This is page 508 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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508 HÖNDOTTR -- SAGA.

brast rönd við rönd, Hkv. 1. 24; undir randir ek gel, Hm. 157: in prose it remains in the phrase, leggja saman randir, to lay shield against shield, of a hard struggle, Fms. xi. 95, Fas. ii. 208, Korm., Lex. Poët.: as also in the phrase, reisa rönd við e-m, to raise the shield against one, to resist, withstand, Eg. 587, Fas. i. 35, 292, ii. 190, 211. 3. a stripe; rauð rönd liggr eptir baki honum, Pr. 408; dúkr með gulligum röndum, Fms. iii. 177. randa-fluga, u, f. a wild bee.

röndóttr, adj. striped, 671. 16, Al. 168, N.G.L. iii. 262.

RÖNG, f., gen. rangar, pl. rengr, qs. vröng; [thus called from the curved form; from rangr, q.v.] :-- a rib in a ship; nú ef brestr ór byrði eðr borði eðr brotnar röng, N.G.L. ii. 81 (Jb. 147); ristin röng, Fms. vi. (in a verse); bifask rengr í röstum, vii. 49, freq. in mod. usage: poët. ranga-jór, -hjörtr, the rib-steed, rib-stag, i.e. a ship.

rösk-leikr, m. briskness, deftness, Fms. vi. 35, Sturl. ii. 217, Orkn. 344 old Ed.

rösk-liga, adv. deftly, bravely; er svá r. vann at, Nj. 270; r. segir þú, Grett. 155; berjask r., Hkr. i. 342; biskupi fór svá r., Bs. i. 772.

rösk-ligr, adj. deft, brisk.

rösk-mannliga, adv. bravely, Grett. 109.

röskótt, adj. [Ivar Aasen raaskje = sleet, wet] :-- wet, rough; þeir fengu hvasst veðr ok höfðu röskött (raskótt) fyrir stálinu, Fms. viii. 199.

RÖSKR, adj., with a v before a vowel, röskvan, röskvar, röskvir, röskva; compar. röskvari, röskvastr; prop. vraskr, yet in the Am. rhyming with r, röskr ræða, 51, 56, 88: [akin to Ulf. wrisqan; Dan. rask; Germ. rasch; Engl. rash (with change of sense)] :-- prop. ripe, mature, but only used metaph. vigorous, doughty, brave. Am. 51, 56, 88; röskr maðr, a valiant man, Nj. 106; röskr maðr ok einarðr, 223; hann var röskvastr maðr með Flosa einnhverr, 205; mikill skaði er þat um svá röskvan mann, Grett. 155; hann þótti því röskvari sem meirr leið á æfi hans, Fms. vi. 218; mannvali því er röskvast var innan lands, Fas. iii. 292; verða eigi röskvari menn en þessir at minni raun, Bs. i. 581; hyggr ek at fáar konur muni finnask jafn-röskvar, Fms. xi. 229; svá röskr at viti, so ripe in understanding, Grág. ii. 68.

Röskva, u, f., rhymed Vröskva, Þd., the name of the maiden follower of Thor; she is a personification of the ripe fields of harvest.

röskvask, að, to grow up, ripen; þar til er sjálf vínberin röskuðusk, Stj. 200; sýndisk mér vísirinn vaxa smám þeim ok vínberin röskvask, Stj.; ef sá randviðr röskvask næði, Stor.; see roskna. 2. to grow up; ok er hann röskvaðisk fékk konungr honum skip, Fas. iii. 188.

röskvi, f. quickness, Al. 89.

RÖST, f., gen. rastar, pl. rastir, qs. vröst(?); [cp. reistr, rist; Engl. race; Norm. Fr. raz] :-- a current, stream in the sea, such as the Pentland Firth; nú ef maðr hittir hval á röstum út, Gþl. 464; sigldu þeir í röst norðr fyrir Straumneskinum, ... féll um sjórinn ok því næst vellti ... hann lagðisk út í röstina, Fms. ix. 320; ok er þeir sigldu yfir Petlands-fjörð, var uppi röst mikil í firðinum, x. 145; vestr í röstum, Orkn. 154 (in a verse): in local names, Látra-röst in western Iceland. rasta-fullr, adj. full of currents, Sks. 223.

