóh. 623. 22: in mod. usage e. til means to own, to have left; hann á ekkert til, he is void of means, needy; eiga góða kosti fjár, to be in good circumstances, Ísl. ii. 322; e. vald á e-u, to have within one's power, Nj. 265; the phrase, e. hlut at e-u, or e. hlut í e-u, to have a share, be concerned with; eptir þat átti hann hlut at við mótstöðumenn Gunnars, 101, 120; þar er þú ættir hlut at, where thou wast concerned, 119; mik uggir at hér muni eigi gæfu-menn hlut í e., 179: hence ellipt., e. í e-u, to be engaged in, chiefly of strife, adversity, or the like; thus, e. í stríði, fátaekt, baráttu, to live, be deep in struggle, want, battle, etc. II. denoting duty, right, due, obligation: 1. to be bound, etc.; þeir menn er fylgð áttu með konungi, the men who owed following to (i.e. were bound to attend) the king's person, Fms. vii. 240; á ek þar fyrir at sjá, I am bound to see to that, Eg. 318; Tylptar-kviðr átti um at skilja, Eb. 48; þeir spurðu hvárt Njáli þætti nokkut e. at lýsa vígsök Gunnars, Nj. 117; nú áttu, Sigvaldi, now is thy turn, now ought thou, Fms. xi. 109, Fs. 121; menn eigu (men ought) at spyrja at þingfesti, Grág. i. 19; þá á þann kvið einskis meta, that verdict ought to be void, 59; ef sá maðr á (owns) fé út hér er ómagann á (who ought) fram at færa, 270; nú hafa þeir menn jammarga sem þeir eigu, as many as they ought to have, ii. 270; tíunda á maðr fé sitt, ... þá á hann þat at tíunda, ... þá á hann at gefa sálugjafir, i. 202 :-- 'eiga' and 'skal' are often in the law used indiscriminately, but properly 'ought' states the moral, 'shall' the legal obligation,--elska skalt þú föður þinn og móður, þú skalt ekki stela, where 'átt' would be misplaced; sometimes it is merely permissive, gefa á maðr vingjafir at sér lifanda, ef hann vill, a man 'may' whilst in life bequeath to his friends, if he will, id.; maðr á at gefa barni sínu laungetnu tólf aura, ef hann vill, fyrir ráð skaparfa sinna, en eigi meira nema erfingjar lofi, a man 'may' bequeath to the amount of twelve ounces to his illegitimate child without leave of the lawful heir, etc., 203; ef þat á til at vilja, if that is to happen, Fas. i. 11. 2. denoting claim, right, to own, be entitled to, chiefly in law phrases; e. dóm, sakir, to own the case, i.e. be the lawful prosecutor; ok á sá þeirra sakir, er ..., Grág. i. 10; eðr eigu þeir eigi at lögum, or if they be not entitled to it, 94; e. mál á e-m, to have a charge against one, Nj. 105; e. rétt á e-u, to own a right; sá sem rétt á á henni, who has a right to her, K. Á. 16; þeir sögðu at þeim þótti slíkr maðr mikinn rétt á sér e., such a man had a strong personal claim to redress, Nj. 105; hence the phrase, eiga öngan rétt á sér, if one cannot claim redress for personal injury; þá eigu þeir eigi rétt á sér, then they have no claim to redress whatever, Grág. i. 261; e. sök, saka-staði á e-u, to have a charge against; þat er hann átti öngva sök á, Nj. 130; saka-staði þá er hann þótti á eiga, 166; kalla Vermund eigi (not) eiga at selja sik, said V. had no right to sell them, Eb. 116: hence in mod. usage, eiga denotes what is fit and right, þú átt ekki að göra það, you ought not; eg ætti ekki, I ought not: in old writers eiga is seldom strictly used in this sense, but denotes the legal rather than the moral right. β. eiga fé at