This is page 479 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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PRESTVIST -- PRÓVENDA. 479

prest-vist, f. the maintenance of a priest, Fms. vii. 121, Ám. 38,

prest-vígsla, u, f. the ordination of a priest, Bs. ii. 158.

pretta, að, to cheat, deceive; ekki skal ek pretta yðr í þessu kaupi, Fms. vi. 110; ef þér prettið hann í öngu, Nj. 90; fær prettað mik Grettir, Grett. (in a verse, but spurious): pass. to be deceived, Gþl. 522.

prettóttr, adj. deceitful, tricky, Nj. 128, Stj. 78, Fb. i. 361.

prettr, m., pl. prettar, Barl. 197, but mod. prettir; acc. pl. prettu; [A.S. Dictionaries give a word præt, pl. prattas; but the age and the etymology of this word are uncertain] :-- a trick; var þetta ekki nema prettr þeirra, Fms. i. 59, Fs. 73; konungr mælti, þetta er p. yðvarr, Fms. vii. 32; hafa þeir sýnt eigi góðan prett, Ld. 704; sviksamliga prettu, Stj. 144, Al. 68, Barl. 24; Þórir svarir at hann hirði ekki um prettu þeirra Erlings, Ó.H. 115; þetta vóru þínir prettar, Barl. 197; etja e-n við prettu, Ísl. ii. 224 (in a verse of the beginning of the 10th century, if the verse be genuine). COMPDS: pretta-fullr, adj. tricky, Stj. 77. pretta-lauss, adj. guileless. Fas. i. 32, Fms. viii. 44.

prettugr, adj. = prettóttr, Gþl. (pref. xv).

prett-vísi, f. craftiness, Th. 2, Háv. 57, Barl. 152.

prett-víss, adj. tricky, wily, Fas. i. 77, Bær. 16, Barl. 24, 150.

prik, n. [Engl.], a prick or dot in writing, Dan. prik, Rb. 530. 2. a little staff, stick (staf-prik); hafa prik í hendinni, freq. in mod. usage. COMPDS: prika-rím, n. a computistic table with dots, called Talbyrðing, published in the Rb. 1780. prika-setning, f. punctuation, Rb. 530. prika-stafr, m. a calendar with points, Rb. 512, 530.

prika, að, to prick, stab slightly, Ann. 1394.

prim-signa, d and að, [Lat., an eccl. word], to give the 'prima signatio' or 'signaculum crucis' a religious act, preliminary to christening; persons thus signed with the cross were catechumens, and if adults they could join in the social life among Christians; they were also admitted to a special part of the mass (primsigndra messa = the mass for the 'prime-signed'), whereas all intercourse with heathens was forbidden. An infant who died, having received the prima signatio, but not baptism, was to be buried in the outskirts of the churchyard, where the consecrated and unconsecrated earth meet, and without burial service, -- ef barn andask primsignt, ok hefir eigi verit skírt (primsignt ok hefir eigi meiri skírn, Sb. l.c.) ok skal þat grafa við kirkju-garð út, þar er mætisk vígð mold ok úvígð, ok syngva eigi legsöng yfir, K.Þ.K. (Kb.) 7. A monster-shapen infant was to receive the prima signatio, but not baptism, and then to be left to die (exposed) at the church door -- þat barn (a monster-child) skal ok til kirkju bera, láta primsigna, leggja fyrir kirkju-dyr, gæti inn nánasti niðr til þess er önd er ór, N.G.L. i. 339; í þessi efan primsigni prestr ok skíri, iii. 251; hann primsignaði hann fyrst ok skírði hann síðan eptir siðvenju, Barl. 147. The words in the English Prayer Book -- 'and do sign him (her) with the sign of the cross' -- are remains of the 'signaculum crucis' of the ancient church. During the heathen age the Scandinavian merchants and warriors who served among Christians abroad in England or Germany used to take the prima signatio, for it enabled them to live both among Christians and heathens without receiving baptism and forsaking their old faith; ek em primsigndr at eins en eigi skírðr, I am 'prime-signed,' but not baptized, Fms. ii. 240, Valla L. 205, Kristni S. ch. 1, 2, Fb. i. 346, 357, ii. 137, 243; England var Kristið ok hafði lengi verit þá er þetta var tíðenda, Aðalsteinn konungr var vel Kristinn ... hann bað Þórólf ok þá bræðr at þeir skyldi láta primsignask, þvíat þat var þá mikill siðr, bæði með kaupmönnum ok þeim er á mála gengu með Kristnum mönnum, þvíat þeir menn, er primsigndir vóru, höfðu allt samneyti við Kristna menn ok svá heiðna, en höfðu þat at átrúnaði er þeim var skapfeldast, Eg. 265, Gísl. 96: see also Vita Anscarii, ch. 24. These 'prime-signed' men, returning to their native land, brought with them the first notions of Christianity into the heathen Northern countries, having lived among Christians, and seen their daily life and worship, and they undoubtedly paved the way for the final acceptance of the Christian faith among their countrymen. It may even be that some strange heathen rites of the last days of paganism, such as the bjannak (q.v.), the sprinkling of infants with water, were due to this cause.

