This is page 324 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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324 JARLAKAPPI -- JÁNKA.

in mid. Lat. and graf in Germ. In Scandinavia both name and office became extinct about the 13th century: in Iceland, being a commonwealth, it never took root; see however Gizur jarl (died A.D. 1268) in the Sturlunga. -- For references see the Sagas passim, esp. Har. S. Harf. ch. 6. IV. in eccl. translation the Roman procurator provinciae is often rendered by jarl, e.g. Pílatus jarl, earl Pilate, Ver. 67, Pass. 20. 2. COMPDS: jarla-kappi, a, m. champion of earls (of Orkney), a nickname, Landn. jarla-skáld, n. poet of earls, a nickname of the poet Arnor for his poems on the earls of Orkney. Jarla-sögur, f. pl. Earls' Sagas (earls of Orkney), the old name of the present Orkneyinga Saga, Fb. ii. 347, Ó. H. 100. jarls-efni, n. a young earl, earl's heir, N. G. L. jarls-maðr, m. an earl's man, follower, Nj. 127. jarls-níð, n. earl's libel, name of a poem, Fb. i. jarls-ríki, n. an earldom, Hkr. i. 101, Fms. xi. 179. jarls-sæti, n. an earl's seat, Hkr. i. 81.

jarl-borinn, part. earl-born, Fs. 125.

jarl-dómr or jarls-dómr, m. an earldom, Landn. 260, Fms. i. 6, vii. 315, Hkr. i. 263.

jarl-dæmi, n. = jarldómr, Fms.

jarl-maðr, m. an earl. 2. freq. as a pr. name on Swed. Runic stones, Baut. passim. II. an earl's man, Lex. Poët.

jarma, að, to bleat, of sheep and goats, Grett. 137 A, Greg. 50 passim.

JARMR, m. [prob. identical with A. S. geomor; Hel. jamar; North. E. yammer; O. H. G. jamar; Germ. jammer, which words are else alien to the Scandin.] :-- a bleating, Gullþ. 19; sauða-jarmr, the bleating of sheep, Hrafn. 7; fugls-jarmr, the 'bleating,' crying of birds, as the giantess calls the birds' song, poët., Edda (in a verse), passim.

jarpi, a, m. a kind of bird, tetrao bonasia (?), Norse jerpe, Edda (Gl.)

JARPR, adj., fem. jörp, brown, of the hair; jarpr á hár, jarpt hár, Fms. vii. 112, 238, x. 397, Nj. 39; jarpa skör, Hðm. 21; skarar jarpar, Gkv. 2. 19: as epithet of a lady, Fms. vii. 62 (in a verse); hvít-j., id.: of horses, jarpr hestr, Flov. 33; in mod. usage, of horses only, Jarpr of a stallion, Jörp of a mare.

jarp-skamr, Hðm. (doubtful.)

jarp-skjóttr, adj. skew-ball, i.e. bay piebald, Sturl. ii. 177.

