This is page 188 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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188 GALLOPNIR -- GANGA.

Hom. (St.) 64, 72: gallaðr, part. vicious, guileful. II. a nickname, Bs. i. Laur. S.

gall-opnir, m., poët. a cock, Lex. Poët.

gall-sótt, f., medic. atra bilis.

gall-súrr, adj. sour or hot as gall.

GALM, f. or galmr, m., only in local names, Galmar-strönd, [cp. A. S. gealm = din], prob. called so from the roaring of the surf.

galpín, mod. galapín, n. [for. word; Scot. galopin = lackey], a merry fellow; þú ert mesta galapín! -- a nickname, Sturl. iii. 209 C.

galsi, a, m. wild joy; galsa-ligr, adj. frolicsome.

galti, a, m. (vide göltr), a boar, bog, Fms. iv. 58, Fas. i. 88, Gullþ. 15, Fs. 71, 141; Galt-nes, n. 'Hog's-ness,' a local name; Galt-nesingr, m. a man from G., Sturl.

gal-tómr, adj. quite empty, of a tub.

Gal-verskr, adj. from Galilee, Mar.

gamal-dags, as adv. old-fashioned, (mod.)

gamal-karl, m. an old man, Fms. ii. 182.

GAMALL, contr. forms, gamlan, gamla, gamlir, gamlar, gömlum, etc., fem. sing. and neut. pl. gömul; neut. sing, gamalt; the compar. and superl. from a different root, viz. compar. ellri, superl. ellztr, mod. eldri eldstr or elztr: [not recorded in Ulf., who renders GREEK by alþeis; but in A. S. gamol and gomel occur, although rarely even in Beowulf; in mod. Engl. and Germ. it is lost, but is in full use in all Scandin. dialects; Swed. gammal; Dan. gammel; Norse gamal, fem. gomol, Ivar Aasen]: I. old, Lat. senex; in the sayings, þeygi á saman gamalt og ungt, Úlf. 3. 44; opt er gott þat er gamlir kveða, Hm. 134, Fb. i. 212; íllt að kenna gömlum hundi að sitja; gamlir eru elztir, old are the eldest, i.e. the most cunning, clever; tvisvar verðr gamall maðr barn; engi verðr eldri en gamall; en þótt konungr þessi sé góðr maðr ... þá mun hann þó eigi verða ellri en gamall, Fms. iv. 282; faðir minn var gamall, Nj. 31; g. spámaðr, an old spae-man, 656 B. 12; hence gamals-aldr, m. old age, Ld. 4, Fms. ii. 71: compds, af-garnall, fjör-g., eld-g., q.v.; cp. also ör-gemlir = Germ. uralt, a giant in Edda. 2. grown up, old, of animals; arðr-uxi gamall, Grág. i. 502; gamlir sauðir, old rams; gjalda grís fyrir gamalt svín, Ó. H. 86; fyrr á gömlum uxanum at bæsa en kálfinum, a pun, Fms. vi. 28. 3. old, of things, freq. in mod. usage, but the ancients use gamall of persons or living things, and distinguish between gamall and forn (q.v.); a man is 'gamall,' but he wears 'forn' klæði (old clothes), thus in the verse Fms. xi. 43 gamall prob. refers to Gorm and not to land; Merl. 1. 61 is corrupt; vide gjallr (below); gamall siðr, Anal. 187, does not appear in Fb. iii. 401 (the original of the mod. text in Anal.) II. old, aged, of a certain age; nokkurra vetra gamall, some years old, Fms. xi. 78; fjögurra vetra gömul, Þiðr. 221; hve gamall maðr ertu, how old art thou? Ísl. ii. 220; tólf vetra gamall, 204; fimm, sex, vetra gamall, Grág. i. 502; vetr-gamall, a winter old; árs-gamall, a year old; misseris-gamall, half a year old; nætr-g., a night old, etc. III. in pr. names, hinn Gamli is added as a soubriquet, like 'major' in Lat., to distinguish an older man from a younger man of the same name; hinn gamli and hinn ungi also often answer to the Engl. 'father and son;' thus, Hákon Gamli and Hákon Ungi, old and young H., Fms.; also, Jörundr Gamli, Ketilbjörn Gamli, Örlygr Gamli, Bragi Gamli, Ingimundr hinn Gamli, etc., vide Landn.; Ari hinn Gamli, Bs. i. 26, to distinguish him from his grandson Ari Sterki; cp. the Lat. Cato Major: in some of the instances above it only means the old = Lat. priscus.