RÖST, f., gen. rastar, pl. rastir, [different from the preceding; Ulf. rasta = GREEK, Matth. v. 41; A.S. and Engl. rest; O.H.G. rasta; Germ. rast] :-- prop. rest, but used only in the metaph. sense of a mile, i.e. the distance between two 'resting-places,' or 'baiting' points: distances on land were counted by rasts, on sea by vika, which seem to have been of equal length, thus in the old Swed. law, rost at landi, vika at vatni, Schlyter. The ancient Scandinavian rast seems to have answered to the modern geographical mile, which agrees with the Latin mille only in name, its actual distance being that of the rast, not the Roman mille passus. The distances were not measured, but roughly guessed, and varied (like the Swiss stunde) according to the nature of the ground traversed, the rasts through mountains or deserts being shorter than those in an inhabited district; hence such phrases as, þat eru langar tvaer rastir, it is two long rasts, Fms. ix. 393; þeir sóttu svá hart þessa eyðimörk, at skammar vóru þá þrettán rastir eptir, thirteen short rasts, viii. 33: the following instances may serve, in Norway the distance from Oslo (the present Christiania) to Eidsvold was counted at eight 'rasts,' ix. 376; þeir fórusk svá nær at eigi var lengra til en röst, 371; þeir ríða síðan útta rastir ... þrjár vikur eptir vötnum, 376; riðu þeir nökkura hálfa röst, 523; þat var eina nótt, at eigi var lengra milli náttstaða þeirra en röst, viii. 63; rastar langr, ix. 394, 402; rastar-djúpr, Hým.: of the old forests, Eiða-skógr er tólf rasta langr, Fms. ix. 354; skógr tólf rasta langr, ... þann skóg er áttján rasta var yfir, viii. 30, 31; sá skógr er Tvíviðr heitir, hann er tólf rasta breiðr, Rb. 332; fjögurra rasta ok tuttugu, Gullþ. 52 :-- six 'rasts' done afoot in one night is recorded as something extraordinary, Ólafi kom njósnin um kveldit, en þeir gengu um nóttina sex rastir ok þótti mönnum þat furðu-mikit farit, þeir kómu á Ryðjökul um óttu-söng, Fms. vii. 317; átta röstum, Þkv.: an immense distance is given at 'a hundred rasts,' hundrað rasta á hverjan veg, Vþm. (Edda 41); hundrað rasta heyrði smell, Skíða R. 150: heim-röst, a homestead; út-röst, the outskirt.

rösuðr, m. one who emits; reyks r., poët. 'reek-vomiter,' i.e. fire, Ýt.

rösull, adj. [rasa], apt to stumble, of a horse.

rötuðr, m. [rata], a hitter, finder, Bragi.

S

S (ess), the eighteenth letter, was, in the old Runes, on the stone in Tune, and the Golden horn, figured RUNE; in the common Runes RUNE; in the latest Runic inscriptions (12th and following centuries) RUNE or RUNE Its name was 'Sól' (Sun) -- Sól er landa ljómi, in the Runic poem; the RUNE was specially, from its form, called the 'kné-sól' (knee-sun).

B. PRONUNCIATION, CHANGES. -- Sounded sharper than in English. The s is in mod. Icel. pronunciation the only sibilant sound; in olden times s and z were distinguished in sound as well as in writing, but afterwards the z sound was lost or assimilated with s. II. CHANGES: s into r, as vera, var, er, for vesa, vas, es; as also the particle es for er; Gothic s into Scandinavian r in the words, Goth. hausjan, auso, = Icel. heyra, eyra; the infiex. Goth. -s into Scandin. -r: an assimilation has taken place in such words as laus-s, ís-s, for laus-r, ís-r: again, in vellums, ss for s in such forms as búss (gen.) from bú, nýss = nýs, hirðiss = hirðis (gen.): in mod. usage this inflexive s is dropped in sound and spelling, laus, ís: the ancients, on the other hand, said víssa, víssi, mod. vísra, vísri (sapientum, sapienti) :-- sn is sounded stn, stnúa, stnöri, stnöggr, stnjór ..., = snúa, snöri, snöggr, snjór ..., and thus spelt in some Norse vellums (e.g. the Barl.): here come in also such forms as laustn, njostn, ristna, = lausn, njósn, risna, reistn and reisn, O.H.L. (pref.) ix; so also the forms Ást-ríðr, Ást-leifr, Ást-lákr (see the remarks s.v. ást), = Ás-ríðr ... Ás-lákr, Baut. 2. skl = sl, thus sklakka = slakka, D.I. i. 280, l. 10, but rare: cp. the Germ. spelling schl = Icel. and Engl. sl (Germ. schlagen = Icel. slá); as also the Fr. esclave and slave. 3. sk corrupted into skr, skokkr, skykkjum, and skrokkr, skrykkjótt; analogous are Icel. skjallr, Engl. shrill :-- sk for s, in sjaldan and skjaldan, Icel. saur-lífi, Dan. skör-levned. 4. sk answers to Engl. sh (skip, fiskr, = Engl.ship, fish), except in a few words, as Engl. skin, score, which may be borrowed from the Norse. (???)UNCERTAIN There are more words beginning with s than with any other letter of the alphabet; this is due to the combination of sk, sm, sp, and st.

