This is page 462 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)
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O - Ó
O, the fourteenth letter, is in the oldest Runes, on the stone in Tune, and on the Golden horn figured by RUNE, which was evidently taken from the Greek Ω the later common Runic alphabet in earlier monuments has no ó, but uses u or au instead, e.g. on the Jellinge stone in Denmark. Afterwards the Rune RUNE, RUNE, or RUNE, RUNE, appears under the name of óss in the Runic poems -- óss er flestra ferða (= fjarða) = all firths have an óss (mouth). The form was evidently taken from the A.S. Runic RUNE, which stands for a, and in A.S. is called ós, which answers, not to Norse óss (ostium), but to áss (= ans, i.e. the heathen gods); but the Norsemen or Danes in borrowing the Rune seem to have misinterpreted its name or mistranslated it from ignorance of the phonetic laws existing between the A.S. and the Norse. The RUNE in Scandinavian Runic inscriptions is therefore a mark of later date (11th or 12th century).
B. PRONUNCIATION. -- The o is either short (o) or long (ó); the former (o) is sounded like Engl. o in cod, the latter (ó) as in Engl. no, note; but the rules given at the beginning of the introduction to letter A (p. l) apply equally to this letter, b&o-long;ð being sounded bawth, but kr&o-short;ss in North. E. cross.
C. CHANGES. -- In most of the oldest vellums o instead of u is used throughout in inflexions, -o, -or, -om, -on, -oð, -ot, -osk, -oll, -onn, instead of -u, -ur, -um ... -unn (Gramm. p. xxxv, col. 1, A); afterwards both forms are used indiscriminately, till in the 15th century the u prevailed, and has kept its place ever since; whether there was a difference in sound, and what, we are unable to state. 2. so also in a few root words, goð, goll, fogl, oxi, skolu, monu, hogr, togr, monr (Dan. mon), smogoll, = guð, gull, fugl, uxi, skulu, munu, hugr, tugr, munr, smugull; on the other hand, is sonr (a son), but sunr the older form. 3. a and o or u interchange in the inflexions, fagnaðr, fognoðr, fögnuðr; kallan, kollon, köllun. 4. ú has changed into ó in the prefixed negative, ó-vitr for ú-vitr (unwise). 5. jú into jó, njóta, originally njúta; ljós, Swed. ljús: forms like mjókr for mjúkr, dókr for dúkr may also be found in vellums, but are very rare. II. &aolig-acute;, the vowel-change of á (see p. 1), is frequently spelt o (tor, nott, = t&aolig-acute;r, n&aolig-acute;tt), but was in sound different from ó proper, and has since disappeared from the language, although remains of this 'umlaut' still exist in nótt, ól, spónn (= n&aolig-acute;tt, &aolig-acute;l, sp&aolig-acute;nn), but this o is sounded exactly like common o. So also o and ö are confounded in MSS., bornom = börnom =börnum. For the absorption of consonants see Gramm. p. xxx, col. 1, and the words themselves.
&FINGER; Owing to the inability of the Scandinavian languages to sound v (w) before a vowel of the u class, several root words, which in dictionaries of the cognate languages (Germ., Engl.) begin with w, are in the Icelandic to be found under o, as okr, orð, orka, ormr, Óðinn, óðr, ósk, ómr; as also j, in ok (jugum), ostr, and ok the conjunction.
obláta or oblát, f. [Lat. word], a sacramental wafer, oblát, acc., 625. 192; oblátu buðkr, Vm. 6.
odd-hagr, adj. skilled in wood-carving, Bs. i. 143, Fas. i. 292.
odd-hending, f. a metrical term, when the first rhyming syllable stands at the head of a verse; thus in haf-löður skeflir the syllable 'haf' is an oddhending, Edda (Ht.) 121: in mod. usage, in Ballads (Rímur), it means two rhyming syllables in the first, and one in the second line, three being an odd number of rhyme syllables -- thus, sveipaðr mundd | á silki hrund | sat eg undir kvendi is an oddhending.
odd-hendr, adj. written in the metre oddhending, Edda 139.
odd-hvass, adj. sharp-pointed, Bs. ii. 172.