B. The compar. is ellri and superl. ellztr; eigi ellra en einnar nætr, 1812. 57; fjórtan vetra gamall eðr ellri, K. Á. 190; enir ellri synir Brjáns, Nj. 269; inn ellzti, 38; ellztr bræðranna, Grág. i. 307; hann var ellztr, Eg. 27, Fms. i. 20,

gamal-ligr, adj. elderly, Fms. ii. 59.

gamal-menni, n. an aged person, Eg. 89, Orkn. 78, Rd. 302.

gamal-órar, f. pl. dotage from age, Eb. 318.

gamal-ærr, adj. in dotage, Nj. 194, Eb. 322, Grett. 116, Fas. ii. 93.

GAMAN, n., dat. gamni, (gafni, Fas. i. 176, Fms. x. 328, Bær. 9); [A. S. gomen, gamen; Engl. game; O. H. G. gaman; mid. H. G. gamen; Dan. gammen] :-- game, sport, pleasure, amusement; in the sayings, lítið er ungs manns gaman; maðr er manns gaman, Hm. 46; and in the phrases, göra e-t að gamni sínu, or, sér til gamans, to do a thing for amusement; mart er sér til gamans gert, Tíma R.; jötni at gamni, Þkv. 23; var þá mest g. Egils at ræða við hana, Eg. 764; þykja g. at e-u, to make game of; þá mun Rútr hlæja ok þykja g. at, Rut will then laugh and be amused by it, Nj. 33: gaman þykir kerlingunni at móður várri, 68; henda g. at e-u, to make game of, Bs. i. 790, Þiðr. 226, Grett. 142 new Ed., Fms. xi. 109. β. in proverbial sayings; kalt er kattar gamanið, cold is the cat's play, i.e. she scratches; þá ferr að grána gamanið, the game begins to be rather rude; or, það fer að fara af gamanið, the game fares to be serious :-- love, pleasure, poët., in the allit. phrase, hafa geð ok gaman konu, Hbl. 18, Hm. 98, 162; gamni mær undi, Hbl. 30; unna e-m gamans, Skm. 39, Fsm. 43, 51: coitus, er hann hafði-t gýgjar g., Vþm. 32.

gaman-ferð, f. a pleasure-trip, Fas. ii. 77.

gaman-fundr, m. a merry-making, Nj. 113.

gaman-leikr, m, a game, Grett. 107, Mag. 30.

gaman-mál, n. merry folk, joking, Fms. xi. 151, Ld. 306, Karl. 532.

gaman-rúnar, f. pl. merry talk, Hm. 122, 132.

gaman-ræða, u, f. merry talk, Sks. 165, Fs. 72.

gaman-samligr, adj. amusing, Sks. 118, 621, Fas. i. 332, ii. 459.

gaman-samr, adj. gamesome, merry, Fms. ix. 249, Sks. 634.

gaman-vísa, u, f. a comic ditty, Hkr. iii. 71.

gaman-yrði, n. playful words, fun, Sks. 433.

gaman-þing, n. a meeting of lovers, Lex. Poët.

gamban-, a dubious word, perh. costly; in A. S. poetry gamban occurs twice or thrice in an allit. phrase, gamban gyldan = to pay a fee (Grein): gamban-reiði, f. splendid gear (?), Skm. 33; gamban-sumbl, n. a sumptuous banquet, Ls. 8; gamban-teinn, m. a staff, Skm. 32. These poems seem to be by one hand, and the word occurs nowhere else in the northern languages.

gambr, m. = gammr, Barl. 39, Þiðr. 92, D. N. ii. 255, iv. 457: gambrs-kló, f. a griffin's claw, used as a pedestal for a drinking-horn, D. N.

gambr, n. wanton talk, boasting.

gambra, að, to brag, bluster, Glúm. 332, Al. 138, 655 xiii. A. B, Grett. 134 A, Fms. xi. 147 :-- to prate, Stj. 401. Judges ix. 38; við höfum tíðum gambrað Geir, um götu kræktir saman, Sig. Pét. Ný Fél. vii. 194.

gambrari, a, m. a bragger, blusterer.

gambr-mosi, a, m. a kind of moss, Hjalt.

gamlaðr, part. very aged, Hkr. i. 148, Fas. i. 372, Ver. 15, Ld. 250.

gamli, a, m., poët, an eagle, Edda (Gl.): a pr. name, Landn.

gammi, a, m. (a Fin. word), the dwelling of a Finn, Fms. i. 8, x. 379, Fas. ii. 174: of a dwarf's abode, Þiðr. 21; dwarfs were often confounded with Finns.

gammi, a, m. the gamut in music, Skálda.