prim-signan, f. the 'prima signatio,' Grág. i. 29, 310.

prim-signing, f. = primsignan, Nj. 158.

prinz, m. [Lat. princeps,(?) through the Germ.], a prince, Ann. 1254, 1266, and in mod. usage.

prím, n. [Lat.], the prime moon, i.e. the new moon, Rb. 506, 518, Stj. 16. 2. a part of the mass; óttu-söngr, prím, nón, tertia, aptan-söngr, ... prím, þat sem sungit var fyrir prédikan, Bs. ii. 247, 249.

prími, a, m., or príma, u, f. the 'prima hora' = 6 o'clock A.M., MS. 625. 175, 177, Fms. ix. 283 :-- the service at prime, H.E. i. 487. COMPDS: príma-mál, n. the prime hour, Fms. ix. 283, v.l. príma-stafr, m. a prime letter, Rb. 8. príma-tíð, f. = prímamál, 655 xi. 4.

príor, m. [Lat.], a prior, in a convent, Sks., Bs., Ann. passim.

prísa, að, [príss], to praise, Stj. 298, Mar., Fb. 1. 408, Vídal. passim.

prísaðr, part. [prísund], pressed, tortured; litt er hann enn prísaðr, Bs. i. 820; píndr ok prísaðr, Barl. 54, v.l.

príss, m. [Lat. pretium?], pomp, state; ríkuliga ok með prís miklum, Fms. xi. 315; fara með inum mesta prís, x. 36; reið konungr með þvílíkan prís í Miklagarð, vii. 95; sátu þar nm vetrinn með mikinn prís, Fas. ii. 523; og sigldu þá með prís miklum, Orkn. 376; með prís miklum ok farar-blóma, 370; prís ok prýði, Stj. 142. 2. mod. praise, honour, glory, passim. II. price, freq. in mod. usage; háir prísar, góðir prísar.

prísu-liga, adv. magnificently, Stj. 15, v.l.

prísund, f. [Fr.], a prison, Fms. vi. 167, xi. 284, Hkr. iii. 69, Bs. i. 822, Al. 18: metaph., Stj. 157.

prjál, n. [Germ. prahl], a gewgaw, show in dress or manners, Pass. 49. 16: prjála, að, occurs in the 17th century, then freq.

prjóna, að, to knit, passim in mod. usage: metaph. to rear up, of a horse; see ausa.

prjónn, m. [Gael, prine; Scot. prin], a prin or pin, esp. of knitting pins; whence prjón-les, n. knitted wares, Snót 161: prjóna-peisa, n. a knitted jerkin: prjóna-stokkr, n. a prin-case: týtu-prjónn, a needle-pin :-- prjónn as a nickname occurs in Sturl. iii. 209, so the word must then have been known.

processia, u, f. [Lat.] a procession, Fms. viii. 41, ix. 277, 498.

processionall, m. 'processionale,' Ám. 48.

próf, n. a proof, evidence; til prófs ok jartegna, Stj. 199; með prófi ok skilríki, H.E. i. 436: an ordeal, þá geng ek til þessa prófs með því skilríki, at ..., Fms. i. 305: an inquest, examination, öll þau landamerki skyldi undir því prófi standa sem herra biskup tæki Rafns vegna, Dipl. i. 6; þar til er próf kemr til, Gþl. 493. COMPDS: prófs-bréf, n. a writ of evidence, D.N. i. 192. prófa-fullr, adj. evidential, H.E. i. 436.