oddi, a, m. a triangle, a point or tongue of land, Landn. 294, v.l.; vaxinn með þremr oddum, Fms. x. 272. II. metaph. from the triangle, an odd number, opp. to even; ein er bæn, eða þrjár, fimm, eða sjau, því er bæna tal í odda, en eigi í jafna tölu, at sú tala er í odda er, merkir eining, ok má eigi deila í tvá hluti jafna, 625. 187: hence the metaph. phrase, standask í odda, to be at odds (Shakesp.), quarrelling; stóðsk allt í odda með þeim Þormóði ok Gesti, Fb. ii. 204 (skarsk í odda, Fbr. 81 new Ed. less correct); hefir nú ok í odda staðizk með oss um hríð, Ísl. ii. 180. III. freq. in local names, of a tongue of land; Oddi, Odda-staðr, whence Odda-verjar, m. pl. the men from Oddi :-- as a pr. name, Oddi, Stjörnu-Oddi = star-Oddi, Oddi the astronomer, an Icelander of the 12th century skilled in astronomy, from whom proceeded the computation called Odda-tal, n. the calculus of Oddi, Rb. 6. COMPDS: odda-maðr, m. [Dan. op-mand, qs. 'odd-mand'] :-- the third man, who gives the casting vote, the odd man (third, fifth ...): as in the saying, oddamaðr er opt inn þriði, | jafntrúr skal sá beggja liði, Mkv.; hvart sem tveir megu eða fleiri göra sátt, enda verða þeir eigi ásáttir, þá er rétt at þeir taki sér oddamann, Grág. i. 485; þeir skyldi sjálfir semja sættir sínar, en Rafn vera oddamaðr, ef þá skildi á Sturl. iii. 179. odda-tala, u, f. an odd number.
ODDR, m. [A.S. ord; Germ. ort = 'point' of land, spot, place, but in early Germ. = Lat. cuspis; Dan.-Swed. od, odd] :-- a point of a weapon Am. 59, Karl. 506, K.Þ.K. 96, and in countless instances, knífs-oddr, nálar-o., als-o., spjóts-o. (but blóðrefill of a sword): the allit. phrase, oddr ok egg, Hom. 33; með oddi ok eggju, with point and edge, at the sword's point, by force, Nj. 149, Grág. ii. 13; ætla ek at sækja oddi ok eggju frændleifð mína, Ó.H. 32; brjóta odd af oflæti sínu, to break the point of one's pride, to humble oneself, Nj. 94: poët, a point, spear, fölvar oddar, Hkv. 1. 52; seðja ara oddum, 2. 7; oddar görva jarli megin, see jarl. 2. a spur, which in olden times had a single point, see Worsaae, No. 356. II. metaph. the front; hann hafði yxnum skipat í odd á liði sínu, Fms. x. 404. 2. a leader; hann var oddr ok æsir fyrir þessum úfriði, Fms. viii. 57, v.l. III. a pr. name, Oddr as well as Oddi: in compds, of men, Odd-björn, Odd-geirr, Odd-leifr, Odd-marr; of women, Odd-björg, Odd-fríðr, Odd-katla, Odd-laug, Odd-leif, Odd-ný, and in the latter part Þór-oddr, Arn-oddr, Landn.
odd-viti, a, m. a leader, chief, who marches ahead, Hkv. Hjörv. 10, Hkv. 2. 10, Ó.H. 61, 214, Niðrst. 108.