e-m (mod. e. hjá e-m), to be one's creditor, Grág. i. 90, 405, Band. 1 C: metaph. to deserve from one, ok áttu annat at mér, Nj. 113; e. gjafir at e-m, 213; in a bad sense, kváðusk mikit e. at Þráni, they had much against Thrain, 138. γ. the law phrase, e. útkvæmt, fært, to have the right to return, of a temporary exile, Nj. 251: at hann skyli eigi e. fært út hingat, Grág. i. 119; ok á eigi þingreitt, is not allowed to go to the parliament, ii. 17; e. vígt, Grág., etc. III. denoting dealings or transactions between men (in a meeting, fight, trade, or the like), to keep, hold; þætti mér ráðliga at vér ættim einn fimtardóm, Nj. 150; e. orrustu við e-n, to fight a battle, Fms. i. 5, Eg. 7; e. högg við e-n, to exchange blows, 297; e. vápna-viðskipti, id., Fms. ii. 17; eiga handsöl at e-u, to shake hands, make a bargain, x. 248; e. ráð við e-n, to consult, hold a conference with, Nj. 127; e. tal við e-n, to speak, converse with one, 129; e. mál við e-n, id., Grág. i. 10; e. fund, to hold a meeting, Nj. 158; e. þing, samkvámu, stefnu, to hold a meeting, Eg. 271; þetta haust áttu menn rétt (a kind of meeting) fjölmenna, Eb. 106; e. kaupstefnu, to hold a market, exchange, 56; e. féránsdóm, Grág. i. 94; e. gott saman, to live well together, in peace and goodwill, Ld. 38; e. illt við e-n, to deal ill with, quarrel with, Nj. 98; e. búisifjar, q.v., of intercourse with neighbours, Njarð. 366; e. drykkju við e-n, to be one's 'cup-mate,' Eg. 253; e. við e-n, to deal with one; ekki á ek þetta við þik, this is no business between thee and me, Nj. 93; gott vilda ek við alla menn e., I would live in goodwill with all, 47; e. við e-n, to fight one; eigum vér ekki við þá elligar (in a hostile sense), else let us not provoke them, 42; eðr hvárt vili it Helgi e. við Lýting einn eðr bræðr hans báða, 154; brátt fundu þeir, at þeir áttu þar eigi við sinn maka, Ld. 64; Glúmr kvað hann ekki þurfa at e. við sik, G. said he had no need to meddle with him, Glúm. 338; e. um að vera, to be concerned; ekki er við menn um at e., Nj. 97; þar sem við vini mína er um at e., where my friends are concerned, 52; við færi er þá um at e., ef Kári er einn, there are fewer to deal with, to fight, if K. be alone, 254; við brögðótta áttu nú um, Fms. v. 263; ætla ek at oss mun léttara falla at e. um við Svein einn, iv. 80; Sveinn svarar, at þeir áttu við ofrefli um at e., that they had to deal with odds, 165. β. almost as an auxiliary verb; e. skilt (skilit), to have stipulated; hafa gripina svá sem hann átti skill, Fms. vi. 160; þat átta ek skilit við þik, ii. 93; sem Hrani átti skilt, iv. 31; e. mælt, of oral agreement; sem vit áttum mælt með okkr, xi. 40; þá vil ek þat mælt e., 124: in mod. usage e. skilit means to deserve, eg á ekki þetta skilit af hér, etc. γ. sometimes used much like geta; við því átti Búi eigi gert, B. could not guard against that, Fms. i. 117, cp. xi. 109 :-- also, e. bágt, to be in a strait, poor, sickly; e. heimilt, to have at one's disposal, Eb. 254. IV. to have to do; skal Þorleifr eigi (not) e. at því at spotta, Eb. 224; e. hendr sínar at verja, to have to defend one's own hands, to act in self-defence, Nj. 47; e. e-m varlaunað, to stand in debt to one, 181; e. um vandræði at halda, to be in a strait, Eb. 108; e. erindi, to have an errand to run, 250; en er þeir