SADDR, part., older form saðr, Hým. 1, which answers to the Goth,and Lat., [Ulf. saþs, Luke vi. 25, xv. 16; O.H.G. sat; Lat. satur; see seðja] :-- sated, having got one's fill, Hým. 1; vera s. á e-u, Ld. 98; s. e-s, Hbl. 3; s. lífdaga, full of days, Bible; hálf-s., half sated.

saðning, f. satiety, fill, Stj. 157, 164, passim.

saðr, adj. sooth; see sannr. II. saðr = saddr, q.v.

safali, a, m., safal, n., Flor. 5, 7, 10, D.N.; [for. word] :-- a sable, the animal, and hence the fur, Eg. 57, 64, 71, Ó.H. 134, Fb. i. 545; safala-skinn, sable-fur, Þórð. 61.

SAFI, a, m. [Engl. sap; Germ. saft], the sap of trees (the juice of berries is called lögr, q.v.); börkr af viði ok safi, Fms. viii. 32; þeir átu safa ok sugu birki-við, 33; ber ok safa, Fas. iii. 208, passim.

safn, n. a collection, Vm. 6, 15, passim in mod. usage.

safna, að, see samna.

sag, n. sawdust :-- sawing, keppa sag, Skíða R.

saga, að, to saw, cut with a saw, Barl. 166, Fms. vii. 89.

SAGA, u, f., gen. sögu, pl. sögur; gen. pl. sagna is rare; and in compds the gen. sing, sögu- is preferred, thus sögu-bók, sögu-fróðr, where sögu-is used in a collective sense; when gen. sagna- is used it is often to be regarded as borrowed from sögn, as in sagna-fróðr, sagna-meistari; sagna from saga, however, occurs in dæmi-sagna, Stj. 560; Orkneyinga-sagna, Ó.H. 90, l. 3 from the bottom: [from segja; cp. Engl. saw; Germ. sage.]

B. A story, tale, legend, history. The very word owes its origin to the fact that the first historical writings were founded on tradition only; the written record was a 'saga' or legend committed to writing; the story thus written was not even new, but had already taken shape and had been told to many generations under the same name; hence the written history and the story told were both alike called Saga, just as in Gr. both were called GREEK (Herod, i. 184, ii. 161, vi. 19). In some instances when history is mentioned by name it is difficult to say whether a told or written Saga be meant; the former seems to be the case, esp.in the Landnáma -- þar hefsk saga Harðar Grímkels-sonar ok Geirs, Landn. 62; þar görðisk saga þeirra Þorbjarnar ok Hávarðar ens halta, 127; Vé-björn var víga-maðr mikill, ok er saga mikil frá honum, 150; þar af görðisk saga Ísfirðinga ok víg Þorbjarnar, id.; þar af görðisk saga Böðmóðs gerpis ok Grímólfs, 157; þar af görðisk Svarfdæla saga, 208; þar af görðisk Þorskfirðinga saga, 124; ok þar var Þórðr gellir leiddr í áðr hann tók mannvirðing, sem segir í sögu hans, 111. Some of these Sagas were perhaps never committed to writing; others not till a later date, when the tradition had deteriorated; but they were told and known by name at the time when the Landn. was first composed, see Safn i. 191. Written Sagas, again, are those recorded in later works, -- ok getr hans í Laxdæla sögu, Eb. 334; sem segir í sögu Laxdæla, Grett. 15; sem segir í Bandamanna sögu, 22;. vísar svá til í sögu Bjarnar, 132; sem segir í sögu Njarðvíkinga, Ld. 296; sem í sögu Þorgils Höllu-sonar segir, 290; sem segir í Eyrbyggja sögu, Landn. (Kb.) 90; sem segir í sögu Eireks, Fms. ii. 214; sem segir í Vápnfirðinga sögu, 239; sem segir í Njáls sögu, Þorst. Síðu