jartegn or jartein, later form jarteikn or even jarðteikn, but not so in good MSS.; in Thom. S. even spelt hjartegn; jargtegn (badly), Fms. xi. 38: that the syllable tein was sounded guttural is also shewn by the rhyme, slíks eru jarteignir, Eb. (in a verse); and fregnar jartegnir, Leiðarv. 6; but also hrein ... jarteinir, 36: in the Rekst. the former syllable jart is rhymed on bjart: [Hel. word-têkan, O. H. G. and mid. H. G. wort-zeichen shew the true etymology to be word-token, whence, by a false etymology, arose the mid. H. G. and mod. Germ. war-zeichen; in the Scandin. the w was changed into j, Dan. jertegn, Grimm's Gramm. ii. 481, note; the word is however scarcely genuine Scandinavian, although it occurs in poems of the former part of the 11th century, e.g. the Rekst., as also in Eb. in the Hrafnsmál; but it is freq. used in the Sagas]: I. a token, a ring, knife, belt, sword, or the like; properly, 'a word's token,' which a messenger had to produce in proof that his word was true; orð ok jartegnir, orðsending ok jartegnir, Fms. i. 21. Eg. 36. 167, 467, 477; erendi ok j., 472; bréf ok j., Fms. vii. 47, (see bréf); með skilríkum vitnum ok jartegnum, Gþl. 60; senda menn með jartegnum, Eg. 67; fá e-m jartegnir sínar, bera fram jartegnir e-s, 96; bera upp örendi sín ok sýna jartegnir, Ó. H. 53; fingrgull þetta fær þú Rögnvaldi jarli, þær jartegnir mun hann kenna, id.; bar hann fram orðsendingar konungs ok sýndi þat með jartegnum, Eg. 38; þeim er taka vilja við vináttu minni ok jartegnum, Ó. H. 75; vera til jartegna, to be a token or proof of a thing, Eg. 49, 768; hafa e-t til jartegna, use as a token, proof, Sks. 725 B, Fms. viii. 197, Gísl. 97; nú tak hér gullit ok haf til jartegna, Fs. 8; nú er hér gull er þú skalt bera til jarteigna, at ek sendi þik, 7; fluttu sendimenn hér með konungi berar jarteignir af jarli at þeir fóru með sönnum hans eyrendum, Hkr. i. 327; sannar jartegnir, til sannra jartegna at þú segir satt, þá fær þú honum, Fms. iii. 61, Eg. 28, 476; þat eru miklar jartegnir, hve hlyðnir ..., it is a great token, how ..., Íb. 16; þat vóru jarteinir, at herr var í landi, it served as a token, that ..., Fms. i. 167. II. in sing, as well as plur. a miracle, esp. as a token or proof of the holiness of a saint, Nj. 162, Clem. 47, 59, Fms. vii. 351, xi. 38, Rb. 374, 418, Hkr. ii. 393; þat mun þér þykkja jartein -- Þat kalla ek atburð, segir hann, en eigi jartein, Sturl ii. 54; báru jarteinir vitni heilagleik hans, Greg. 57; Guðs jarteinir, Fms. i. 133. 2. a mystery; vita jartegnir ríkis Guðs, Hom. 67 (Mark iv. 11): in mod. usage, N. T., Pass., Vídal., krapta-verk, and not jarteikn. III. gramm. token, value, of a letter; hafa eitt hljóð ok jartein, Skálda 166 (Thorodd); þeirra stafa má þarnask ef vill í váru máli, þvíat engi er einka jartein þeirra, 167; líkneski, nafn ok j., id. COMPDS: jarteina-bók, f. a miracle-book, Bs., Orkn. 174, v.l. jarteina-görð, f. the working of miracles, Stj., Hkr. ii. 328, Fms. xi. 207, Orkn. 174. jarteina-kraptr, m. the power of working miracles, Greg. 54. jarteina-maðr, m. a worker of miracles, Greg. 55. jarteinar-samliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), wonderfully, Stj.

jarteina, d, earteina, Skálda 166; jartegna, jargtengna, Bret. 59, Cod. B. (badly); mod. jarteikna :-- to betoken; mun sá siðr j. þau en fögru epli, Fms. xi. 12; jarteindu þat þau in miklu slátrin, er Barði lét þangat færa, Ísl. ii. 342; þat jartegndi blóma ríkis hans, Hkr. i. 123; Davíð konungr jartegnir Krist, Rb. 390: gramm. to represent, of a letter, hann (the character) læt ek jarteina jafnt sem hina tvá,, Skálda 166; sá stafr jarteinir tuttugu, id.; ok skolu tvá stafi earteina, id.

JASTR or jast, n. [Engl. yeast; mid. H. G. jest and gest; Germ. gischt; Ivar Aasen jest and jestr; akin to ostr (q.v.) = a cheese] :-- yeast, leaven; jastri, dat., Nikd.: jast-ostr, m. a kind of cheese, Fms. vi. (in a verse): jast-rín, f., poët. the 'yeasting-stream' = poetry, song, Kormak: in mod. usage jastr means the skin on curdled milk, whence jastr-súr, adj. curdled, acid, of milk, Lex. Poët.; hence the mod. hjastr, n. a frothy, light work; það er mesta hjastr.

jata, u, f. a manger (mod. = eta, q.v.), Gísl. 131, Luke ii. 7, 12, 17, passim in mod. usage. jötu-band, n. a manger rail.