OF, prep. with dat. and acc., the form varies; umb is an obsolete and rare form, hence um, sounded umm, which is far the most common form in old writers, and has altogether superseded both umb and of: [the 'of' answers nearest to Ulf. uf; O.H.G. oba; Germ. ob; Gr. GREEK; Lat. sub; Sansk. upa.] Most of the oldest vellums, as also the poets, prefer to use 'of,' yet not all, for the Cod. Reg. of Sæm. Edda in nine cases out of ten writes um, so also did the Cod. Acad. primus (the Kringla) of the Hkr.; and this is important, for these two vellums are our chief sources for old poetry; on the other hand, the Cod. Reg. of the Snorra Edda prefers 'of.' Among other vellums the old fragment of the Orkn. S. (Arna-Magn. No. 325) mostly uses 'of' as of nóttina, Orkn. 110; of hans daga, 178; of Jól, 180; of daga þeirra bræðra, 182; but also 'um' e.g. ofan um sik, ofan um hann, id. The word will be given in full under letter U, so that a few references may suffice here: I. in the sense over, Lat. super, with dat. and acc., α. jörð grær of ágætum barma, Eg. (in a verse); brann of fylki, Ýt.; of svírum, Hornklofi; dík flæði of líkum, Fms. xi. 191; sjár þýtr of árum, vi. (in a verse); of bý breiðum, Lex. Poët. β. with acc., of nýt regin, Vþm. 13; of dróttmögu, 11; of liðu, Sdm. 9; of sumar, Vsp. 40; of garð risa, Gs.; of lopt ok lög, Hkv.; úlfr gengr of ýnglings börn, Eg. (in a verse); vestr fór ek of ver, Höfuðl. 1; liggja of ungan Mörukára, Fms. vi. (in a verse). II. in a causal sense = Lat. ob; of sanna sök, for a just sake, justly, Fms. ii. 322 (in a verse); of minna, for a less cause, Glúm, (in a verse); of litla sök, Lex. Poët.; of sannar deildir, id.; of minni sorgir, Korm. (in a verse).
OF and um, an enclytic particle, chiefly placed before verbs or participles, seldom before nouns; it is obsolete, and occurs only in old poetry and now and then in the oldest prose; the spelling varies, for here too the Cod. Reg. of Sæm. Edda, as also the Kringla, mostly prefer um, so as to take examples from the poem Hm., um skoðask, um skygnask, 1; um getr, 8; um á (owns), 9; þylsk hann um, um getr, 17; um farit, 18; síns um máls, 21; um gelr, 29; um þörf, 38; um getr, 58, 65; um dvelr, 59; um viðrir, 74; um lagit, 84; um vakin, 100; um komin, um sofin, 101; um kominn, 104; um gaf, 105; um geta, 123; um heilli, 129; um reist, 145; um stendr, 154; um kann, 163: of gat, 140; of alinn, 72; of kom, 145; of vitaðr, 100; of blótið, 145: vf, vf boðit, 67; vf heimtir, 14: thus in this single poem 'um' occurs about twenty-four times, 'of' five times, and 'vf' twice: for the other poems see Bugge's Edition: on the other hand, of traddi, Gh. 2; of þrumir, Gm. 8; of hyggi, 34; at ek öllum öl yðr of heita, Hým. 3; of geta, 4; of teknir, 14; of heitt, 32 :-- in prose, ef maðr má eigi of koma, Grág. ii. 209; of förlar, Kb. 14; of telrat, 178; er héðan of sér, Ísl. (Heiðarv. S.) ii. 387; en ér of sét eigi ljós, but you see not the light, 645. 81; at eigi of sá á miðli, Íb. 11; má of rannsaka, 677. 6; þó at báðum of göri, 2; ok af því of eykr eigi atkvæði, Skálda (Thorodd) 165; sem menn of bera megu, Hom. (St.); at hann megi jafnfúss of vera, id., and passim in that old vellum, see Fritzner's Dict. s.v.; ef því um náir, Grág. (Kb.) 209; ef þeir um sitja, 74; um ves, 76; um taki, 89; um göra (twice), 109; um telrat, 194; urn býðr, 230; um komi, 234; ef sól um sæi, if the sun was to be seen, ch. 29. II. seldom before nouns; síns um máls, Hm. (see above); um þörf, 38; as hans of dólgr, Skv.; Baldrs of barmi, Haustl.; öll of rök, Alm. 9; of sköpt, kinsmen, Edda (Gl.), Lex. Poët.; of tregi, Gkv. 1. 3 (thus Bugge in two words); Þórs of rúni, Haustl.; of kúgi, an oppressor, Fms. vii. (in a verse); with adjectives, of reiðr, Skm.: it remains in some old sayings or phrases, án er íllt um gengi; um seinan, Nj. 91.
OF, adv. [this particle is closely akin to the prep. of; the extended form ofr- (q.v.) is mostly used in compds, not singly, and answers to Gr. GREEK, Lat. super, Engl. above]: 1. as subst. excess, pride, conceit; því at hón verðr eigi svá mikil, at þar muni of þitt allt í liggja,