prófa and próva, að, [Engl. prove; Germ. prüfen; Lat. probare] :-- to try, put on trial, Al. 88, Stj. 145; þá skulum vit til prófa, Grett. 158 A; þeir vildu prófa hvárt ..., Fms. vi. 156; prófa má ek þetta, Ísl. ii. 12: to shew, give evidence, ok prófa slíkir af sjálfum sér at lítil mildi muni búa í annars brjósti, Al. 96. 2. to examine; prófa mál, Al. 7; p. ok dæma, Bs. i. 720; en ef þetta er prófat á þingi, Nj. 99: to enquire, Fms. x. 131; þá skal próva ef nokkurir vissu, K.Á. 18; ef ek p. þetta allt sannindi, if I find it all to be true, Fms. i. 295; p. með líkindum, Stj. 105. II. reflex., prófaðisk svá til, it proved so, Stj. 160; sem síðan prófaðisk, Fms. i. 59. 2. part., prófaðr, proved, convicted of; sem at öðru verða prófaðir, Gþl. (pref. ix); nú höfu vér prófat, we have found that ..., Mar.; ok er svá próvað fyrir biskupi, K.Á. 64, Bs. i. 755; nema þeir fengi af sér prófat, unless they can clear themselves of it; sökum prófaðrar harðfengi, Eb. 42.

prófan, f. a trial, enquiry, K.Á. 31, 134, 216.

prófan-ligr, adj. provable, H.E. ii. 74.

prófast-dómr, m. the office of a prófastr (q.v.), Jb. 458, N.G.L.

prófast-dæmi, n. the district of a provost, provostship, Ann. 1327, 1394, K.Á. 230, Bs. i. 747, 753: the revenue of the p., allt p., þat sem féll í sakeyri eðr öðrum sektum, gaf hann fátækum, ... skipaði hann presta at láta reka prófastdæmi, Bs. (Laur. S.) i. 849.

prófastr, m. [Engl. provost; Germ. probst; -- all from the eccl. Lat. praepositus] :-- a provost; in the later Roman Catholic times the provost was a kind of church-steward, a 'biskups ármaðr,' and the diocese was divided into provostships, answering to the secular sýsla and sýslu-maðr; the provost might therefore be a layman; eptir ráði biskups eðr prófasts, Vm. 117, Dipl. v. 18, Fms. ix. 452, Bs. i. 841; this division of the provostship appears in Icel. at the beginning of the 14th century, cp. esp. Laur. S. and the Annals. 2. in Norway the provost or dean of a collegiate church; prófastr í Túnsbergi, Fms. ix. 284; Ketill p. er varðveitti Máríu-kirkju, Hkr. iii. 349. II. after the Reformation the office underwent some change, and the prófastdæmi (Germ. probstie) became the eccl. division throughout the whole of the land; each provostship consists of several parishes, and one of the parish priests is called prófastr, answering closely to the Engl. archdeacon; he is nominated by the bishop, and is the head and overseer of his fellow-priests in the district, has to visit the churches, look after the instruction of the young, etc., and is a kind of bishop's vicar, is unpaid, and holds his office for life.

prókurera, að, [Lat.], to procure, Stj. 157.

prólaga, að; p. sér e-t, to bargain for oneself, Stat. 280.

própheti, a, m. [Lat.-Gr.], a prophet, Hom., Sks., Bs.; but spámaðr is the genuine word.

prósa, u, f. [Lat.], prose, Nikdr. 76.

próvenda or prófenda, u, f. [eccl. Lat. praebenda; Germ. pfründe] :-- a prebend, for the maintenance of the church or charitable institutions; beneficia kirkjunnar er sumir kalla próvendur, K.Á. 228; hann lét göra kirkju norðr í Vágum ok lagði próvendu til, Hkr. iii. 248, Fms. vii. 100, x. 159; en síðan er Erkibiskups-stóll var skipaðr í Noregi, þá vóru próventur skipaðar at biskups-stólum, Anecd. 76 :-- a prebend, af próventum þeirra klerka, sem í brott eru at studium, H.E. i. 507; dýrar prófentur (presents), Odd. 18. 2. spec.; in the Roman Catholic times laymen (often men of wealth and rank) in the decline of life retired and entered into a convent; at the same time they bequeathed to the church or convent a portion in money or estates for their maintenance; this portion was called prófenta, -- Magnús konungr gaf sik í klaustr í Hólmi, ok tók við múnka-klæðum, þá var skeytt þangat Hernes mikla á Frostu í próventu hans, Fms. vii. 196; þann hlut jarðar sem Gróa gaf með sér