JAUR, adv., also spelt júr, Skálda 163 (Thorodd), Art. 126: in mod. usage proncd. double, jur-jór or jir-jór (sounded yer-yor), which word was at the end of the last century still used in the north of Iceland (Thingeyjar-sýsla): [it is a compd particle, from = yea and r, which may be a pers. pron., analogous to the early Gmn. jâ ich! jâ dû! jâ sî! jâ ir! Grimm's Gramm. iii. 765; other Teutonic languages have preserved this particle, although in a somewhat different sense, mid. H. G. jâra or jâr-ia, jâra-ja] :-- yea, yes! with emphasis, yea, in sooth, yes indeed, yes certainly, as a reply to an expression of doubt or denial. Of this interesting particle only six instances are found in old writers: -- three in O. H. L., biskup leit útar í kirkjuna ok sá hvar Ólafr stóð ok mælti, nú er konungr út kominn, þeir sögðu at hann var eigi út kominn. -- Answer, Jaur, sagði biskup, sá er sannr konungr, er nú er út kominn, 10; hvat er nú um félag þat er konungrinn á með yðr? þeir drápu niðr höfði ok kváðusk ekki haus félag hafa. -- Jaur, sagði hann, þér sögðusk víst vera hans félagar, 45; Maðr svarar, hvá mælir þú þat ? -- Jaur, segir hann, þat var mér þá í hug, etc., 69; one in Thorn, (the Norse Recension), ekki var ek þar nærri, ok því sá ek enga þessa hluti, ekki heyrða ek ok þat er þú segir í frá. -- Jaur, segir hann, Guð þat veit, at ek em uruggr um þat at ek sá þik þar, 246; one in Valv. S. 126 (spelt júr); and lastly, one in Thorodd, austr, eárn, eir, júr, eyrir, vín, Skálda 163. Gudmund Andreae mentions this particle as in use in his time, and as sounded jör-jur, e.g. er ekki dagr? -- answer, jör-jur! viltú ekki þetta? -- answer, jör-jur! but his derivation from Lat. jure is erroneous.

JAXL, m. [Shetl. yackle], a jaw-tooth, grinder, Lat. dens molaris, Am. 79, Eb. 60, Nj. 144, 203, Fas. i. 331, Stj. 414, N. G. L. i. 80; tennr ok jaxlar, Edda 5, Háv. 43, 49; jaxla verkr, tooth-ache, Bs. i. 195.

jaxl-bróðir, m. = jaxl, Eg. (in a verse).

jaxl-garðr, m. the jaw-bone, Fas. i. 331.

JÁ, adv. [Ulf. jâi and jâ; O. H. G., Germ., Dutch, Swed., and Dan. jâ; Old Engl. and North. E. aye; A. S. gea; Old Engl. yea: the Saxons and Germans however prefer a compd; thus the A. S. ge-se, from gea = yea, and the subj. se ( = Lat. sit), whence Engl. yes (qs. ye-s = yea be it); the Germans say ja wohl! ja freilich! in preference to ja singly; as also Dan. ja-vist; analogous is the A. S. ne-se = no (Grimm's Gramm. iii. 764); as also jaur above] :-- yea, yes; já, sagði Kári, Nj. 263, passim: even, höfðingja, minni menn, já, hverja herkerlingu, Sturl. i. 36: as subst., já sem já er, nei sem nei er, K. Á. 200: fá já e-s, to get a person's 'yes,' his assent, N. G. L. i. 33; með jám (dat. pl.) ok handsölum, D. N. ii. 101. II. as interj., aye! yes! já, segir hann (hón), Ísl. ii. 144, 348, 353, Band. passim, esp. in Cod. Reg.: doubled, aye, aye! yes, yes! já, já! segir Hermundr, Band. 33 new Ed., Trist. 12; já, já? vel, vel! Bs. i. 421; já, já! sagði hann, kaupmaðr víst, O. H. L. 16.

já, ð, part. jáð, to say yes, assent, consent, Lat. aio, with dat.; eptir sem honum þótti biskup sér jáð hafa, Fms. ix. 378; frekara en þeir jáðu, 52; hann jáði því, Finnb. 224; ok hann jár (pres.) honum at halda, Bs. i. 281; þann kost er mér var jáð, Fms. vi. 160; gengu allir bændr undir Þorgils, ok jáðu honum (confessed him) til yfirmanns, Sturl. iii. 270: with prep., já e-u undan sér, to yield up, Bs. i. 281; já e-u upp, to yield up, Fms. vi. 194; alla þá hluti sem nú eru upp jáðir, H. E. i. 398.

já-eiðr, m. = jáorð, H. E. i. 465.

já-kvæða, ð, to say yes, with dat., Sks. 772, Fms. vii. 280.

já-kvæði, n. assent, consent, Orkn. 50, Fms. iv. 87, Anecd. 74.

já-kvæðr, adj. assenting, consenting, 623. 24.

jálfaðr, m. a name of Odin, from jálmr.

JÁLKR, m. [Norse jelk: Dan. vallak], a gelding; ef graðr hestr bítr jálk, Gþl. 392: in mod. usage a hackney, freq. II. a pr. name of Odin, Gm., Lex. Poët.

jálma, að, to clatter, Lat. stridere, Fb. i. 405 (in a verse).

JÁLMR, m. a noise, bustle, poët., Landn. 162 (in a verse); j. málma, a clash of weapons, Fms. v. (in a verse); geira j., the clash or ring of spears, Orkn. 76 (in a verse).

jánka, að, to say yes; hann jánkaði því, (convers.)