GAMMR, m. a vulture, Fms. iii. 207, Nj. 123, Fas. ii. 151, 231, iii. 210, 366, 612, Karl. 527, 544.

gamna, að, with dat. to amuse, divert, Fms. viii. 4.

GAN, n. frenzy, frantic gestures; fara með hlátri ok gani, Nj. 220; hon hljóp með ópi miklu ok gani, Fas. iii. 177.

gana, ð, mod. að, to rush, run frantically; hann spurði hví hann gandi svá, Sturl. ii. 177; ganaði hann langt undan hernum, Fas. iii. 422; ganir at honum ok höggr, Jómsv. 49; þótt þú ganir galinn, Skáld H. 2. 57: of wildfire, Skálda 202 (in a verse); in Fbr. 162 (in a verse) it has the notion to glare in one's face; akin is góna (q.v.), to stare.

GANDR, m. :-- the exact sense of this word is somewhat dubious; it is mostly used in poetry and in compds, and denotes anything enchanted or an object used by sorcerers, almost like zauber in Germ., and hence a monster, fiend; thus the Leviathan of northern mythology is called Jörmun-gandr, the great 'gand;' or Storðar-gandr, the 'gand' of the earth: a snake or serpent is by Kormak called gandr or gandir, Korm. ch. 8: wildfire is hallar g., a worrier of halls, and selju g., a willow-worrier, Lex. Poët.: the wolf Fenrir is called Vonar-gandr, the monster of the river Von, vide Edda. COMPDS: Gand-álfr, in. a pr. name, a wizard, bewitched demon. gand-fluga, u, f. = galdrafluga, a 'gand' fly, gad-fly, a kind of tipula, Eggert Itin. 604. gand-rekr, m. a gale brought about by witchcraft, Bs. i. 647 (in a verse), Edda (Gl.) Gand-vík, f. 'Gand' bay, i.e. Magic bay, the old name of the White Sea, for the Lapps were famous sorcerers. gand-reið, f. the 'witches' ride;' in nursery tales a witch is said to ride on a broomstick, Germ. besenstiel; in old lore they were said to ride by night on wolves, which are hence in poetry called 'the steeds of witches;' fá þú mér út krókstaf minn ok bandvetlinga því at ek vil á gandreið fara, Fms. iii. 176; ekki skorti gandreiðir í eynni um nóttina, Fas. ii. 131; hann kvað hann séð hafa gandreið, ok er þat jafnan fyrir stórtíðindum, Nj. 195; cp. also on this subject Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 440 sqq.; renna göndum, to slide on 'gands,' ride a witch-ride; víða hefi ek göndum rennt í nótt, of a witch in Fbr. 124; víta ganda, to bewitch 'gands,' i.e. to deal in sorcery, Vsp. 25, cp. the passage in Þiðr. S., fór Ostracia út ok rœrði gand sinn, then O. (a witch) went out (cp. útiseta) and reared her 'gands,' i.e. raised ghosts, or gener. exercised her black art, -- the MSS. have here even neut. gannd (gönd) sín. The compd spá-gandar in Vsp. seems to mean 'spae-ghosts' or spirits of divination.

UNCERTAIN Some commentators render gandr bv wolf, others by broom; but the sense no doubt lies deeper. Gunnar Pálsson (died 1793) says that gandr is used in Icel. of the helm of a ship; but no such word is known, at least in the west of Icel.

GANGA, pret. gekk or gékk, 2nd pers. gékkt, mod. gékst; pl. gengu, geingu, or géngu, and an old poët. gingu; gengengu in Vsp. 12 is a mere misspelling (vide Sæm. Möb. 258); pres. geng, pl. göngum; pret. subj. gengi (geingi); imperat. gakk and gakktú; with the neg. suffix geng-at, gengr-at, gékk-at, gakk-attu, passim; a middle form göngumk firr, go from me, Gm. 1: a contracted form gá occurs now and then in mod. hymns; it is not vernacular but borrowed from Germ. and Dan.: [cp. Ulf. gaggan; A. S. and Hel. gangan; Scot. and North. E. gang, mod. Engl. go; Dan.-Swed. gange or gå; Germ. gehen; Ivar Aasen ganga: Icel., Scots, and Norsemen have preserved the old ng, which in Germ. and Swed.-Dan. only remains in poetry or in a special sense, e.g. in Germ. compds.]